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Semantic memory

Erin E Morgan, Steven Paul Woods, Jennifer E Iudicello, Igor Grant, Javier Villalobos
Two factors that influence HIV health behaviors and therefore may contribute to gaps in the HIV treatment continuum are poor health-related self-efficacy and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). However, the relationship between HAND and self-efficacy has not been assessed. In an HIV sample, 91 individuals with intact cognition (HAND-) and 40 individuals with HAND (HAND+) were administered a measure of self-efficacy for healthcare interactions with providers. Participants with HAND had significantly lower scores on this measure, which were correlated with poorer episodic and semantic memory performance, as well as self-reported memory symptoms in daily life...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Lea M Bartsch, Henrik Singmann, Klaus Oberauer
Refreshing and elaboration are cognitive processes assumed to underlie verbal working-memory maintenance and assumed to support long-term memory formation. Whereas refreshing refers to the attentional focussing on representations, elaboration refers to linking representations in working memory into existing semantic networks. We measured the impact of instructed refreshing and elaboration on working and long-term memory separately, and investigated to what extent both processes are distinct in their contributions to working as well as long-term memory...
March 19, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Zude Zhu, Xiaopu Hou, Yiming Yang
Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Stefan Elmer, Joëlle Albrecht, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Clément François, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Word learning constitutes a human faculty which is dependent upon two anatomically distinct processing streams projecting from posterior superior temporal (pST) and inferior parietal (IP) brain regions toward the prefrontal cortex (dorsal stream) and the temporal pole (ventral stream). The ventral stream is involved in mapping sensory and phonological information onto lexical-semantic representations, whereas the dorsal stream contributes to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, complex sequencing in the verbal domain, and to how verbal information is encoded, stored, and rehearsed from memory...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lâle Battal Merlet, Alain Blanchet, Hazlin Lockman, Milena Kostova
The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context). During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Burkhard Pleger, Dagmar Timmann
Lesion studies emphasize the role of the human cerebellum in a variety of cognitive processes. To date, most evidence comes from studies investigating language-related functions, such as verbal short-term/working memory, word generation, or linguistic/semantic predictions. This review summarizes brain imaging, non-invasive cerebellar stimulation and lesion studies in this field. Converging evidence suggests a cerebellar role in error processing and memory encoding although findings are partly contradictory...
March 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ruth L F Leong, Shirley Y J Koh, Jesisca Tandi, Michael W L Chee, June C Lo
Prospective memory is defined as remembering to do something at a particular moment in the future and may be modulated by sleep. Here, we investigated whether multiple nights of partial sleep deprivation would affect the successful retrieval of intentions. Fifty-nine adolescents (mean age ± SD: 16.1 ± 0.6 years) were instructed to remember to press specific keys in response to the target words presented during a semantic categorization task in the future. Their memory was tested after five nights of either 5-h (sleep restriction group) or 9-h time-in-bed (control group)...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sira Sriswasdi, Supaksorn Thika, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, Marta Kubera, Michael Maes
Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by neurocognitive impairments and changes in the patterning of IgA/IgM responses to plasma tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). In the current study, supervised pattern recognition methods, including logistic regression analysis (LRA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), were used to examine whether deficit schizophrenia is a discrete diagnostic class with respect to Consortium To Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) tests and IgA/IgM responses to noxious (NOX) and generally more protective (PRO) TRYCATs...
March 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yingying Tan, Randi C Martin
This study examined the role of verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive function (EF) underlying semantic and syntactic interference resolution during sentence comprehension for persons with aphasia (PWA) with varying degrees of STM and EF deficits. Semantic interference was manipulated by varying the semantic plausibility of the intervening NP as subject of the verb and syntactic interference was manipulated by varying whether the NP was another subject or an object. Nine PWA were assessed on sentence reading times and on comprehension question performance...
March 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Philip A Huebner, Jon A Willits
Previous research has suggested that distributional learning mechanisms may contribute to the acquisition of semantic knowledge. However, distributional learning mechanisms, statistical learning, and contemporary "deep learning" approaches have been criticized for being incapable of learning the kind of abstract and structured knowledge that many think is required for acquisition of semantic knowledge. In this paper, we show that recurrent neural networks, trained on noisy naturalistic speech to children, do in fact learn what appears to be abstract and structured knowledge...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Costanza Papagno
In this chapter, the neuropsychologic literature concerning memory deficits following parietal lesions is reviewed. Left inferior parietal lobule lesions definitely cause verbal short-term memory impairments, while right parietal lesions disrupt visuospatial short-term memory. Episodic memory, as well as autobiographic memory, does not seem to be impaired after both unilateral and bilateral parietal lesions, in contrast with neuroimaging studies reporting activation of the lateral parietal cortex during memory tasks...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Musetta C Fu, Basia Belza, Huong Nguyen, Rebecca Logsdon, Steven Demorest
PURPOSE: Participating in a group-singing program may be beneficial to healthy aging through engaging in active music-making activities and breathing exercises. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a 12-week group singing program on cognitive function, lung health and quality of life (QoL) of older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pre and post-test quasi-experimental design evaluated the impact of a group-singing program on older adult health...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Robert N Collins, Tamara M Rosner, Bruce Milliken
Rosner, Lopez-Benitez, D'Angelo, Thomson, and Milliken (2017) reported a novel recognition memory effect using an immediate repetition method during the study phase. During each trial of an incidental study phase, participants named a target word that followed a prime word that had the same identity (repeated trials) or a different identity (not-repeated trials). Recognition in the following test phase was better for the not-repeated trials. In the present study, we examined the influence of prime encoding demands on this counterintuitive effect...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
N Crespo-Eguilaz, P D Dominguez, M Vaquero, J Narbona
AIM: To contribute to neuropsychological profiling of developmental amnesia subsequent to bilateral damage to both hippocampi in early age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The total sample of 24 schoolchildren from both sexes is distributed in three groups: perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and everyday complaints of memory in school age (n = 8); perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy without memory complaints (n = 7); and a group of typically developing (n = 9)...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Lynette J Tippett, Sally C Prebble, Donna Rose Addis
Diachronic unity is the belief that, despite changes, we are the same person across the lifespan. We propose that diachronic unity is supported by the experience of remembering the self over time during episodic recall (i.e., phenomenological continuity). However, we also predict that diachronic unity is also possible when episodic memory is impaired, as long as the ability to construct life narratives from semantic memory (i.e., semantic continuity) is intact. To examine this prediction, we investigated diachronic unity in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), two conditions characterised by disrupted phenomenological continuity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Nowell Zammit, Owen Falzon, Kenneth Camilleri, Richard Muscat
The timing of neural activity is an intriguing way of exposing behaviourally-relevant neural activity, as neural populations exploit transient windows of synchronized activations to exchange dynamic communications in the service of various cognitive operations. The link between neural synchrony and working memory (WM) has been supported at the theoretical and empirical level. However, findings have also shown that WM encoding is also related to significant alpha-beta desynchronization. These findings have been primarily recorded during subsequent memory effect paradigms that compare correct with incorrect encoding trials...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ryoji Nishiyama
Models of verbal working memory that incorporate active memory maintenance, long-term memory networks, and attention control have been developed. Current studies suggest that semantic representations of words, evoked via long-term memory networks, are actively maintained until they are needed to fulfill a role. In other words, it is possible that some mechanism actively refreshes semantic representations of words, analogous to but independently from articulatory rehearsal which refreshes phonological representations...
2018: PloS One
Stephen L Aita, Jameson D Beach, Sarah E Taylor, Nicholas C Borgogna, Murphy N Harrell, Benjamin D Hill
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether phonemic and semantic verbal fluency were more related to aspects of language processing than executive functioning (EF). An exploratory factor analysis was performed on a college-aged sample of 320 healthy participants using principle axis factoring and promax rotation on nine measures of EF. The first three factors, labeled: working memory, fluid reasoning, and shifting/updating, were extracted and used as latent executive variables. Participants were also split into low, medium, and high phonemic and semantic verbal fluency ability groups...
March 7, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Benjamin Kowialiewski, Steve Majerus
The lexicality effect in verbal short-term memory (STM), in which word lists are better recalled than nonwords lists, is considered to reflect the influence of linguistic long-term memory (LTM) knowledge on verbal STM performance. The locus of this effect remains, however, a matter of debate. The redintegrative account considers that degrading phonological traces of memoranda are reconstructed at recall by selecting lexical LTM representations that match the phonological traces. According to a strong version of this account, redintegrative processes should be strongly reduced in recognition paradigms, leading to reduced LTM effects...
March 7, 2018: Memory
Emilie Beaufils, Johnny Vercouillie, Emilie Vierron, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Vincent Camus, Karl Mondon, Denis Guilloteau, Caroline Hommet, Maria Joao Ribeiro
PURPOSE: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurological syndrome in which language functions become progressively impaired with relative sparing of memory and other instrumental functions. The pathologic causes of PPA are heterogeneous, but studies suggest that logopenic PPA (LPA) is underpinned by Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in a high proportion of cases. The purposes of this descriptive and retrospective study were to characterize F-florbetapir PET imaging in a group of patients with a clinical syndrome of PPA, to determine the value of clinical characterization based on language phenotype in predicting the underlying pathology of PPA with F-florbetapir, and to quantify amyloid load in PPA subjects classified as "positive" F-florbetapir scans...
April 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
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