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Semantic memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647325/the-processing-of-semantic-relatedness-in-the-brain-evidence-from-associative-and-categorical-false-recognition-effects-following-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-left-anterior-temporal-lobe
#1
Emiliano Díez, Carlos J Gómez-Ariza, Antonio M Díez-Álamo, María A Alonso, Angel Fernandez
A dominant view of the role of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic memory is that it serves as an integration hub, specialized in the processing of semantic relatedness by way of mechanisms that bind together information from different brain areas to form coherent amodal representations of concepts. Two recent experiments, using brain stimulation techniques along with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, have found a consistent false memory reduction effect following stimulation of the ATL, pointing to the importance of the ATL in semantic/conceptual processing...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646791/disorganised-schizotypy-is-selectively-associated-with-poorer-semantic-processing-in-non-clinical-individuals
#2
Eric Josiah Tan, Susan Lee Rossell
The nature and severity of semantic memory (SM) impairments in schizophrenia has been related to symptoms, mainly formal thought disorder (FTD), and other clinical factors like length of illness. Symptom-related studies in schizophrenia are often confounded by clinical factors, for example medication and hospitalisations. We completed a schizotypy analogue study to examine the relationship between SM processing and FTD using an analogue schizotypy score referred to as cognitive disorganisation. Sixty individuals without a history of mental illness (M=22...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646270/release-from-pi-an-analysis-and-a-model
#3
D J K Mewhort, Kevin D Shabahang, D R J Franklin
Recall decreases across a series of subspan immediate-recall trials but rebounds if the semantic category of the words is changed, an example of release from proactive interference (RPI). The size of the rebound depends on the semantic categories used and ranges from 0% to 95%. We used a corpus of novels to create vectors representing the meaning of about 40,000 words using the BEAGLE algorithm. The distance between categories and spread within categories jointly predicted the size of the RPI. We used a holographic model for recall equipped with a lexicon of BEAGLE vectors representing the meaning of words...
June 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645546/post-sepsis-cognitive-impairment-and-associated-risk-factors-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Allan J C Calsavara, Vandack Nobre, Tatiana Barichello, Antonio L Teixeira
INTRODUCTION: Post-sepsis cognitive impairment is one of the major sequelae observed in survivors of sepsis. This cognitive impairment can be global or may affect specific domains. A better understanding of these deficits and associated risk factors could influence the care of patients with sepsis. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review to investigate the presence of cognitive impairment and its associated risk factors among patients who survived sepsis. METHODS: The search was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to March 2017) and EMBASE (1988 to March 2017)...
June 20, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639807/the-impact-of-time-and-repeated-exposure-on-famous-person-knowledge-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Sophie Benoit, Isabelle Rouleau, Roxane Langlois, Valérie Dostie, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Sven Joubert
OBJECTIVE: Famous people knowledge has been shown to be impaired early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the question of whether recently acquired knowledge is more impaired than remotely acquired knowledge remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of semantic memory impairment in aMCI and AD by investigating 2 factors that may influence the retrieval of such knowledge, namely remoteness and frequency of repetition of information over time...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632751/owl2-benchmarking-for-the-evaluation-of-knowledge-based-systems
#6
Sher Afgun Khan, Muhammad Abdul Qadir, Muhammad Azeem Abbas, Muhammad Tanvir Afzal
OWL2 semantics are becoming increasingly popular for the real domain applications like Gene engineering and health MIS. The present work identifies the research gap that negligible attention has been paid to the performance evaluation of Knowledge Base Systems (KBS) using OWL2 semantics. To fulfil this identified research gap, an OWL2 benchmark for the evaluation of KBS is proposed. The proposed benchmark addresses the foundational blocks of an ontology benchmark i.e. data schema, workload and performance metrics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632521/verbal-and-figural-fluency-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-does-hippocampal-sclerosis-affect-performance
#7
Ioannis Zalonis, Foteini Christidi, Artemios Artemiadis, Constantinos Psarros, George Papadopoulos, George Tsivgoulis, Stergios Gatzonis, Anna Siatouni, Georgios Velonakis, Efstratios Karavasilis, Evangelia Kararizou, Nikolaos Triantafyllou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clinicians commonly use verbal and nonverbal measures to test fluency in patients with epilepsy, either during routine cognitive assessment or as part of pre- and postsurgical evaluation. We hypothesized that patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis would perform worse than patients with lateral TLE in both verbal and design fluency. METHODS: We assessed semantic, phonemic, and nonverbal fluency in 49 patients with TLE: 31 with lateral TLE and 18 with mesial TLE plus hippocampal sclerosis...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630377/effects-of-cognitive-reserve-depend-on-executive-and-semantic-demands-of-the-task
#8
R Ryan Darby, Michael Brickhouse, David A Wolk, Bradford C Dickerson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve (CR) is one factor that helps to maintain cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether the effects of CR depend on the semantic/executive components of the task remains unknown. METHODS: 470 patients (138 with AD, 332 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)) were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Linear regression models were used to determine the effects of CR (years of education) on cognitive performance after controlling for demographic factors and regional cortical atrophy...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630235/ultrasound-markers-of-carotid-atherosclerosis-and-cognition-the-northern-manhattan-study
#9
Hannah Gardener, Michelle R Caunca, Chuanhui Dong, Ying Kuen Cheung, Mitchell S V Elkind, Ralph L Sacco, Tatjana Rundek, Clinton B Wright
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ultrasound markers of carotid atherosclerosis may be related to cognitive status. We hypothesized that individuals with greater carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque burden would exhibit worse cognition. METHODS: One thousand one hundred sixty-six stroke-free participants from the NOMAS (Northern Manhattan Study) underwent carotid ultrasound and neuropsychological examination. Among them, 826 underwent a second neuropsychological examination an average of 5 years later...
June 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629965/%C3%A2-cortical-atrophy-is-associated-with-accelerated-cognitive-decline-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-subsyndromal-depression
#10
Mitzi M Gonzales, Philip S Insel, Craig Nelson, Duygu Tosun, Niklas Mattsson, Susanne G Mueller, Simona Sacuiu, David Bickford, Michael W Weiner, R Scott Mackin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between cognitive decline and cortical atrophy in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and chronic subsyndromal symptoms of depression (SSD) over a 4-year period. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Multicenter, clinic-based. PARTICIPANTS: Within the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative repository, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to identify individuals with MCI and stable endorsement (SSD group N = 32) or no endorsement (non-SSD group N = 69) of depressive symptoms across time points...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625939/promoting-the-maintenance-of-satisfactory-communication-strategies-used-by-caregivers-and-medical-staff-with-people-suffering-from-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Marie Vachon, Marie-Christine Veilleux, Joël Macoir
The goal of this literature review was to determine communication strategies that foster interactions between individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and caregivers or medical staff. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO databases was conducted using combinations of the following terms: Alzheimer, family, caregiver, communication, language, treatment, intervention, therapy, communication strategies, functional communication and daily living activities. Studies were chosen based on the original language of the text, year of publication, peer-review status and specificity of the results regarding communication strategies in AD...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625695/arbitrary-and-semantic-associations-in%C3%A2-subjective-memory-impairment-and-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-among-taiwanese-individuals-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Hsin-Te Chang, Ta-Fu Chen, Ting-Wen Cheng, Ya-Mei Lai, Mau-Sun Hua
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Researchers have recently proposed a preclinical stage of dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT), referred to as subjective memory impairment (SMI), with the aim of developing methods for the early detection of DAT and subsequent intervention. It has been proposed that the objective memory functions of individuals with SMI are normal; however, arbitrary and semantic associations are both used to describe the processes of memory. No previous studies have investigated these processes among individuals with SMI...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625660/task-related-and-resting-state-fmri-identify-distinct-networks-which-preferentially-support-remembering-the-past-and-imagining-the-future
#13
Adrian W Gilmore, Steven M Nelson, Hung-Yu Chen, Kathleen B McDermott
The relation between episodic memory and episodic future thought (EFT) remains an active target of research. A growing literature suggests that similar cognitive processes and neural substrates tend to support these acts. However, direct comparisons of whole-brain activity reveal clear differences, with numerous regions more active when engaging in EFT than when remembering, and a smaller collection of regions displaying the opposite pattern of activity. Although various network labels have been applied to prior neuroimaging results, to date no formal resting-state functional connectivity analysis has been conducted...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625659/abnormal-semantic-knowledge-in-a-case-of-developmental-amnesia
#14
Anna Blumenthal, Devin Duke, Ben Bowles, Asaf Gilboa, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Stefan Köhler, Ken McRae
An important theory holds that semantic knowledge can develop independently of episodic memory. One strong source of evidence supporting this independence comes from the observation that individuals with early hippocampal damage leading to developmental amnesia generally perform normally on standard tests of semantic memory, despite their profound impairment in episodic memory. However, one aspect of semantic memory that has not been explored is conceptual structure. We built on the theoretically important distinction between intrinsic features of object concepts (e...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624827/qualitative-assessment-of-verbal-fluency-performance-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#15
Esther van den Berg, Lize C Jiskoot, Mariëlle J H Grosveld, John C van Swieten, Janne M Papma
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Verbal fluency is impaired in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA). This study explored qualitative differences in verbal fluency (clustering of words, switching between strategies) between FTD and PPA variants. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and 50 with PPA (13 nonfluent/agrammatic, 14 semantic, and 23 logopenic) performed a semantic and letter fluency task. Clustering (number of multiword strings) and switching (number of transitions between clustered and nonclustered words) were recorded by two independent raters...
June 17, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620876/english-orthographic-learning-in-chinese-l1-young-efl-beginners
#16
Yu-Lin Cheng
English orthographic learning, among Chinese-L1 children who were beginning to learn English as a foreign language, was documented when: (1) only visual memory was at their disposal, (2) visual memory and either some letter-sound knowledge or some semantic information was available, and (3) visual memory, some letter-sound knowledge and some semantic information were all available. When only visual memory was available, orthographic learning (measured via an orthographic choice test) was meagre. Orthographic learning was significant when either semantic information or letter-sound knowledge supplemented visual memory, with letter-sound knowledge generating greater significance...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619530/neural-networks-underlying-language-and-social-cognition-during-self-other-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Rajesh K Kana, Emma B Sartin, Carl Stevens, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Christopher Klein, Mark R Klinger, Laura Grofer Klinger
The social communication impairments defining autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be built upon core deficits in perspective-taking, language processing, and self-other representation. Self-referential processing entails the ability to incorporate self-awareness, self-judgment, and self-memory in information processing. Very few studies have examined the neural bases of integrating self-other representation and semantic processing in individuals with ASD. The main objective of this functional MRI study is to examine the role of language and social brain networks in self-other processing in young adults with ASD...
June 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611613/simultaneous-processing-of-noun-cue-and-to-be-produced-verb-in-verb-generation-task-electromagnetic-evidence
#18
Anna V Butorina, Anna A Pavlova, Anastasia Y Nikolaeva, Andrey O Prokofyev, Denis P Bondarev, Tatiana A Stroganova
A long-standing but implicit assumption is that words strongly associated with a presented cue are automatically activated in the memory through rapid spread of activation within brain semantic networks. The current study was aimed to provide direct evidence of such rapid access to words' semantic representations and to investigate its neural sources using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and distributed source localization technique. Thirty-three neurotypical subjects underwent the MEG recording during verb generation task, which was to produce verbs related to the presented noun cues...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610451/cognitive-function-is-largely-intact-in-methadone-maintenance-treatment-patients
#19
Odelia Elkana, Miriam Adelson, Glen M Doniger, Anat Sason, Einat Peles
OBJECTIVES: To confirm our previous findings of less cognitive impairments (based on cognitive screening tools) among Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) patients who achieved take-home dose (THD) privileges. METHODS: a random sample of 65 Israeli MMT patients were studied using computerized, age and education standardized, cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, motor skills), and non-computerized phonetic and semantic verbal fluency. Cognitive scores were within ±1 standard deviation (SD) of average for most domains, including non-verbal IQ, attention and motor skills...
June 14, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601572/corpus-callosum-atrophy-as-a-marker-of-clinically-meaningful-cognitive-decline-in-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-impact-on-employment-status
#20
Athanasios Papathanasiou, Lambros Messinis, Petros Zampakis, Panagiotis Papathanasopoulos
Cognitive impairment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is more frequent and pronounced in secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Cognitive decline is an important predictor of employment status in patients with MS. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers have been used to associate tissue damage with cognitive dysfunction. The aim of the study was to designate the MRI marker that predicts cognitive decline in SPMS and explore its effect on employment status. 30 SPMS patients and 30 healthy participants underwent neuropsychological assessment using the Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B, semantic and phonological verbal fluency task and a computerized cognitive screening battery (Central Nervous System Vital Signs)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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