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Fetal thymus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136677/thymus-growth-and-fetal-immune-responses-in-diabetic-pregnancies
#1
Katharina Warncke, Ramona Lickert, Stephanie Eitel, Karl-Philipp Gloning, Ezio Bonifacio, Eva-Maria Sedlmeier, Petra Becker, Jan Knoop, Andreas Beyerlein, Anette-Gabriele Ziegler
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) during pregnancy possibly affects the development of the thymus and the maturation of the immune system in the offspring. The aim of the ImmunDiabRisk study was to investigate thymus growth and maternal and fetal immune responses in pregnancies with and without T1D. The thymus circumferences of the fetuses of pregnant women with T1D (n=49) and without diabetes (n=59) were measured using ultrasound around the 29th gestational week and standardized for gestational age. Simultaneously, the frequencies and total numbers of cell markers were analyzed by flow cytometry in maternal peripheral blood, and at birth in umbilical cord blood...
November 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133038/new-metalo-therapeutics-of-nsaids-against-human-breast-cancer-cells
#2
Christina N Banti, Constantina Papatriantafyllopoulou, Anastasios J Tasiopoulos, Sotiris K Hadjikakou
The non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's)-silver(I) metallodrugs of aspirin (aspH), salicylic acid (salH2), naproxen (napH) acid or p-hydrobenzoic acid (pHbzaH) and the mitochondriotropic triphenylarsine (tpAs) with the formulae [Ag(asp)(tpAs)3] (1), [Ag(salH)(tpAs)3] (2), [Ag(nap)(tpAs)3] (3) and {[Ag(pHbza)(tpAs)3]∙(dmf)} (4) and [Ag(tpAs)3(NO3)] (5) have been synthesized and characterized by m.p., FT-IR, UV-vis and (1)H NMR, spectroscopic techniques and X-ray crystallography. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of 1-5 against human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells: MCF-7 (positive to estrogen receptors (ERs)) and MDA-MB-231 (negative to estrogen receptors (ERs)) was evaluated...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091759/cd5-nk1-1-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-that-develop-in-a-bcl11b-independent-manner-participate-in-early-protection-against-infection
#3
Shinya Hatano, Tesshin Murakami, Naoto Noguchi, Hisakata Yamada, Yasunobu Yoshikai
We recently found that a unique subset of innate-like γδ T cells develops from the DN2a stage of the fetal thymus independently of the zinc-finger transcription factor B cell leukemia/lymphoma 11b (Bcl11b). Herein, we characterize these Bcl11b-independent γδ T cells in the periphery as CD5(-)NK1.1(+) and Granzyme B(+), and we show that they are capable of producing interferon (IFN)-γ upon T cell receptor stimulation without Ca(2+) influx. In wild-type mice, these cells were sparse in lymphoid tissues but abundant in non-lymphoid tissues, such as the liver...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064117/correlation-between-the-thymic-thoracic-ratio-and-cardiac-axis-in-healthy-fetuses
#4
Ge Zhao, Jing Liu, Tao Meng
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the thymic-thoracic ratio and cardiac axis in healthy fetuses. METHODS: The fetal thymic-thoracic ratio and cardiac axis were measured in 220 healthy fetuses. The normal ranges of the fetal thymic-thoracic ratio and cardiac axis for each gestational week were established. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze the relationship between the thymic-thoracic ratio and cardiac axis...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057456/small-fetal-thymus-and-adverse-obstetrical-outcome-a-systematic-review-and-a-meta-analysis
#5
Claudia Caissutti, Alessandra Familiari, Asma Khalil, Maria Elena Flacco, Lamberto Manzoli, Giovanni Scambia, Angelo Cagnacci, Francesco D'Antonio
INTRODUCTION: To explore the association between small fetal thymus on ultrasound and adverse obstetrical outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medline, Embase, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were searched. Primary outcome was the risk of preterm birth before 37 and 34 weeks in fetuses with compared to those without a small thymus on ultrasound. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: occurrence of chorioamnionitis, intra-uterine growth restriction, neonatal sepsis, gestational age at birth, birthweight, neonatal morbidity and pre-eclampsia...
October 23, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990569/-history-of-the-thymus-from-an-accident-of-evolution-to-the-programming-of-immunological-self-tolerance
#6
Vincent Geenen
This synthesis presents the most important disruptions of conceptions about the thymus since its discovery in Antique Greece. For centuries, the thymus was considered as a vestigial organ, and its role in T-lymphocyte differentiation has been proposed only in the 1960's. Most recent studies attribute to the thymus an essential and unique role in the programming of central immunological self-tolerance. The basal mechanism implicated in this function is the transcription in thymic epithelium of genes encoding precursors of self-antigens...
June 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886425/enhanced-thymocyte-apoptosis-induced-by-maternal-undernutrition-in-late-gestation-results-in-declined-mature-t-cells-in-rat-fetal-thymus
#7
Wen Qu, Liang-Peng Ma, Hui-Yi Yan, Sha Liu, Han-Xiao Liu, Ting Chen, Li-Fang Hou, Jie Ping
This study was designed to observe the effects of maternal food restriction (MFR) on the development of fetal thymus in different gestation periods. Timed pregnant rats were randomized into 3 groups: CN (free access to standard chow throughout gestation), MFR0-21 (50% MFR throughout gestation), MFR0-14 (50% MFR from gestational day (GD) 0 to GD14, early-mid gestation). Results showed that MFR during early-mid period had few impact on the fetal thymus and T cell subpopulations. However, MFR throughout gestation resulted in thymic atrophy, deceased frequency of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) single positive (SP) T cells and enhanced thymocyte apoptosis in fetus...
August 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874533/type-1-diabetes-induction-in-humanized-mice
#8
Shulian Tan, Yang Li, Jinxing Xia, Chun-Hui Jin, Zheng Hu, Gaby Duinkerken, Yuying Li, Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei, Estefania Chavez, Grace Nauman, Nichole Danzl, Maki Nakayama, Bart O Roep, Megan Sykes, Yong-Guang Yang
There is an urgent and unmet need for humanized in vivo models of type 1 diabetes to study immunopathogenesis and immunotherapy, and in particular antigen-specific therapy. Transfer of patient blood lymphocytes to immunodeficient mice is associated with xenogeneic graft-versus-host reactivity that complicates assessment of autoimmunity. Improved models could identify which human T cells initiate and participate in beta-cell destruction and help define critical target islet autoantigens. We used humanized mice (hu-mice) containing robust human immune repertoires lacking xenogeneic graft-versus-host reactivity to address this question...
October 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855306/il-23-drives-differentiation-of-peripheral-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-17-t-cells-from-adult-bone-marrow-derived-precursors
#9
Pedro H Papotto, Natacha Gonçalves-Sousa, Nina Schmolka, Andrea Iseppon, Sofia Mensurado, Brigitta Stockinger, Julie C Ribot, Bruno Silva-Santos
Pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-17-producing γδ (γδ17) T cells are thought to develop exclusively in the thymus during fetal/perinatal life, as adult bone marrow precursors fail to generate γδ17 T cells under homeostatic conditions. Here, we employ a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in which hematopoiesis is reset by bone marrow transplantation and demonstrate unequivocally that Vγ4(+) γδ17 T cells can develop de novo in draining lymph nodes in response to innate stimuli...
November 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803536/bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-1b-fetal-infection-with-extensive-hemorrhage
#10
Robert W Fulton, Anthony W Confer, Nicholas J Sorensen, Julia F Ridpath, Lurinda J Burge
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1b was isolated from tissues of a term bovine fetus with petechial hemorrhages noted throughout the body and placenta at autopsy. Fresh lung, kidney, thymus, and liver tissues were examined by direct fluorescent antibody testing and were positive for BVDV antigen and negative for bovine herpesvirus 1 antigen. An organ pool of fresh tissues was positive for noncytopathic (NCP) BVDV-1 by virus isolation. BVDV-1b was identified by sequencing of the 5'-UTR region of the genome...
November 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802114/embryonic-and-fetal-morphology-in-the-lowland-paca-cuniculus-paca-a-precocial-hystricomorph-rodent
#11
Hani Rocha El Bizri, Frederico Ozanan Barros Monteiro, Rafael Dos Santos de Andrade, João Valsecchi, Diva Anelie de Araújo Guimarães, Pedro Mayor
In mammals, the embryonic and fetal development of a species has evolved to maximize neonatal survival. In this study, we use a sample of 132 embryos/fetuses of wild lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), obtained over a period of 15 years through collaborative methods with local hunters in the Amazon to describe the intrauterine development of external and internal morphology of this Neotropical rodent. We also compare the newborn survival strategy in this species with other rodents. The crown-rump length (CRL) ranged between 0...
August 3, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760578/pre-birth-origins-of-allergy-and-asthma
#12
REVIEW
K L Gatford, A L Wooldridge, K L Kind, R Bischof, V L Clifton
Allergy is a chronic disease that can develop as early as infancy, suggesting that early life factors are important in its aetiology. Variable associations between size at birth, a crude marker of the fetal environment, and allergy have been reported in humans and require comprehensive review. Associations between birth weight and allergy are however confounded in humans, and we and others have therefore begun exploring the effects of early life events on allergy in experimental models. In particular, we are using ovine models to investigate whether and how a restricted environment before birth protects against allergy, whether methyl donor availability contributes to allergic protection in IUGR, and why maternal asthma during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of allergic disease in children...
September 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579898/effect-of-motherwort-total-alkaloids-on-the-prostate-hyperplasia-mice-model-of-pathological-changes-of-related-tissue-morphology-induced-by-the-fetal-urogenital-sinus-implants
#13
Mingsan Miao, Shuo Tian, Ming Bai, Liling Xiang, Jianlian Gao
AIM: The research was to study the effect of Motherwort total alkaloids on the prostate hyperplasia mice model of pathological changes of related tissue morphology. RESULTS: Compared with the model group(MG), Motherwort total alkaloid high, medium dose group(HD, MD) could significantly reduced the pathological changes of the prostate (P < 0.01); Finasteride(FG) and Motherwort total alkaloid low dose group(LD) could significantly reduce the pathological changes of the prostate (P < 0...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569558/persistent-left-superior-vena-cava-in-fetuses-an-autopsy-series
#14
Deepa Ramakrishnan, Shanthi Chidambarathanu, Lata Murli, John Micheal, Sujatha Jagadeesh, Indrani Suresh, Suresh Seshadri
OBJECTIVE: To review fetal autopsy reports with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) and identify its associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Autopsy reports of all fetuses diagnosed with PLSVC in our center from January 2011 to December 2015 were reviewed. Fetuses less than 15 weeks gestational age along with autolyzed and damaged hearts were excluded from the study. The study group was compared with controls during this period. RESULTS: Prenatal ultrasound detection rate of PLSVC was 13...
August 2017: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551327/t-cell-transcription-factor-gata-3-is-an-immunophenotypic-marker-of-acute-leukemias-with-t-cell-differentiation
#15
David M Dorfman, Elizabeth A Morgan, Ashley Pelton, Christine Unitt
T-cell transcription factor GATA-3, known to play a role in early T-cell development and in the development of T-cell neoplasms, is expressed at high levels in fetal and adult thymus, as well as in acute leukemias with T-cell differentiation, including T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (22/22 cases), early T-cell precursor lymphoblastic leukemia (11/11 cases), and mixed-phenotype acute leukemia, T/myeloid (4/5 cases), but only rarely in acute myeloid leukemia/myeloid sarcoma (1/36 cases), and not in B-lymphoblastic leukemia (0/16 cases)...
July 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456493/-simulated-gastric-hydrolysis-and-developmental-toxicity-of-dioctyltin-bis-2-ethylhexylthioglycolate-dote-in-rabbits-and-mice
#16
Richard D Costlow, Hans Nasshan, Peter Frenkel
Based on previous studies, dioctyltin dichloride [DOTC] was a putative toxophore for dioctyltin thioesters. Our results, generated with the use of (119)Sn-NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that dioctyltin bis(2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) [DOTE] hydrolyzed to form dioctyltin chloro-(2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) [DOTCE] under simulated gastric conditions, but no DOTC was formed. DOTE was administered orally at 4, 20, and 80 mg/kg/day [GD6-GD28; rabbits] or at 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day [GD5-GD17; mice]. There were no maternal deaths, treatment-related statistically significant reductions in maternal body weight or weight gain, or adverse gestational outcomes in either species...
April 26, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336912/fgf21-regulates-t-cell-development-in-the-neonatal-and-juvenile-thymus
#17
Yoshiaki Nakayama, Yuki Masuda, Hiroya Ohta, Tomohiro Tanaka, Miwa Washida, Yo-Ichi Nabeshima, Ayumi Miyake, Nobuyuki Itoh, Morichika Konishi
We have previously shown that Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is expressed in the thymus as well as in the liver. In line with this expression profile, Fgf21 was recently reported to protect against ageing-related thymic senescence by improving the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However, the function of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus remained to be elucidated. We investigated the physiological roles of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus and found that young Fgf21 knockout mice, but not β-Klotho knockout mice nor adult Fgf21 knockout mice, showed a significant reduction in the percentage of single-positive CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes without obvious alteration in TECs...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292546/novel-insights-into-host-responses-and-reproductive-pathophysiology-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-caused-by-prrsv-2
#18
REVIEW
John C S Harding, Andrea Ladinig, Predrag Novakovic, Susan E Detmer, Jamie M Wilkinson, Tianfu Yang, Joan K Lunney, Graham S Plastow
A large challenge experiment using North American porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV-2) provided new insights into the pathophysiology of reproductive PRRS. Deep phenotyping of dams and fetuses identified maternal and fetal predictors of PRRS severity and resilience. PRRSV infection resulted in dramatic decreases in all leukocyte subsets by 2days post inoculation. Apoptosis in the interface region was positively related to endometrial vasculitis, viral load in endometrium and fetal thymus, and odds of meconium staining...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271526/sonographic-measurement-of-the-fetal-thymus-relationship-with-maternal-obesity
#19
Melahat Yildirim, Ali Ipek, Gulcan Dauletkazin, Busra Demir Cendek, Saniye Gezegen, Raziye Desdicioglu, Ayse Filiz Avsar Yavuz
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of maternal obesity on the size of the fetal thymus. METHODS: The study population consisted of 138 pregnant women who were divided into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): Normal-weight group (n = 97; BMI: 18-25 kg/m(2) ) and obese group (n = 41; BMI: ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ). All participants underwent routine second-trimester prenatal ultrasound (US) screening at 20-25 weeks of gestation...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253336/type-2-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-increases-apoptosis-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface-in-late-gestation-pregnant-gilts
#20
Predrag Novakovic, John C S Harding, Ahmad N Al-Dissi, Susan E Detmer
The pathogenesis of fetal death associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is hypothesized to be a consequence of PRRS virus-induced apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI). The objectives of this study were to evaluate distribution and degree of apoptosis in the uterine and fetal placental tissues during the experimental type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection and determine associations between apoptosis at the MFI, PRRSV RNA concentration and antigen staining intensity, PRRSV-induced microscopic lesions, and fetal preservation status...
2017: PloS One
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