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Fetal thymus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774106/hematopoietic-restricted-ptpn11e76k-reveals-indolent-mpn-progression-in-mice
#1
Stefan P Tarnawsky, Wen-Mei Yu, Cheng-Kui Qu, Rebecca J Chan, Mervin C Yoder
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) is a pediatric myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) that has a poor prognosis. Somatic mutations in Ptpn11 are the most frequent cause of JMML and they commonly occur in utero . Animal models of mutant Ptpn11 have probed the signaling pathways that contribute to JMML. However, existing models may inappropriately exacerbate MPN features by relying on non-hematopoietic-restricted Cre-loxP strains or transplantations into irradiated recipients. In this study we generate hematopoietic-restricted models of Ptpn11E76K-mediated disease using Csf1r-MCM and Flt3Cre...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738764/recirculating-th2-cells-induce-severe-thymic-dysfunction-via-il-4-stat6-signaling-pathway
#2
Hui Shen, Chen Yin, Ya-Nan Gao, Xiao-Yan Pei, Xiu-Yuan Sun, Qing Ge, Wei Wang, Yu Zhang
Thymic involution happened early in life, but a certain ratio of activated CD4+ T cells will persistently recirculate into the thymus from the periphery and it have been suggested to be able to inhibit the development of embryonic thymocytes. Our present study was aimed to elucidate the specific mechanism how activated CD4+ T cells could influence upon developing thymocytes by using fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC) and kidney capsule transplantation. Our results demonstrated that Th2 cells were found to play a fundamental role in the inhibition of embryonic thymocyte development since a very low concentration of Th2 cells could obviously reduce the total number of thymocytes...
May 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716181/the-impact-of-fetal-load-of-hirudo-verbana-saline-extract-antigens-on-morphometrical-hematological-and-immunological-parameters-of-rats-in-the-early-stages-of-post-embryonic-development
#3
Ruslan F Aminov, Aleksandr K Frolov
The aim of the study was to determine the immunostimulatory effect of antigens from saline extract of the medicinal leech on the morphometric parameters of the body and major immunogenic organs of rats. Wild-type female rats were administered medicinal leech saline extract antigens intraperitoneally two weeks before and two weeks after mating (in total four injections). The offspring were examined, as were the mothers after feeding the offspring, at 1, 15, 30, 60 days after birth. The morphometric parameters of the animals were recorded...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704633/myb-a-regulatory-factor-in-hematopoiesis
#4
REVIEW
Xunde Wang, Nikolaos Angelis, Swee Lay Thein
MYB is a transcription factor which was identified in birds as a viral oncogene (v-MYB). Its cellular counterpart was subsequently isolated as c-MYB which has three functional domains - DNA binding domain, transactivation domain and negative regulatory domain. c-MYB is essential for survival, and deletion of both alleles of the gene results in embryonic death. It is highly expressed in hematopoietic cells, thymus and neural tissue, and required for T and B lymphocyte development and erythroid maturation. Additionally, aberrant MYB expression has been found in numerous solid cancer cells and human leukemia...
April 25, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576539/a-humanized-mouse-model-generated-using-surplus-neonatal-tissue
#5
Matthew E Brown, Ying Zhou, Brian E McIntosh, Ian G Norman, Hannah E Lou, Mitch Biermann, Jeremy A Sullivan, Timothy J Kamp, James A Thomson, Petros V Anagnostopoulos, William J Burlingham
Here, we describe the NeoThy humanized mouse model created using non-fetal human tissue sources, cryopreserved neonatal thymus and umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Conventional humanized mouse models are made by engrafting human fetal thymus and HSCs into immunocompromised mice. These mice harbor functional human T cells that have matured in the presence of human self-peptides and human leukocyte antigen molecules. Neonatal thymus tissue is more abundant and developmentally mature and allows for creation of up to ∼50-fold more mice per donor compared with fetal tissue models...
April 10, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462197/thymic-epithelial-cell-derived-signals-control-b-progenitor-formation-and-proliferation-in-the-thymus-by-regulating-let-7-and-arid3a
#6
Shiyun Xiao, Wen Zhang, Nancy R Manley
The postnatal thymus is an efficient microenvironment for T cell specification and differentiation. B cells are also present in the thymus and have been recently shown to impact T cell selection, however, the mechanisms controlling B cell development in the thymus are largely unknown. In Foxn1lacZ mutant mice, down-regulation of Foxn1 expression in thymic epithelial cells beginning 1 week after birth caused a dramatic reduction of T progenitors and an increase of B cell progenitors. This time point is coincident with the switch from fetal to adult-type hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which is regulated by the Lin28-Let7 system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436479/the-ontogeny-of-a-neutrophil-mechanisms-of-granulopoiesis-and-homeostasis
#7
REVIEW
Shelley M Lawrence, Ross Corriden, Victor Nizet
Comprising the majority of leukocytes in humans, neutrophils are the first immune cells to respond to inflammatory or infectious etiologies and are crucial participants in the proper functioning of both innate and adaptive immune responses. From their initial appearance in the liver, thymus, and spleen at around the eighth week of human gestation to their generation in large numbers in the bone marrow at the end of term gestation, the differentiation of the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell into a mature, segmented neutrophil is a highly controlled process where the transcriptional regulators C/EBP-α and C/EBP-ε play a vital role...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416537/prior-to-peripheral-tolerance-newly-generated-cd4-t-cells-maintain-dangerous-autoimmune-potential-fas-and-perforin-independent-autoimmunity-controlled-by-programmed-death-1
#8
Kristofor K Ellestad, Govindarajan Thangavelu, Yohannes Haile, Jiaxin Lin, Louis Boon, Colin C Anderson
Lymphopenia can result from various factors, including viral infections, clinical interventions, or as a normal property of the fetal/neonatal period. T cells in a lymphopenic environment undergo lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP) to fill the available "niche" as defined by peptide-MHC and homeostatic cytokine resources. We recently reported systemic autoimmunity following reconstitution of the lymphoid compartment of Rag1-/- mice with PD-1-/- hematopoietic stem cells or by transfer of thymocytes, but not splenocytes, suggesting that programmed death-1 (PD-1) plays a crucial role in controlling recent thymic emigrants (RTE) and preventing autoimmunity upon their LIP...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361554/gli3-in-fetal-thymic-epithelial-cells-promotes-thymocyte-positive-selection-and-differentiation-by-repression-of-shh
#9
Anisha Solanki, Diana C Yanez, Susan Ross, Ching-In Lau, Eleftheria Papaioannou, Jiawei Li, José Ignacio Saldaña, Tessa Crompton
Gli3 is a Hedgehog (Hh)-responsive transcription factor that can function as a transcriptional repressor or activator. We show that Gli3 activity in mouse thymic epithelial cells (TECs) promotes positive selection and differentiation from CD4+ CD8+ to CD4+ CD8- single-positive (SP4) cells in the fetal thymus and that Gli3 represses Shh Constitutive deletion of Gli3 , and conditional deletion of Gli3 from TECs, reduced differentiation to SP4, whereas conditional deletion of Gli3 from thymocytes did not. Conditional deletion of Shh from TECs increased differentiation to SP4, and expression of Shh was upregulated in the Gli3-deficient thymus...
January 31, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331830/fetal-development-of-the-poeppig-s-woolly-monkey-lagothrix-poeppigii
#10
Rafael Dos Santos de Andrade, Frederico Ozanan Barros Monteiro, Hani Rocha El Bizri, Wilter Ricardo Russiano Vicente, Diva Anelie de Araujo Guimarães, Pedro Mayor
The intrauterine development is an evolutionary strategy that prepares the neonate for extra-uterine life, thus providing important information on the life history of species. In this study, we described the external and internal morphology of 25 fetuses of Poeppig's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) by taking advantage of a 10-year participatory collection of biological samples originated from animals hunted for subsistence purposes in the Peruvian Amazon. Logistic regressions estimated the probability of occurrence of each external morphological characteristic in relation to the crown-rump length (CRL)...
April 1, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297119/expression-of-components-of-the-serotonergic-system-in-the-developing-rat-thymus
#11
N V Lifantseva, Ts O Koneeva, E E Voronezhskaya, V I Melnikova
The developing thymus of rat fetuses contains all components of the serotonergic system: receptors, enzymes of synthesis, and membrane transporters. The expression of receptors suggests the possibility of a direct influence of serotonin on thymic development. The presence of tryptophan hydroxylase (the key rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin synthesis) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase indicates the ability of fetal thymic cells to synthesize serotonin. It was shown that the cells of a developing thymus can actively uptake extracellular monoamines...
November 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288371/exposure-of-pregnant-sows-to-deoxynivalenol-during-35-70-days-of-gestation-does-not-affect-pathomorphological-and-immunohistochemical-properties-of-fetal-organs
#12
Wolf Wippermann, Anne Heckmann, Kathrin Jäger, Sven Dänicke, Heinz-Adolf Schoon
In order to evaluate the influence of deoxynivalenol (DON) on histomorphological and immunohistochemical parameters in the development of porcine fetuses, five pregnant sows were fed a control diet (0.15 mg DON/kg diet) and seven sows a contaminated diet (4.42 mg DON/kg diet) between days 35 and 70 of gestation. On day 70, fetuses were delivered by caesarean section and sows and fetuses were euthanized. Tissue samples of three fetuses from each sow were collected, fixed in formalin, and processed routinely for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry...
December 29, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203226/innately-versatile-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-17-t-cells-in-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Pedro H Papotto, Annika Reinhardt, Immo Prinz, Bruno Silva-Santos
IL-17-producing γδ (γδ17) T cells form a versatile subset of cells that respond rapidly to innate stimuli and support the pro-inflammatory functions of different myeloid and lymphoid lineages, being particularly critical in the early stages of inflammatory and autoimmune responses. In mice, under homeostatic conditions, these innate-like lymphocytes are pre-programmed in the fetal thymus, through an intricate process involving both T cell receptor-dependent and -independent signals, which allows them to readily produce IL-17 upon stimulation...
February 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202332/chloro-triphenylphosphine-gold-i-a-forefront-reagent-in-gold-chemistry-as-apoptotic-agent-for-cancer-cells
#14
M P Chrysouli, C N Banti, N Kourkoumelis, N Panayiotou, G S Markopoulos, A J Tasiopoulos, S K Hadjikakou
The antiproliferative activity of the gold complex [Au(tpp)Cl] (1) (tpp=triphenyphosphine) against human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) and normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5) was investigated. The compound exhibits stronger activity against MCF-7 cells than cisplatin. The apoptotic pathway, especially though the mitochondrion damage was concluded by cell cycle arrest, flow cytometry using Annexin V-Fluorescein IsoThioCyanate (FITC) and Propidium Iodide (PI) as indicators, assays and permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane tests...
February 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194124/humanized-mouse-models-to-study-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#15
Guillemette Masse-Ranson, Hugo Mouquet, James P Di Santo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunodeficient mice that lack all lymphocyte subsets and have phagocytic cells that are tolerant of human cells can be stably xenografted with human hematopoietic stem cell as well as other human tissues (fetal liver and thymus) creating 'human immune system' (HIS) mice. HIS mice develop all major human lymphocyte classes (B, T, natural killer, and innate lymphoid cell) and their specialized subsets as well as a variety of myeloid cells (dendritic cell, monocytes, and macrophages) thereby providing a small animal model in which to interrogate human immune responses to infection...
March 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162901/microrna-449a-modulates-medullary-thymic-epithelial-cell-differentiation
#16
Pengfei Chen, Haohao Zhang, Xiaohua Sun, Yiming Hu, Wenxia Jiang, Zhanjie Liu, Sanhong Liu, Xiaoren Zhang
Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) ectopically express a diversity of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (PTAs) and provide unique cues for the expansion, maturation and selection of a repertoire of functionally diverse T lymphocytes. Genetic deletion of all mature microRNAs in thymic epithelial cells (TECs) results in premature thymic involution, progressive disorganisation of the thymic epithelium, and alteration in thymic T cell lineage commitment, consequently eliciting autoimmune disorders. In the present study, we identified that microRNA-449a (miR-449a), a member of miR-449 cluster, regulated mTEC differentiation...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136677/thymus-growth-and-fetal-immune-responses-in-diabetic-pregnancies
#17
Katharina Warncke, Ramona Lickert, Stephanie Eitel, Karl-Philipp Gloning, Ezio Bonifacio, Eva-Maria Sedlmeier, Petra Becker, Jan Knoop, Andreas Beyerlein, Anette-Gabriele Ziegler
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) during pregnancy possibly affects the development of the thymus and the maturation of the immune system in the offspring. The aim of the ImmunDiabRisk study was to investigate thymus growth and maternal and fetal immune responses in pregnancies with and without T1D. The thymus circumferences of the fetuses of pregnant women with T1D (n=49) and without diabetes (n=59) were measured using ultrasound around the 29th gestational week and standardized for gestational age. Simultaneously, the frequencies and total numbers of cell markers were analyzed by flow cytometry in maternal peripheral blood, and at birth in umbilical cord blood...
November 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133038/new-metalo-therapeutics-of-nsaids-against-human-breast-cancer-cells
#18
Christina N Banti, Constantina Papatriantafyllopoulou, Anastasios J Tasiopoulos, Sotiris K Hadjikakou
The non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's)-silver(I) metallodrugs of aspirin (aspH), salicylic acid (salH2 ), naproxen (napH) acid or p-hydrobenzoic acid (pHbzaH) and the mitochondriotropic triphenylarsine (tpAs) with the formulae [Ag(asp)(tpAs)3 ] (1), [Ag(salH)(tpAs)3 ] (2), [Ag(nap)(tpAs)3 ] (3) and {[Ag(pHbza)(tpAs)3 ]∙(dmf)} (4) and [Ag(tpAs)3 (NO3 )] (5) have been synthesized and characterized by m.p., FT-IR, UV-vis and1 H NMR, spectroscopic techniques and X-ray crystallography. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of 1-5 against human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells: MCF-7 (positive to estrogen receptors (ERs)) and MDA-MB-231 (negative to estrogen receptors (ERs)) was evaluated...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091759/cd5-nk1-1-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-that-develop-in-a-bcl11b-independent-manner-participate-in-early-protection-against-infection
#19
Shinya Hatano, Tesshin Murakami, Naoto Noguchi, Hisakata Yamada, Yasunobu Yoshikai
We recently found that a unique subset of innate-like γδ T cells develops from the DN2a stage of the fetal thymus independently of the zinc-finger transcription factor B cell leukemia/lymphoma 11b (Bcl11b). Herein, we characterize these Bcl11b-independent γδ T cells in the periphery as CD5(-)NK1.1(+) and Granzyme B(+), and we show that they are capable of producing interferon (IFN)-γ upon T cell receptor stimulation without Ca(2+) influx. In wild-type mice, these cells were sparse in lymphoid tissues but abundant in non-lymphoid tissues, such as the liver...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064117/correlation-between-the-thymic-thoracic-ratio-and-cardiac-axis-in-healthy-fetuses
#20
Ge Zhao, Jing Liu, Tao Meng
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the thymic-thoracic ratio and cardiac axis in healthy fetuses. METHODS: The fetal thymic-thoracic ratio and cardiac axis were measured in 220 healthy fetuses. The normal ranges of the fetal thymic-thoracic ratio and cardiac axis for each gestational week were established. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze the relationship between the thymic-thoracic ratio and cardiac axis...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
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