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Semantic memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781375/the-effects-of-bilingual-language-proficiency-on-recall-accuracy-and-semantic-clustering-in-free-recall-output-evidence-for-shared-semantic-associations-across-languages
#1
Wendy S Francis, Randolph S Taylor, Marisela Gutiérrez, Mary K Liaño, Diana G Manzanera, Renee M Penalver
Two experiments investigated how well bilinguals utilise long-standing semantic associations to encode and retrieve semantic clusters in verbal episodic memory. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 128) studied and recalled word and picture sets. Word recall was equivalent in L1 and L2, picture recall was better in L1 than in L2, and the picture superiority effect was stronger in L1 than in L2. Semantic clustering in word and picture recall was equivalent in L1 and L2. In Experiment 2, Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 128) and English-speaking monolinguals (N = 128) studied and recalled word sequences that contained semantically related pairs...
May 19, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780861/the-relationship-between-recall-of-recently-versus-remotely-encoded-famous-faces-and-amyloidosis-in-clinically-normal-older-adults
#2
Irina Orlovsky, Willem Huijbers, Bernard J Hanseeuw, Elizabeth C Mormino, Trey Hedden, Rachel F Buckley, Molly LaPoint, Jennifer S Rabin, Dorene M Rentz, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Kathryn V Papp
Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients exhibit temporally graded memory loss with remote memories remaining more intact than recent memories. It is unclear whether this temporal pattern is observable in clinically normal adults with amyloid pathology (i.e. preclinical AD). Methods: Participants were asked to recall the names of famous figures most prominent recently (famous after 1990) and remotely (famous from 1960-1980) and were provided with a phonemic cue to ensure that memory failure was not purely due to verbal retrieval weaknesses...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772951/the-lack-of-effect-of-dynamic-visual-noise-on-the-concreteness-effect-in-short-term-memory
#3
Judit Castellà, Guillermo Campoy
It has been suggested that the concreteness effect in short-term memory (STM) is a consequence of concrete words having more distinctive and richer semantic representations. The generation and storage of visual codes in STM could also play a crucial role on the effect because concrete words are more imaginable than abstract words. If this were the case, the introduction of a visual interference task would be expected to disrupt recall of concrete words. A Dynamic Visual Noise (DVN) display, which has been proven to eliminate the concreteness effect on long-term memory (LTM), was presented along encoding of concrete and abstract words in a STM serial recall task...
May 17, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771462/different-neural-activities-support-auditory-working-memory-in-musicians-and-bilinguals
#4
Claude Alain, Yasha Khatamian, Yu He, Yunjo Lee, Sylvain Moreno, Ada W S Leung, Ellen Bialystok
Musical training and bilingualism benefit executive functioning and working memory (WM)-however, the brain networks supporting this advantage are not well specified. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and the n-back task to assess WM for spatial (sound location) and nonspatial (sound category) auditory information in musician monolingual (musicians), nonmusician bilinguals (bilinguals), and nonmusician monolinguals (controls). Musicians outperformed bilinguals and controls on the nonspatial WM task...
May 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765350/cognitive-and-personality-components-underlying-spoken-idiom-comprehension-in-context-an-exploratory-study
#5
Cristina Cacciari, Paola Corrardini, Fabio Ferlazzo
In this exploratory study, we investigated whether and to what extent individual differences in cognitive and personality variables are associated with spoken idiom comprehension in context. Language unimpaired participants were enrolled in a cross-modal lexical decision study in which semantically ambiguous Italian idioms (i.e., strings with both a literal and an idiomatic interpretation as, for instance, break the ice ), predictable or unpredictable before the string offset, were embedded in idiom-biasing contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763790/the-language-of-smell-connecting-linguistic-and-psychophysical-properties-of-odor-descriptors
#6
Georgios Iatropoulos, Pawel Herman, Anders Lansner, Jussi Karlgren, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson
The olfactory sense is a particularly challenging domain for cognitive science investigations of perception, memory, and language. Although many studies show that odors often are difficult to describe verbally, little is known about the associations between olfactory percepts and the words that describe them. Quantitative models of how odor experiences are described in natural language are therefore needed to understand how odors are perceived and communicated. In this study, we develop a computational method to characterize the olfaction-related semantic content of words in a large text corpus of internet sites in English...
May 12, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731735/rescripting-memory-redefining-the-self-a-meta-emotional-perspective-on-the-hypothesized-mechanism-s-of-imagery-rescripting
#7
Alessandra Mancini, Francesco Mancini
Imagery Rescripting (ImRs) is a therapeutic technique that aims to reduce the distress associated with negative memories of early aversive experiences. It consists of prompting patients to rescript the autobiographical memory in line with their unmet needs. In recent years, ImRs was found effective in reducing symptoms of disorders such as depression, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. However, the cognitive mechanisms underlying such broad effectiveness are currently an object of debate...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730501/language-skills-in-children-with-benign-childhood-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Joana Teixeira, Maria Emília Santos
Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is the epileptic syndrome that most affects preschool and school-age children. Despite being usually considered a benign condition, several studies have shown that this epileptic syndrome is responsible for cognitive morbidities in children, namely at the level of attention and memory, as well as language. However, language disorders are still superficially addressed by the literature. This review aimed to compile and synthesize recent literature in this area...
May 3, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725839/executive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#9
Itaru Tamura, Asako Takei, Shinsuke Hamada, Hiroyuki Soma, Michio Nonaka, Sanae Homma, Fumio Moriwaka
The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive functions of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3(SCA3). We examined 15 patients with genetically confirmed SCA3 and 15 healthy control subjects matched for age, years of education, and intellectual ability. We administered verbal memory (word recall and word recognition) and executive function tasks (word fluency test, forward and backward digit and visual span tests, Kana Pick-out Test, Trail Making Test, and conflicting instructions and a Go/NoGo task from the Frontal Assessment Battery)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725313/what-is-the-influence-of-morphological-knowledge-in-the-early-stages-of-reading-acquisition-among-low-ses-children-a-graphical-modeling-approach
#10
Pascale Colé, Eddy Cavalli, Lynne G Duncan, Anne Theurel, Edouard Gentaz, Liliane Sprenger-Charolles, Abdessadek El-Ahmadi
Children from low-SES families are known to show delays in aspects of language development which underpin reading acquisition such as vocabulary and listening comprehension. Research on the development of morphological skills in this group is scarce, and no studies exist in French. The present study investigated the involvement of morphological knowledge in the very early stages of reading acquisition (decoding), before reading comprehension can be reliably assessed. We assessed listening comprehension, receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, morphological awareness as well as decoding, word reading and non-verbal IQ in 703 French first-graders from low-SES families after 3 months of formal schooling (November)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723638/magnetic-stimulation-selectively-affects-pre-stimulus-eeg-microstates
#11
Pierpaolo Croce, Filippo Zappasodi, Spadone Sara, Paolo Capotosto
Different electrophysiological (EEG) correlates may provide specific important assessment of the period that anticipates an imperative stimulus. Previous study of our group showed that a local (i.e. parietal) anticipatory EEG marker (i.e. the event related de-synchronization of the alpha rhythms; ERD) is selectively affected when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is delivered over crucial nodes belonging to well-known human networks involved in different cognitive domains. Here, we investigated whether such distinction is also present in the whole brain activity as seen through the pre-stimulus microstate's topography, representing a global and reference-free measure of the neural activity...
April 30, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723600/cognitive-training-with-action-related-verbs-induces-neural-plasticity-in-the-action-representation-system-as-assessed-by-gray-matter-brain-morphometry
#12
Marta Ghio, Matteo Locatelli, Andrea Tettamanti, Daniela Perani, Roberto Gatti, Marco Tettamanti
Embodied cognition theories of semantic memory still face the need for multiple sources of converging evidence in support of the involvement of sensory-motor systems in action-related knowledge. Previous studies showed that training manual actions improves semantic processing of verbs referring to the trained actions. The present work aimed to provide complementary evidence by measuring the brain plasticity effects of a cognitive training requiring sustained lexical-semantic processing of action-related verbs...
April 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716643/tdp-43-pathology-in-anterior-temporal-pole-cortex-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Sukriti Nag, Lei Yu, Patricia A Boyle, Sue E Leurgans, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
TDP-43 pathology was investigated in the anterior temporal pole cortex (ATPC) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC), regions often degenerated in frontotemporal lobar degenerations (FTLD), in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Diagnosis of dementia in the 1160 autopsied participants from 3 studies of community-dwelling elders was based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests which were used to create summary measures of the five cognitive domains. Neuronal and glial TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions were quantitated in 8 brain regions by immunohistochemistry, and used in ANOVA and regression analyses...
May 1, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715544/semantic-memory-in-developmental-amnesia
#14
REVIEW
Rachael L Elward, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem
Patients with developmental amnesia resulting from bilateral hippocampal atrophy associated with neonatal hypoxia-ischaemia typically show relatively preserved semantic memory and factual knowledge about the natural world despite severe impairments in episodic memory. Understanding the neural and mnemonic processes that enable this context-free semantic knowledge to be acquired throughout development without the support of the contextualised episodic memory system is a serious challenge. This review describes the clinical presentation of patients with developmental amnesia, contrasts its features with those reported for adult-onset hippocampal amnesia, and analyses the effects of variables that influence the learning of new semantic information...
April 28, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706146/neuropsychological-profiles-and-trajectories-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Jean K Ho, Daniel A Nation
OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the independent and synergistic effects of amyloid beta (Aβ1-42) and phosphorylated tau (Ptau) pathologies on neuropsychological profiles and trajectories in cognitively normal older adults. METHODS: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants identified as cognitively normal at baseline underwent longitudinal assessment (N=518; 0, 12, 24, 36 months), baseline lumbar puncture and follow-up cognitive exams...
April 30, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705084/action-memory-and-knowledge-based-cuing-in-school-aged-children-the-effect-of-object-presentation-and-semantic-integration
#16
Farzaneh Badinlou, Reza Kormi-Nouri, Monika Knopf
Research into memory has found that declarative knowledge provides rich information about the world and improved memory performance. The present research investigates the effects of knowledge-based cues on memory for action events and on the enactment effect. Cued recall of action phrases was examined in four groups of 8-14-year-olds (410 children in total). The object cues (i.e., real vs. imaginary objects) and semantic relational cues (i.e., well-integrated vs. poorly integrated items) were manipulated in three encoding conditions: verbal tasks, experimenter-performed tasks, and subject-performed tasks...
April 25, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704751/exposure-to-ambient-pm-2-5-concentrations-and-cognitive-function-among-older-mexican-adults
#17
Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez, Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño, Betty Manrique-Espinoza, Grea Litai Moreno-Banda, Ana Luisa Sosa-Ortiz, Zhengmin Min Qian, Hualiang Lin
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological research has shown that exposure to fine particulate pollution (PM2.5 ) is associated with a reduction in cognitive function in older adults. However, primary evidence comes from high-income countries, and no specific studies have been conducted in low and middle-income countries where higher air pollution levels exist. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the association between the exposure to PM2.5 and cognitive function in a nationally representative sample of older Mexican adults and the associated effect modifiers...
April 25, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703125/two-retrievals-from-a-single-cue-a-bottleneck-persists-across-episodic-and-semantic-memory
#18
Franziska Orscheschek, Tilo Strobach, Torsten Schubert, Tim Rickard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701153/semantic-intrusions-and-failure-to-recover-from-semantic-interference-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-relationship-to-amyloid-and-cortical-thickness
#19
David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Monica Rosselli, Ailyn Penate, Maria T Greig-Custo, Russell M Bauer, Salvador M Guinjoan, Kevin S Hanson, Chunfei Li, Gabriel Lizarraga, William W Barker, Valeria Torres, Steven DeKosky, Malek Adjouadi, Ranjan Duara
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that the failure to recover from the effects of proactive semantic interference [frPSI] represents an early cognitive manifestation of preclinical Alzheimer's disease. A limitation of this novel paradigm has been a singular focus on the number of targets correctly recalled, without examining co-occurring semantic intrusions [SI] that may highlight specific breakdowns in memory. OBJECTIVES: We focused on SI and their relationship to amyloid load and regional cortical thickness among persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment...
April 27, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700377/knowledge-acquisition-is-governed-by-striatal-prediction-errors
#20
Alex Pine, Noa Sadeh, Aya Ben-Yakov, Yadin Dudai, Avi Mendelsohn
Discrepancies between expectations and outcomes, or prediction errors, are central to trial-and-error learning based on reward and punishment, and their neurobiological basis is well characterized. It is not known, however, whether the same principles apply to declarative memory systems, such as those supporting semantic learning. Here, we demonstrate with fMRI that the brain parametrically encodes the degree to which new factual information violates expectations based on prior knowledge and beliefs-most prominently in the ventral striatum, and cortical regions supporting declarative memory encoding...
April 26, 2018: Nature Communications
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