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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219653/the-neurocognitive-basis-of-borrowed-context-information
#1
Meagan O'Neill, Rachel A Diana
Falsely remembered items can be accompanied by episodic context retrieval. This finding is difficult to explain because there is no episode that binds the remembered item to the experimenter-controlled context features. The current study examines the neural correlates of false context retrieval when the context features can be traced to encoding episodes of semantically-similar items. Our neuroimaging results support a "dissociated source" mechanism for context borrowing in false memory. We found that parahippocampal cortex (PHc) activation, thought to indicate context retrieval, was greater during trials that involved context borrowing (an incorrect, but plausible source decision) than during baseline correct context retrieval...
January 30, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214769/supporting-older-and-younger-adults-memory-for-recent-everyday-events-a-prospective-sampling-study-using-sensecam
#2
Ali Mair, Marie Poirier, Martin A Conway
This study measured the effect of a wearable camera, SenseCam, on older and younger adults' memories of recently experienced everyday events. Participants used SenseCam to prospectively sample events from a typical week, which they recalled two weeks later. Recall was cued by a self-generated title only (control condition), by the title and forward-order SenseCam images, or by the title and random-order SenseCam images. In the control condition, older and younger adults' memories were comparably episodic, but older adults recalled more semantic details...
February 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205494/language-deficits-as-a-preclinical-window-into-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-from-asymptomatic-parkin-and-dardarin-mutation-carriers
#3
Adolfo M García, Lucas Sedeño, Natalia Trujillo, Yamile Bocanegra, Diana Gomez, David Pineda, Andrés Villegas, Edinson Muñoz, William Arias, Agustín Ibáñez
OBJECTIVES: The worldwide spread of Parkinson's disease (PD) calls for sensitive and specific measures enabling its early (or, ideally, preclinical) detection. Here, we use language measures revealing deficits in PD to explore whether similar disturbances are present in asymptomatic individuals at risk for the disease. METHODS: We administered executive, semantic, verb-production, and syntactic tasks to sporadic PD patients, genetic PD patients with PARK2 (parkin) or LRRK2 (dardarin) mutation, asymptomatic first-degree relatives of the latter with similar mutations, and socio-demographically matched controls...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202719/sleep-enhances-knowledge-of-routes-and-regions-in-spatial-environments
#4
Hannes Noack, Wiebke Schick, Hanspeter Mallot, Jan Born
Sleep is thought to preferentially consolidate hippocampus-dependent memory, and as such, spatial navigation. Here, we investigated the effects of sleep on route knowledge and explicit and implicit semantic regions in a virtual environment. Sleep, compared with wakefulness, improved route knowledge and also enhanced awareness of the semantic regionalization within the environment, whereas signs of implicit regionalization remained unchanged. Results support the view that sleep specifically enhances explicit aspects of memory, also in the spatial domain...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201837/semantic-treatments-for-word-and-sentence-production-deficits-in-aphasia
#5
Mary Boyle
The cognitive domains of language and memory are intrinsically connected and work together during language processing. This relationship is especially apparent in the area of semantics. Several disciplines have contributed to a rich store of data about semantic organization and processing, and several semantic treatments for aphasic word and sentence production impairments have been based on these data. This article reviews the relationships between semantics and memory as they relate to word and sentence production, describes the aphasic language impairments that result from deficits in these areas, and summarizes treatment approaches that capitalize on what we have learned about these domains and how they work together...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201834/short-term-memory-and-aphasia-from-theory-to-treatment
#6
Irene Minkina, Samantha Rosenberg, Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar, Nadine Martin
This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199471/influence-of-cognitive-ability-on-therapy-outcomes-for-anomia-in-adults-with-chronic-poststroke-aphasia
#7
Jade Dignam, David Copland, Kate O'Brien, Penni Burfein, Asaduzzaman Khan, Amy D Rodriguez
Purpose: The relationship between cognitive abilities and aphasia rehabilitation outcomes is complex and remains poorly understood. This study investigated the influence of language and cognitive abilities on anomia therapy outcomes in adults with aphasia. Method: Thirty-four adults with chronic aphasia participated in Aphasia Language Impairment and Functioning Therapy. A language and cognitive assessment battery, including 3 baseline naming probes, was administered prior to therapy...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195019/do-you-see-the-forest-or-the-tree-neural-gain-and-breadth-versus-focus-in-perceptual-processing
#8
Eran Eldar, Yael Niv, Jonathan D Cohen
When perceiving rich sensory information, some people may integrate its various aspects, whereas other people may selectively focus on its most salient aspects. We propose that neural gain modulates the trade-off between breadth and selectivity, such that high gain focuses perception on those aspects of the information that have the strongest, most immediate influence, whereas low gain allows broader integration of different aspects. We illustrate our hypothesis using a neural-network model of ambiguous-letter perception...
December 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169427/financial-incentive-does-not-affect-p300-in-response-to-certain-episodic-and-semantic-probe-stimuli-in-the-complex-trial-protocol-ctp-version-of-the-concealed-information-test-cit-in-detection-of-malingering
#9
J Peter Rosenfeld, Elena Labkovsky, Elena Davydova, Anne Ward, Lauren Rosenfeld
Previous research indicated that the skin conductance response of the autonomic nervous system in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is typically increased in subjects who are financially and otherwise incentivized to defeat the CIT (the paradoxical "motivational impairment" effect). This is not the case for RT-based CITs, nor P300 tests based on the three-stimulus protocol for detection of cognitive malingering (although these are not the same as CITs). The present report is the first attempt to study the effect of financial motivation on the P300-based Complex Trial Protocol using both episodic and semantic memory probe and irrelevant stimuli...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167329/the-role-of-set-shifting-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#10
Sara Siddi, Donatella Rita Petretto, Caterina Burrai, Rosanna Scanu, Antonella Baita, Pierfranco Trincas, Emanuela Trogu, Liliana Campus, Augusto Contu, Antonio Preti
BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a cardinal characteristic of psychosis. Recent research on the neuropsychological mechanism of AVHs has focused on source monitoring failure, but a few studies have suggested the involvement of attention, working memory, processing speed, verbal learning, memory, and executive functions. In this study we examined the neuropsychological profile of patients with AVHs, assuming that the mechanism underlying this symptom could be a dysfunction of specific cognitive domains...
January 21, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164725/applying-psycholinguistic-evidence-to-the-construction-of-a-new-test-of-verbal-memory-in-late-life-cognitive-decline
#11
Johannes Baltasar Hessler, David Brieber, Johanna Egle, Georg Mandler, Thomas Jahn
The construction of the German Auditory Wordlist Learning Test (AWLT) for the assessment of verbal memory in late-life cognitive decline was guided by psycholinguistic evidence, which indicates that a word's linguistic characteristics influence its probability of being learned and recalled. The AWLT includes four trials of learning, short and long delayed free recall, and a recognition task. Its words were selected with taking into account their semantic content, orthographic length, frequency in the language, and orthographic neighborhood size (the number of words derived by adding, subtracting, or replacing a single letter at a time)...
February 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163387/how-working-memory-relates-to-children-s-reading-comprehension-the-importance-of-domain-specificity-in-storage-and-processing
#12
Suzan Nouwens, Margriet A Groen, Ludo Verhoeven
Working memory is considered a well-established predictor of individual variation in reading comprehension in children and adults. However, how storage and processing capacities of working memory in both the phonological and semantic domain relate to reading comprehension is still unclear. In the current study, we investigated the contribution of phonological and semantic storage, and phonological and semantic processing to reading comprehension in 123 Dutch children in fifth grade. We conducted regression and mediation analyses to find out to what extent variation in reading comprehension could be explained by storage and processing capacities in both the phonological and the semantic domain, while controlling for children's decoding and vocabulary...
2017: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160753/lateralization-of-language-function-in-epilepsy-patients-a-high-density-scalp-derived-event-related-potentials-erp-study
#13
Karin Trimmel, Jens Sachsenweger, Gerald Lindinger, Eduard Auff, Fritz Zimprich, Ekaterina Pataraia
OBJECTIVES: Language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represents the clinical standard for language lateralization assessment in presurgical epilepsy evaluation, but still many patients experience postoperative language deficits. Event-related potentials (ERPs), especially the negative component around and after 400ms, are related to language processing and could therefore represent a complementary method of language lateralization assessment. METHODS: Scalp EEG was recorded from 64 locations in 36 epilepsy patients and 37 controls during three visually presented language tasks: A short-term language memory task (differentiation memorized vs...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157585/thinking-about-threats-memory-and-prospection-in-human-threat-management
#14
REVIEW
Adam Bulley, Julie D Henry, Thomas Suddendorf
Humans have evolved mechanisms for the detection and management of possible threats in order to abate their negative consequences for fitness. Internally generated ('detached') cognition may have evolved in part because of its contributions to this broad function, but important questions remain about its role in threat management. In this article, we therefore present a taxonomy of threat-related internally generated cognition comprising episodic and semantic formats of memory and prospection. We address the proximate mechanisms of each of the capacities in this taxonomy, and discuss their respective contributions to adaptive threat management in humans...
January 31, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131230/electrophysiological-correlates-of-semantic-memory-retrieval-in-gulf-war-syndrome-2-patients
#15
Gail D Tillman, Clifford S Calley, Virginia I Buhl, Hsueh-Sheng Chiang, Robert W Haley, John Hart, Michael A Kraut
Gulf War veterans meeting criteria for Haley Syndrome 2 of Gulf War illness endorse a particular constellation of symptoms that include difficulty with processing information, word-finding, and confusion. To explore the neural basis of their word-finding difficulty, we assessed event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with semantic memory retrieval in 22 veterans classified as Syndrome 2 and 28 veterans who served as controls. We recorded EEGs while subjects judged whether pairs of words that represented object features combined to elicit a retrieval of an object memory or no retrieval...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129064/pace-yourself-intraindividual-variability-in-context-use-revealed-by-self-paced-event-related-brain-potentials
#16
Brennan R Payne, Kara D Federmeier
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have revealed multiple mechanisms by which contextual constraints impact language processing. At the same time, little work has examined the trial-to-trial dynamics of context use in the brain. In the current study, we probed intraindividual variability in behavioral and neural indices of context processing during reading. In a concurrent self-paced reading and ERP paradigm, participants read sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining completed with an expected or unexpected target word...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122769/an-evaluation-of-the-texas-functional-living-scale-s-latent-structure-and-subscales
#17
David Andrés González, Jason R Soble, Janice C Marceaux, Karin J M McCoy
OBJECTIVE: Performance-based functional assessment is a critical component of neuropsychological practice. The Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS) has promise given its brevity, nationally representative norms, and co-norming with Wechsler scales. However, its subscale structure has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the TFLS in a mixed clinical sample (n = 197). METHOD: Reliability and convergent and discriminant validity coefficients were calculated with neurocognitive testing and collateral reports and factor analysis was performed...
February 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122766/cognitive-correlates-of-perseverations-in-individuals-with-memory-impairment
#18
Gitit Kavé, Jeremia Heinik
OBJECTIVE: This study examines which cognitive measure best accounts for perseverations in individuals with memory impairment. METHOD: The sample included 85 individuals, of whom 21 had subjective memory concerns, 27 had mild cognitive impairment, and 37 had Alzheimer's disease. Participants produced responses on a semantic category fluency task and on the ideational fluency (IF) task from the Cambridge Cognitive Examination-Revised. Measures of word finding, working memory, and abstract thinking were also assessed...
February 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120071/clinical-and-neuropsychological-outcome-after-microsurgical-and-endovascular-treatment-of-ruptured-and-unruptured-anterior-communicating-artery-aneurysms-a-single-enter-experience
#19
Pietrantonio Andrea, Trungu Sokol, Raco Antonino
BACKGROUND: Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms have a high risk of rupture. Morbidity and mortality following rupture are higher than at other sites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical and neuropsychological outcomes of patients treated for ruptured and unruptured ACoA aneurysms: a comparison between surgical and endovascular treatment was performed. METHOD: All patients surgically or endovascularly treated for ruptured and unruptured ACoA aneurysms at our institution between January 2011 and December 2013 (n=50) were retrospectively reviewed...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114482/memory-guided-attention-during-active-viewing-of-edited-dynamic-scenes
#20
Christian Valuch, Peter König, Ulrich Ansorge
Films, TV shows, and other edited dynamic scenes contain many cuts, which are abrupt transitions from one video shot to the next. Cuts occur within or between scenes, and often join together visually and semantically related shots. Here, we tested to which degree memory for the visual features of the precut shot facilitates shifting attention to the postcut shot. We manipulated visual similarity across cuts, and measured how this affected covert attention (Experiment 1) and overt attention (Experiments 2 and 3)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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