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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165540/mobile-application-removes-societal-barriers-to-p4-medicine
#1
J-P Michel
The overlap between one innovative paradigm (P4 medicine: predictive, personalized, participatory and preventive) and another (a new definition of "Healthy ageing") is fertile ground for new technologies; a new mobile application (app) that could broaden our scientific knowledge of the ageing process and help us to better analyse the impact of possible interventions in slowing the ageing decline. A novel mobile application is here presented as a game including questions and tests will allow in 10 minutes the assessment of the following domains: robustness, flexibility (lower muscle strength), balance, mental and memory complaints, semantic memory and visual retention...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163865/associations-between-neurocognitive-functioning-and-social-and-occupational-resilience-among-south-african-women-exposed-to-childhood-trauma
#2
C A Denckla, N S Consedine, G Spies, M Cherner, D C Henderson, K C Koenen, S Seedat
Background: Prior research on adaptation after early trauma among black South African women typically assessed resilience in ways that lacked contextual specificity. In addition, the neurocognitive correlates of social and occupational resilience have not been investigated. Objective: The primary aim of this exploratory study was to identify domains of neurocognitive functioning associated with social and occupational resilience, defined as functioning at a level beyond what would be expected given exposure to childhood trauma...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161358/neural-mechanisms-of-episodic-retrieval-support-divergent-creative-thinking
#3
Kevin P Madore, Preston P Thakral, Roger E Beaty, Donna Rose Addis, Daniel L Schacter
Prior research has indicated that brain regions and networks that support semantic memory, top-down and bottom-up attention, and cognitive control are all involved in divergent creative thinking. Kernels of evidence suggest that neural processes supporting episodic memory-the retrieval of particular elements of prior experiences-may also be involved in divergent thinking, but such processes have typically been characterized as not very relevant for, or even a hindrance to, creative output. In the present study, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with an experimental manipulation to test formally, for the first time, episodic memory's involvement in divergent thinking...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161137/pragmatic-competence-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-impact-of-theory-of-mind-verbal-working-memory-adhd-symptoms-and-structural-language
#4
Inmaculada Baixauli-Fortea, Ana Miranda Casas, Carmen Berenguer-Forner, Carla Colomer-Diago, Belén Roselló-Miranda
The primary aim of this study is to increase the existing knowledge about the pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specifically, the study has two objectives. The first is to provide a profile of characteristics based on The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) pragmatics scales (inappropriate initiation, stereotyped language, use of context, nonverbal communication, and general pragmatics) and narrative task indicators. To this end, children with ASD will be compared to children with typical development (TD), controlling the effects of sex and structural language (speech, syntax, semantics, coherence)...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159059/triangulation-of-language-cognitive-impairments-naming-errors-and-their-neural-bases-post-stroke
#5
Ajay D Halai, Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA) to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159036/eeg-oscillations-during-word-processing-predict-mci-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Ali Mazaheri, Katrien Segaert, John Olichney, Jin-Chen Yang, Yu-Qiong Niu, Kim Shapiro, Howard Bowman
Only a subset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients progress to develop a form of dementia. A prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive decline in language. We investigated if subtle anomalies in EEG activity of MCI patients during a word comprehension task could provide insight into the likelihood of conversion to AD. We studied 25 amnestic MCI patients, a subset of whom developed AD within 3-years, and 11 elderly controls. In the task, auditory category descriptions (e.g., 'a type of wood') were followed by a single visual target word either semantically congruent (i...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158201/the-effect-of-prior-knowledge-on-post-encoding-brain-connectivity-and-its-relation-to-subsequent-memory
#7
Zhong-Xu Liu, Cheryl Grady, Morris Moscovitch
It is known that prior knowledge can facilitate memory acquisition. It is unclear, however, whether prior knowledge can affect post-encoding brain activity to facilitate memory consolidation. In this fMRI study, we asked participants to associate novel houses with famous/nonfamous faces and investigated how associative-encoding tasks with/without prior knowledge differentially affected post-encoding brain connectivity during rest. Besides memory advantages in the famous condition, we found that post-encoding hippocampal connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA) and ventral-medial-prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was stronger following encoding of associations with famous than non-famous faces...
November 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156216/covert-retrieval-in-working-memory-impacts-the-phenomenological-characteristics-remembered-during-episodic-memory
#8
Vanessa M Loaiza, Borislava M Borovanska
Much research has investigated the qualitative experience of retrieving events from episodic memory (EM). The present study investigated whether covert retrieval in WM increases the phenomenological characteristics that participants find memorable in EM using tasks that distract attention from the maintenance of memoranda (i.e., complex span; Experiment 1) relative to tasks that do not (i.e., short or long list lengths of simple span; Experiments 1 and 2). Participants rated the quality of the phonological, semantic, and temporal-contextual characteristics remembered during a delayed memory characteristics questionnaire (MCQ)...
November 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154619/complementarity-in-false-memory-illusions
#9
C J Brainerd, V F Reyna
For some years, the DRM illusion has been the most widely studied form of false memory. The consensus theoretical interpretation is that the illusion is a reality reversal, in which certain new words (critical distractors) are remembered as though they are old list words rather than as what they are-new words that are similar to old ones. This reality-reversal interpretation is supported by compelling lines of evidence, but prior experiments are limited by the fact that their memory tests only asked whether test items were old...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154160/gender-identity-better-than-sex-explains-individual-differences-in-episodic-and-semantic-components-of-autobiographical-memory-and-future-thinking
#10
Laurie Compère, Eirini Rari, Thierry Gallarda, Adèle Assens, Marion Nys, Sandrine Coussinoux, Sébastien Machefaux, Pascale Piolino
A recently tested hypothesis suggests that inter-individual differences in episodic autobiographical memory (EAM) are better explained by individual identification of typical features of a gender identity than by sex. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating sex and gender related differences not only in EAM but also during retrieval of more abstract self-knowledge (i.e., semantic autobiographical memory, SAM, and conceptual self, CS), and considering past and future perspectives. No sex-related differences were identified, but regardless of the sex, feminine gender identity was associated with clear differences in emotional aspects that were expressed in both episodic and more abstract forms of AM, and in the past and future perspectives, while masculine gender identity was associated with limited effects...
November 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151821/streamqre-modular-specification-and-efficient-evaluation-of-quantitative-queries-over-streaming-data
#11
Konstantinos Mamouras, Mukund Raghothaman, Rajeev Alur, Zachary G Ives, Sanjeev Khanna
Real-time decision making in emerging IoT applications typically relies on computing quantitative summaries of large data streams in an efficient and incremental manner. To simplify the task of programming the desired logic, we propose StreamQRE, which provides natural and high-level constructs for processing streaming data. Our language has a novel integration of linguistic constructs from two distinct programming paradigms: streaming extensions of relational query languages and quantitative extensions of regular expressions...
June 2017: Proc ACM SIGPLAN Conf Program Lang Des Implement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134480/false-memory-for-orthographically-versus-semantically-similar-words-in-adolescents-with-dyslexia-a-fuzzy-trace-theory-perspective
#12
Michał Obidziński, Marek Nieznański
The presented research was conducted in order to investigate the connections between developmental dyslexia and the functioning of verbatim and gist memory traces-assumed in the fuzzy-trace theory. The participants were 71 high school students (33 with dyslexia and 38 without learning difficulties). The modified procedure and multinomial model of Stahl and Klauer (simplified conjoint recognition model) was used to collect and analyze data. Results showed statistically significant differences in four of the model parameters: (a) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of orthographically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (b) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (c) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the dyslexia than control group, and (d) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon target stimulus presentation (in the semantic condition) was higher in the control than dyslexia group...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133950/treating-a-novel-plasticity-defect-rescues-episodic-memory-in-fragile-x-model-mice
#13
W Wang, B M Cox, Y Jia, A A Le, C D Cox, K M Jung, B Hou, D Piomelli, C M Gall, Gary Lynch
Episodic memory, a fundamental component of human cognition, is significantly impaired in autism. We believe we report the first evidence for this problem in the Fmr1-knockout (KO) mouse model of Fragile X syndrome and describe potentially treatable underlying causes. The hippocampus is critical for the formation and use of episodes, with semantic (cue identity) information relayed to the structure via the lateral perforant path (LPP). The unusual form of synaptic plasticity expressed by the LPP (lppLTP) was profoundly impaired in Fmr1-KOs relative to wild-type mice...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125488/comparison-between-fcsrt-and-lassi-l-to-detect-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Jordi A Matias-Guiu, María Nieves Cabrera-Martín, Rosie E Curiel, María Valles-Salgado, Teresa Rognoni, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, José Luis Carreras, David A Loewenstein, Jorge Matías-Guiu
BACKGROUND: The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is the most accurate test for the diagnosis of prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, a novel cognitive test, the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scale for Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L), has been developed in order to provide an early diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the FCSRT and the LASSI-L for the diagnosis of AD in its preclinical and prodromal stages using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a reference...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121238/structural-social-relations-and-cognitive-ageing-trajectories-evidence-from-the-whitehall-ii-cohort-study
#15
Marko Elovainio, Andrew Sommerlad, Christian Hakulinen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Marianna Virtanen, Mika Kivimäki, Archana Singh-Manoux
Background: Social relations are important for health, particularly at older ages. We examined the salience of frequency of social contacts and marital status for cognitive ageing trajectories over 21 years, from midlife to early old age. Methods: Data are from the Whitehall II cohort study, including 4290 men and 1776 women aged 35-55 years at baseline (1985-88). Frequency of social contacts and marital status were measured in 1985-88 and 1989-90. Assessment of cognitive function on five occasions (1991-94, 1997-99, 2003-04, 2007-09 and 2012-13) included the following tests: short-term memory, inductive reasoning, verbal fluency (phonemic and semantic) and a combined global score...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121196/the-role-of-phonological-working-memory-and-environmental-factors-in-lexical-development-in-italian-speaking-late-talkers-a-one-year-follow-up-study
#16
Andrea Marini, Milena Ruffino, Maria Enrica Sali, Massimo Molteni
Purpose: This follow-up study assessed (a) the influence of phonological working memory (pWM), home literacy environment, and a family history of linguistic impairments in late talkers (LTs); (b) the diagnostic accuracy of a task of nonword repetition (NWR) in identifying LTs; and (c) the persistence of lexical weaknesses after 10 months. Method: Two hundred ninety-three children were assessed at approximately 32 (t1) and 41 (t2) months. At t1, they were administered the Italian adaptation of the Language Development Survey, an NWR task (used to assess pWM), and questionnaires assessing home literacy environment and family history of language impairments...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119693/the-neural-representation-of-social-status-in-the-extended-face-processing-network
#17
Jessica E Koski, Jessica A Collins, Ingrid R Olson
Social status is a salient cue that shapes our judgment and memory for other people and ultimately guides our social interactions. Despite the pervasive influence of status on social behavior, how information about the status of others is represented in the brain remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that social-status information is embedded in our neural representations of other individuals. Participants learned to associate faces with names, job titles that that varied in associated status, and explicit markers of reputational status (star ratings)...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119313/the-effect-of-emotional-state-on-the-processing-of-morphosyntactic-and-semantic-reversal-anomalies-in-japanese-evidence-from-event-related-brain-potentials
#18
Masataka Yano, Yui Suzuki, Masatoshi Koizumi
The present study examined the locus responsible for the effect of emotional state on sentence processing in healthy native speakers of Japanese, using event-related brain potentials. The participants were induced into a happy, neutral, or sad mood and then subjected to electroencephalogram recording during which emotionally neutral sentences, including grammatical sentences (e.g. window-NOM close vi, 'The window closes.'), morphosyntactically-violated sentences (e.g. window-ACC close vi, Lit. 'Close the window...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118403/quantitative-text-feature-analysis-of-autobiographical-interview-data-prediction-of-episodic-details-semantic-details-and-temporal-discounting
#19
J Peters, A Wiehler, U Bromberg
Autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking (i.e. the capacity to project oneself into an imaginary future) are typically assessed using the Autobiographical Interview (AI). In the AI, subjects are provided with verbal cues (e.g. "your wedding day") and are asked to freely recall (or imagine) the cued past (or future) event. Narratives are recorded, transcribed and analyzed using an established manual scoring procedure (Levine et al., 2002). Here we applied automatic text feature extraction methods to a relatively large (n = 86) set of AI data...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111783/would-you-say-yes-in-the-evening-time-of-day-effect-on-response-bias-in-four-types-of-working-memory-recognition-tasks
#20
Koryna Lewandowska, Barbara Wachowicz, Tadeusz Marek, Halszka Oginska, Magdalena Fafrowicz
Across a wide range of tasks, cognitive functioning is affected by circadian fluctuations. In this study, we investigated diurnal variations of working memory performance, taking into account not only hits and errors rates, but also sensitivity (d') and response bias (c) indexes (established by signal detection theory). Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed four experimental tasks twice - in the morning and in the evening (approximately 1 and 10 h after awakening). All tasks were based on Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm version dedicated to study working/short-term memory distortions...
November 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
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