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Fetal thymus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224652/cardio-stic-based-reference-ranges-of-fetal-thymus-size-in-singleton-pregnancies
#1
Sirida Pittyanont, Suchaya Luewan, Theera Tongsong
OBJECTIVES: To establish the reference ranges of the fetal thymus size among Thai fetuses. METHODS: The database of spatio-temporal image correlation (cardio-STIC) was assessed to obtain the volume data sets for offline analysis. The volume data sets acquired at 16 to 38 weeks were measured for the thymus transverse diameter (TD) and the thymus/thoracic (TT) ratio at the three-vessel view. The measured values were regressed to identify the best-fitted model. RESULTS: A total of 622 volumes were successfully measured and the reference ranges of TD and TT ratio were established...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209904/noninvasive-imaging-of-human-immune-responses-in-a-human-xenograft-model-of-graft-versus-host-disease
#2
Catharina H M J Van Elssen, Mohammad Rashidian, Vladimir Vrbanac, Kai W Wucherpfennig, Zeina El Habre, Jana Sticht, Christian Freund, Johanne Jacobsen, Juanjo Cragnolini, Jessica Ingram, Loes Plaisier, Eric Spierings, Andrew M Tager, Hidde Ploegh
The immune system plays a crucial role in many diseases. Activation or suppression of immunity is often related to clinical outcome. Methods to explore the dynamics of immune responses are important to elucidate their role in conditions characterized by inflammation, such as infectious disease, cancer or auto-immunity. Immuno-PET is a non-invasive method by which disease and immune cell infiltration can be explored simultaneously. Using radiolabeled antibodies or fragments derived from them, it is possible to image disease-specific antigens and immune cell subsets...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195554/fetal-thymus-size-in-pregnant-women-with-diabetic-diseases
#3
Ria Dörnemann, Raphael Koch, Ute Möllmann, Maria Karina Falkenberg, Mareike Möllers, Walter Klockenbusch, Ralf Schmitz
AIM: The aim of our study was to assess fetal thymus size in diabetic pregnancies compared with normal pregnancies. METHODS: Sonographic fetal thymus size was retrospectively assessed in 161 pregnancies with maternal diabetes and in 161 uncomplicated pregnancies matched by gestational age. The anteroposterior thymic and the intrathoracic mediastinal diameter were measured and the quotient was calculated [thymic-thoracic ratio (TT-ratio)]. In addition, we defined the quotient of the anteroposterior thymic diameter and the head circumference as thymus-head ratio (TH-ratio)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177551/the-significance-of-a-prenatal-diagnosis-of-right-aortic-arch
#4
Anna Wójtowicz, Maria Respondek-Liberska, Maciej Słodki, Paulina Kordjalik, Joanna Płużańska, Anna Knafel, Hubert Huras
OBJECTIVES: To analyze a population of fetuses with prenatally diagnosed right aortic arch (RAA). METHODS: Retrospective study of fetuses with RAA diagnosed prenatally between 2011 and 2015 in 2 referral centers. RESULTS: RAA was found in 4.4% (46/1036) of fetuses with cardiovascular abnormalities (CVA). As an isolated anomaly, RAA was present in 30.4% of cases; in 32.6%, other CVA were detected; in 23.9%, CVA and extracardiac anomalies; and in 13...
February 8, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077418/a-novel-humanized-mouse-model-with-significant-improvement-of-class-switched-antigen-specific-antibody-production
#5
Hua Yu, Chiara Borsotti, Jean-Nicolas Schickel, Shu Zhu, Till Strowig, Elizabeth E Eynon, Davor Frleta, Cagan Gurer, Andrew J Murphy, George D Yancopoulos, Eric Meffre, Markus G Manz, Richard A Flavell
Humanized mice are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, the existing models cannot support robust adaptive immune responses, especially the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses. Here we describe a new mouse strain, in which human IL6 gene encoding the cytokine that is important for B and T cell differentiation was knocked into its respective mouse locus. The provision of human IL6 not only enhanced thymopoiesis and periphery T-cell engraftment, but also significantly increased class switched memory B cells and serum IgG...
January 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003674/prenatal-diagnosis-of-interrupted-aortic-arch-usefulness-of-three-vessel-and-four-chamber-views
#6
Yumika Hirano, Hisashi Masuyama, Kei Hayata, Eriko Eto, Etsuko Nobumoto, Yuji Hiramatsu
Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is fatal if not diagnosed. Prenatal diagnosis is helpful, but it is difficult to detect IAA and even more so to differentiate types A and B prenatally. Our objectives were to find a way to detect IAA using 2 views-three-vessel view (3VV) and four-chamber view (4CV)-and to differentiate between types A and B. We retrospectively analyzed fetal echocardiographic images and medical records of eight IAA patients. All eight patients had a ventricular septal defect (VSD) on 4CV. The aorta/main pulmonary artery (Ao/MPA) diameter ratio on 3VV was significantly low, which is characteristic of type B IAA...
December 2016: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980777/improved-b-cell-development-in-humanized-nod-scid-il2r%C3%AE-null-mice-transgenically-expressing-human-stem-cell-factor-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-and-interleukin-3
#7
Sonal Jangalwe, Leonard D Shultz, Anuja Mathew, Michael A Brehm
INTRODUCTION: Immunodeficient mice engrafted with human immune systems support studies of human hematopoiesis and the immune response to human-specific pathogens. A significant limitation of these humanized mouse models is, however, a severely restricted ability of human B cells to undergo class switching and produce antigen-specific IgG after infection or immunization. METHODS: In this study, we have characterized the development and function of human B cells in NOD-scid IL2Rγ(null) (NSG) mice transgenically expressing human stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-3 (NSG-SGM3) following engraftment with human hematopoietic stem cells, autologous fetal liver, and thymic tissues (bone marrow, liver, thymus or BLT model)...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976742/increased-fetal-thymocytes-apoptosis-contributes-to-prenatal-nicotine-exposure-induced-th1-th2-imbalance-in-male-offspring-mice
#8
Ting Chen, You-E Yan, Sha Liu, Han-Xiao Liu, Hui-Yi Yan, Li-Fang Hou, Wen Qu, Jie Ping
Nicotine, a definite risk factor during pregnancy, is an immunomodulator. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) on the balance of Th1/Th2 in offspring, and further explore the developmental origin mechanisms from the perspective of fetal thymocytes apoptosis. Pregnant Balb/c mice were administered 1.5 mg/kg nicotine subcutaneously twice per day from gestational day (GD) 9 to GD18. Results showed that PNE could cause a Th2 shift in male offspring, manifested as increased ratio of IgG1/IgG2a, IL-4 production in serum, and IL-4/IFN-γ expression ratio in spleen...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973427/expression-of-3-mercaptopyruvate-sulfurtransferase-in-the-mouse
#9
Masahiro Tomita, Noriyuki Nagahara, Takaaki Ito
3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST) is one of the principal enzymes for the production of hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides in mammalians, and emerging evidence supports the physiological significance of MST. As a fundamental study of the physiology and pathobiology of MST, it is necessary to establish the tissue distribution of MST in mice. In the present study, the expression of MST in various organs of adult and fetal mice was analyzed by Western blotting and enzyme-immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the histology of MST gene-deficient mice was examined...
December 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882948/the-non-canonical-wnt-receptor-ryk-regulates-hematopoietic-stem-cell-repopulation-in-part-by-controlling-proliferation-and-apoptosis
#10
Farbod Famili, Laura Garcia Perez, Brigitta Ae Naber, Jasprina N Noordermeer, Lee G Fradkin, Frank Jt Staal
The development of blood and immune cells requires strict control by various signaling pathways in order to regulate self-renewal, differentiation and apoptosis in stem and progenitor cells. Recent evidence indicates critical roles for the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways in hematopoiesis. The non-canonical Wnt pathway is important for establishment of cell polarity and cell migration and regulates apoptosis in the thymus. We here investigate the role of the non-canonical Wnt receptor Ryk in hematopoiesis and lymphoid development...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862004/sonographic-measurement-of-fetal-thymus-size-in-uncomplicated-singleton-pregnancies
#11
Chayada Tangshewinsirikul, Panyu Panburana
PURPOSE: To establish sonographic reference ranges of the normal fetal thymus size between 17 and 38 weeks of gestational age (GA). METHODS: The study was conducted between April 1 and December 31, 2013. Low-risk singleton pregnancies without obstetrical and medical complications at the GAs between 17 and 38 weeks were recruited for thymus measurement. The fetal thymus was identified on transabdominal sonography at the three-vessel view. Maximal transverse diameter, perimeter, and thymus/thoracic ratio were measured...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861499/maternal-filarial-infection-influences-the-development-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-children-from-infancy-to-early-childhood
#12
Madhusmita Bal, Manoranjan Ranjit, K Gopinath Achary, Ashok K Satapathy
BACKGROUND: Children born from filarial infected mothers are comparatively more susceptible to filarial infection than the children born to uninfected mothers. But the mechanism of such increased susceptibility to infection in early childhood is not exactly known. Several studies have shown the association of active filarial infection with T cell hypo-responsiveness which is mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs). Since the Tregs develop in the thymus from CD4+ CD25hi thymocytes at an early stage of the human fetus, it can be hypothesized that the maternal infection during pregnancy affects the development of Tregs in children at birth as well as early childhood...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824070/modeling-the-development-of-the-post-natal-mouse-thymus-in-the-absence-of-bone-marrow-progenitors
#13
Daniela Zaharie, Radu D Moleriu, Felix A Mic
Many mathematical models have been published with the purpose of explaining aspects of T-cell development in the thymus. In this manuscript we adapted a four-compartment model of the thymus and used a range of mathematical approaches with the aim of explaining the dynamics of the four main thymocyte populations in the mouse thymus, from the emergence of the first fetal thymocyte until the death of the animal. At various pre-natal and post-natal stages we investigated experimentally the number and composition of thymocytes populations, their apoptosis and proliferation, along with data from literature, to create and validate the model...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817026/the-inhibition-of-dopamine-synthesis-in-fetuses-changes-the-pattern-of-t-lymphocyte-maturation-in-the-thymus-of-adult-rats
#14
N V Lifantseva, Ts O Koneeva, S N Voronova, L A Zakharova, V I Melnikova
The mRNA for dopamine receptors of type D1, D3, D5, but not type D2, was detected in the thymus of rats starting from day 16 of embryonic development (E16). Dopamine at concentrations of 10(-8)-10(‒6) M inhibited fetus thymocyte response to mitogen, confirming the functionality of the receptors and the possibility of a direct effect of dopamine on the developing thymus. Pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine synthesis in the crucial period of thymus development leads to long-term changes in the T-system immunity due to increased production of natural regulatory T-lymphocytes...
September 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809915/biallelic-modification-of-il2rg-leads-to-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-in-pigs
#15
Jung-Taek Kang, Bumrae Cho, Junghyun Ryu, Caitlin Ray, Eun-Jin Lee, Yun-Jin Yun, SunMi Ahn, JinSeok Lee, Dal-Young Ji, Nathaniel Jue, Sherrie Clark-Deener, Kiho Lee, Kwang-Wook Park
BACKGROUND: Pigs with SCID can be a useful model in regenerative medicine, xenotransplantation, and cancer cell transplantation studies. Utilizing genome editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 system allows us to generate genetically engineered pigs at a higher efficiency. In this study, we report generation and phenotypic characterization of IL2RG knockout female pigs produced through combination of CRISPR/Cas9 system and SCNT. As expected, pigs lacking IL2RG presented SCID phenotype...
November 3, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801552/th17-responses-to-collagen-type-v-k%C3%AE-1-tubulin-and-vimentin-are-present-early-in-human-development-and-persist-throughout-life
#16
J A Sullivan, E Jankowska-Gan, S Hegde, M A Pestrak, V V Agashe, A C Park, M E Brown, J F Kernien, D S Wilkes, D B Kaufman, D S Greenspan, W J Burlingham
T helper 17 (Th17)-dependent autoimmune responses can develop after heart or lung transplantation and are associated with fibro-obliterative forms of chronic rejection; however, the specific self-antigens involved are typically different from those associated with autoimmune disease. To investigate the basis of these responses, we investigated whether removal of regulatory T cells or blockade of function reveals a similar autoantigen bias. We found that Th17 cells specific for collagen type V (Col V), kα1-tubulin, and vimentin were present in healthy adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells, cord blood, and fetal thymus...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790717/in-utero-coxsackievirus-b4-infection-of-the-mouse-thymus
#17
H Jaïdane, A Halouani, H Jmii, F Elmastour, S Abdelkefi, G Bodart, H Michaux, T Chakroun, F Sane, M Mokni, V Geenen, D Hober, M Aouni
Type B coxsackievirus (CV-B) infections are involved frequently in the triggering of several autoimmune diseases such as myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, pancreatitis, type 1 diabetes, encephalitis, thyroiditis or Sjögren's syndrome. Serological and virological evidence suggests that maternal infections during pregnancy can play a role in the appearance of these diseases in offspring. The current study aims to explore the effect of an in-utero CV-B infection on the fetal thymus, the central site for programming immunological self-tolerance...
March 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788827/in%C3%A2-vitro-effects-of-thymoglobulin-in-human-embryonic-kidney-cell-line-hek293-in-culture
#18
F Jurenec, K Mihovilović, K Špiranec, A Sinđić, M Knotek
BACKGROUND: Anti-thymocyte globulins are polyclonal T-cell-depleting immunoglobulins used in induction of immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients. Thymoglobulin is purified rabbit immunoglobulin (Ig)G, obtained by immunization of rabbits with fetal human thymus, which depletes T lymphocytes by complement-dependent lysis and apoptosis, reduces production of cytokines, and decreases expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. METHODS: To determine possible direct effects of Thymoglobulin on kidney cells during transplantation, we used the Human Embryonic Kidney cell line (HEK293) in culture...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781326/organ-weights-and-ratios-for-postmortem-identification-of-fetal-growth-restriction-utility-and-confounding-factors
#19
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, I Jeffrey, A E Heazell, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: The postmortem fetal brain:liver weight ratio is commonly used as a marker of nutrition for diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, there are limited data regarding the effects of intrauterine retention, fetal maceration and postmortem interval on organ weights and their ratios at autopsy. Our aims were to examine the relationships between gestational-age-adjusted and sex-adjusted fetal organ weights at autopsy, cause of intrauterine death and effects of intrauterine retention, and to determine whether the brain:liver weight ratio is a reliable marker of FGR in intrauterine death...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781316/stillbirth-and-intrauterine-fetal-death-role-of-routine-histological-organ-sampling-to-determine-cause-of-death
#20
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, L Judge-Kronis, S Levine, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: Guidelines for the investigation of intrauterine death and sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) recommend, based on expert opinion, autopsy procedures and tissue sampling strategies for histological analysis. Although stillbirth is much more common than SUDI, there have been no large-scale studies published which evaluate the usefulness of histological evaluation of specific organs in stillbirth for determining cause of death. Our aim was to evaluate the use of macroscopic and microscopic assessment of internal organs to determine cause of intrauterine death...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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