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Semantic memory

Rachel Barr, Alecia Moser, Sylvia Rusnak, Laura Zimmermann, Kelly Dickerson, Herietta Lee, Peter Gerhardstein
Early childhood is characterized by memory capacity limitations and rapid perceptual and motor development [Rovee-Collier (1996). Infant Behavior & Development, 19, 385-400]. The present study examined 2-year olds' reproduction of a sliding action to complete an abstract fish puzzle under different levels of memory load and perceptual feature support. Experimental groups were compared to baseline controls to assess spontaneous rates of production of the target actions; baseline production was low across all experiments...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Patricia A Boyle, Lei Yu, Debra A Fleischman, Sue Leurgans, Jingyun Yang, Robert S Wilson, Julie A Schneider, Zoe Arvanitakis, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and rate of decline in multiple cognitive systems in community-based older persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 354) were older persons initially free of cognitive impairment from two ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic studies of aging. All underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of WMH and gray matter volumes and detailed annual clinical evaluations including 17 cognitive tests...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Pierre Bordaberry, Christian Gerlach, Quentin Lenoble
: Background/Study Context: The objective of this study was to investigate the object recognition deficit in aging. Age-related declines were examined from the presemantic account of category effects (PACE) theory perspective (Gerlach, 2009, Cognition, 111, 281-301). This view assumes that the structural similarity/dissimilarity inherent in living and nonliving objects, respectively, can account for a wide range of category-specific effects. METHODS: In two experiments on object recognition, young (36 participants, 18-27 years) and older (36 participants, 53-69 years) adult participants' performances were compared...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Paul S Foster, Tyler Hubbard, Ransom W Campbell, Jonathan Poole, Michael Pridmore, Chris Bell, David W Harrison
The theory of spreading activation proposes that the activation of a semantic memory node may spread along bidirectional associative links to other related nodes. Although this theory was originally proposed to explain semantic memory networks, a similar process may be said to exist with episodic or emotional memory networks. The Somatic Marker hypothesis proposes that remembering an emotional memory activates the somatic sensations associated with the memory. An integration of these two models suggests that as spreading activation in emotional memory networks increases, a greater number of associated somatic markers would become activated...
July 15, 2016: Brain Informatics
Delphine Raucher-Chéné, Amélie M Achim, Arthur Kaladjian, Chrystel Besche-Richard
BACKGROUND: One of the main features of bipolar disorder (BD), besides mood dysregulation, is an alteration of the structure of language. Bipolar patients present changes in semantic contents, impaired verbal associations, abnormal prosody and abnormal speed of language highlighted with various experimental tasks. Verbal fluency tasks are widely used to assess the abilities of bipolar patients to retrieve and produce verbal material from the lexico-semantic memory. Studies using these tasks have however yielded discrepant results...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
D A Gutorova, E E Vasenina, O S Levin
AIM: To determine sensitivity and specificity of the 3-CT scale, a combination of 3 simple and minimum cost tests, for screening purposes in old and old-old patients in comparison to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 106 patients. Assessment of sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological testing with ROC-curves was used. RESULTS: MoCA showed moderate sensitivity (0...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Dan Parker, Colin Phillips
Linguistic illusions have provided valuable insights into how we mentally navigate complex representations in memory during language comprehension. Two notable cases involve illusory licensing of agreement and negative polarity items (NPIs), where comprehenders fleetingly accept sentences with unlicensed agreement or an unlicensed NPI, but judge those same sentences as unacceptable after more reflection. Existing accounts have argued that illusions are a consequence of faulty memory access processes, and make the additional assumption that the encoding of the sentence remains fixed over time...
October 6, 2016: Cognition
Vânia de Aguiar, Roelien Bastiaanse, Gabriele Miceli
Background: Demographic and clinical predictors of aphasia recovery have been identified in the literature. However, little attention has been devoted to identifying and distinguishing predictors of improvement for different outcomes, e.g., production of treated vs. untreated materials. These outcomes may rely on different mechanisms, and therefore be predicted by different variables. Furthermore, treatment features are not typically accounted for when studying predictors of aphasia recovery. This is partly due to the small numbers of cases reported in studies, but also to limitations of data analysis techniques usually employed...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
M Mortamais, J A Ash, J Harrison, J Kaye, J Kramer, C Randolph, C Pose, B Albala, M Ropacki, C W Ritchie, K Ritchie
Significant progress has been made in characterizing the biological changes occurring in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cognitive dysfunction has been viewed, however, as a late-stage phenomenon, despite increasing evidence that changes may be detected in the decades preceding dementia. In the absence of comprehensive evidence-based guidelines for preclinical cognitive assessment, longitudinal cohort and neuroimaging studies have been reviewed to determine the temporal order and brain biomarker correlates of specific cognitive functions...
October 1, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Long Xie, John B Pluta, Sandhitsu R Das, Laura E M Wisse, Hongzhi Wang, Lauren Mancuso, Dasha Kliot, Brian B Avants, Song-Lin Ding, José V Manjón, David A Wolk, Paul A Yushkevich
RATIONALE: The human perirhinal cortex (PRC) plays critical roles in episodic and semantic memory and visual perception. The PRC consists of Brodmann areas 35 and 36 (BA35, BA36). In Alzheimer's disease (AD), BA35 is the first cortical site affected by neurofibrillary tangle pathology, which is closely linked to neural injury in AD. Large anatomical variability, manifested in the form of different cortical folding and branching patterns, makes it difficult to segment the PRC in MRI scans...
October 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Takumi Kaneda, Yayoi Shigemune, Takashi Tsukiura
Memories for emotion-laden stimuli are remembered more accurately than those for neutral stimuli. Although this enhancement reflects stimulus-driven modulation of memory by emotions, functional neuroimaging evidence of the interacting mechanisms between emotions generated by intentional processes, such as semantic elaboration, and memory is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated how encoding-related activation is modulated by emotions generated during the process of semantic elaboration. During encoding with fMRI, healthy young adults viewed neutral (target) pictures either passively or with semantic elaboration...
October 3, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Christina E Webb, Indira C Turney, Nancy A Dennis
The current study used a novel scene paradigm to investigate the role of encoding schemas on memory. Specifically, the study examined the influence of a strong encoding schema on retrieval of both schematic and non-schematic information, as well as false memories for information associated with the schema. Additionally, the separate roles of recollection and familiarity in both veridical and false memory retrieval were examined. The study identified several novel results. First, while many common neural regions mediated both schematic and non-schematic retrieval success, schematic recollection exhibited greater activation in visual cortex and hippocampus, regions commonly shown to mediate detailed retrieval...
September 30, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Jessica Peter, Jannis Kaiser, Verena Landerer, Lena Köstering, Christoph P Kaller, Bernhard Heimbach, Michael Hüll, Tobias Bormann, Stefan Klöppel
The exploration and retrieval of words during category fluency involves different strategies to improve or maintain performance. Deficits in that task, which are common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), mirror either impaired semantic memory or dysfunctional executive control mechanisms. Relating category fluency to tasks that place greater demands on either semantic knowledge or executive functions might help to determine the underlying cognitive process. The aims of this study were to compare performance and strategy use of 20 patients with aMCI to 30 healthy elderly controls (HC) and to identify the dominant component (either executive or semantic) for better task performance in category fluency...
September 30, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Liwen Zhang, Lisette van der Meer, Esther M Opmeer, Jan-Bernard C Marsman, Henricus G Ruhé, André Aleman
Disturbances in implicit self-processing have been reported both in psychotic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether these two psychotic disorders show disturbed functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection, which is associated with social functioning and illness symptoms. Therefore, we investigated functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection in BD with past psychosis and schizophrenia. Twenty-three BD-patients, 17 schizophrenia-patients and 21 health controls (HC) performed a self-reflection task, including the conditions self-reflection, close other-reflection and semantic control...
September 27, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Serguei V S Pakhomov, Wrenda Teeple, Anne M Mills, Michael Kotlyar
Mild-to-moderate impairment in frontally mediated functions such as sustained attention, working memory, and inhibition have been found to occur during tobacco withdrawal and may present a barrier to successful cessation. These findings have led to studies evaluating cessation treatments that target nicotine withdrawal related cognitive impairment. The instruments currently used to assess cognitive function provide detailed and specific information but have limitations including being time consuming, cumbersome, anxiety provoking, and having poor ecological validity...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Joana C Carmo, Cristiane Souza, Filipe Gonçalves, Sandra Pinho, Carlos N Filipe, Thomas Lachmann
We tested whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are impaired in visuospatial working memory or in the use of the semantic system, in particular in categorization processes at the service of working memory. The performance of high-functioning individuals with ASD (N = 21) in a visual same-different task adapted from Lachmann and van Leeuwen [e.g., Lachmann, T., & van Leeuwen, C. (2010). Representational economy, not processing speed, determines preferred processing strategy of visual patterns...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Julia Englert, Dirk Wentura
Memory is better for items arbitrarily assigned to the self than for items assigned to another person (mere ownership effect, MOE). In a series of six experiments, we investigated the role of semantic processes for the MOE. Following successful replication, we investigated whether the MOE was contingent upon semantic processing: For meaningless stimuli, there was no MOE. Testing for a potential role of semantic elaboration using meaningful stimuli in an encoding task without verbal labels, we found evidence of spontaneous semantic processing irrespective of self- or other-assignment...
September 26, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Gildas Brébion, Christian Stephan-Otto, Susana Ochoa, Mercedes Roca, Lourdes Nieto, Judith Usall
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that various memory errors reflecting failure in the self-monitoring of speech were associated with auditory/verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia patients and with proneness to hallucinations in non-clinical individuals. METHOD: We administered to 57 schizophrenia patients and 60 healthy participants a verbal memory task involving free recall and recognition of lists of words with different structures (high-frequency, low-frequency, and semantically organisable words)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Adam J O Dede, Christine N Smith
It is well established that patients with memory impairment have more difficulty retrieving memories from the recent past relative to the remote past and that damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a key role in this pattern of impairment. The precise role of the MTL and how it may interact with other brain regions remains an area of active research. We investigated the role of structures in a memory network that supports remembering. Our chapter focuses on two types of memory: episodic memory and semantic memory...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Mathilde Chevignard, Camille de Montferrand, Estelle Yvon-Chaou, Alain Mardaye, Anne Tiberghien, Anne Laurent-Vannier, Georges Dellatolas
OBJECTIVE: Studies on language outcome following childhood stroke are rare. The aims of this study were to study language, cognitive and school outcomes following childhood stroke. MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the files of children (1 month-15 years) consecutively admitted to a physical medicine and rehabilitation department following childhood stroke between 1992 and 2015. Age at onset, aetiology, lesion laterality, initial severity, motor and functional impairments upon admission and discharge, language tests, neuropsychological assessment (or developmental age/quotient) and academic outcome were collected...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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