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Retrieval-based learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920965/an-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-supervision-intensity-supervisor-qualifications-and-caseload-on-outcomes-in-the-treatment-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Dennis R Dixon, Erik Linstead, Doreen Granpeesheh, Marlena N Novack, Ryan French, Elizabeth Stevens, Laura Stevens, Alva Powell
Ample research has shown the benefits of intensive applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); research that investigates the role of treatment supervision, however, is limited. The present study examined the relationship between mastery of learning objectives and supervision hours, supervisor credentials, years of experience, and caseload in a large sample of children with ASD (N = 638). These data were retrieved from a large archival database of children with ASD receiving community-based ABA services...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919371/a-machine-learning-based-framework-to-identify-type-2-diabetes-through-electronic-health-records
#2
Tao Zheng, Wei Xie, Liling Xu, Xiaoying He, Ya Zhang, Mingrong You, Gong Yang, You Chen
OBJECTIVE: To discover diverse genotype-phenotype associations affiliated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) via genome-wide association study (GWAS) and phenome-wide association study (PheWAS), more cases (T2DM subjects) and controls (subjects without T2DM) are required to be identified (e.g., via Electronic Health Records (EHR)). However, existing expert based identification algorithms often suffer in a low recall rate and could miss a large number of valuable samples under conservative filtering standards...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916028/-structured-training-strategy-for-robot-surgery
#3
H Q Xi, K C Zhang, B Wei, L Chen
With surgical strategy progresses towarding to precision and minimally invasive surgery, the Da Vinci robotic surgical system comes into being. Compared with conventional surgery, the Da Vinci robotic surgical system enjoys several advantages including clear operation field, flexibility and tremor filtration.Normative operation plays an important role in translating such advantages into clinical benefits.Training physicians systematically and comprehensively is very important. Compared with conventional training strategy, multi-modal simulation training is more preferred for the Da Vinci robotic surgical system training...
December 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908158/similarity-measurement-of-lung-masses-for-medical-image-retrieval-using-kernel-based-semisupervised-distance-metric
#4
Guohui Wei, He Ma, Wei Qian, Min Qiu
PURPOSE: To develop a new algorithm to measure the similarity between the query lung mass and reference lung mass data set for content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR). METHODS: A lung mass data set including 746 mass regions of interest (ROIs) was assembled. Among them, 375 ROIs depicted malignant lesions and 371 depicted benign lesions. Each mass ROI is represented by a vector of 26 texture features. A kernel function was employed to map the original data in input space to a feature space...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903705/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#5
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. While studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically-arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890324/motor-skill-learning-and-offline-changes-in-tga-patients-with-acute-hippocampal-ca1-lesions
#6
Juliane Döhring, Anne Stoldt, Karsten Witt, Robby Schönfeld, Günther Deuschl, Jan Born, Thorsten Bartsch
Learning and the formation of memory are reflected in various memory systems in the human brain such as the hippocampus based declarative memory system and the striatum-cortex based system involved in motor sequence learning. It is a matter of debate how both memory systems interact in humans during learning and consolidation and how this interaction is influenced by sleep. We studied the effect of an acute dysfunction of hippocampal CA1 neurons on the acquisition (on-line condition) and off-line changes of a motor skill in patients with a transient global amnesia (TGA)...
October 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860396/distributed-retrieval-practice-promotes-superior-recall-of-anatomy-information
#7
John L Dobson, Jose Perez, Tracy Linderholm
Effortful retrieval produces greater long-term recall of information when compared to studying (i.e., reading), as do learning sessions that are distributed (i.e., spaced apart) when compared to those that are massed together. Although the retrieval and distributed practice effects are well-established in the cognitive science literature, no studies have examined their additive effect with regard to learning anatomy information. The aim of this study was to determine how the benefits of retrieval practice vary with massed versus distributed learning...
November 16, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849551/information-clustering-using-manifold-based-optimization-of-the-bag-of-features-representation
#8
Nikolaos Passalis, Anastasios Tefas
In this paper, a manifold-based dictionary learning method for the bag-of-features (BoF) representation optimized toward information clustering is proposed. First, the spectral representation, which unwraps the manifolds of the data and provides better clustering solutions, is formed. Then, a new dictionary is learned in order to make the histogram space, i.e., the space where the BoF historgrams exist, as similar as possible to the spectral space. The ability of the proposed method to improve the clustering solutions is demonstrated using a wide range of datasets: two image datasets, the 15-scene dataset and the Corel image dataset, one video dataset, the KTH dataset, and one text dataset, the RT-2k dataset...
November 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849528/latent-semantic-minimal-hashing-for-image-retrieval
#9
Xiaoqiang Lu, Xiangtao Zheng, Xuelong Li
Hashing-based similarity search is an important technique for large-scale query-by-example image retrieval system, since it provides fast search with computation and memory efficiency. However it's a challenge work to design compact codes to represent original features with good performance. Recently, a lot of unsupervised hashing methods have been proposed to focus on preserving geometric structure similarity of the data in the original feature space, but they have not yet fully refined image features and explored the latent semantic feature embedding in the data simultaneously...
November 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831716/transfer-after-process-based-object-location-memory-training-in-healthy-older-adults
#10
Kathrin Zimmermann, Claudia C von Bastian, Christina Röcke, Mike Martin, Anne Eschen
A substantial part of age-related episodic memory decline has been attributed to the decreasing ability of older adults to encode and retrieve associations among simultaneously processed information units from long-term memory. In addition, this ability seems to share unique variance with reasoning. In this study, we therefore examined whether process-based training of the ability to learn and remember associations has the potential to induce transfer effects to untrained episodic memory and reasoning tasks in healthy older adults (60-75 years)...
November 2016: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821577/hippocampal-mismatch-signals-are-modulated-by-the-strength-of-neural-predictions-and-their-simi-larity-to-outcomes
#11
Nicole M Long, Hongmi Lee, Brice A Kuhl
: The hippocampus is thought to compare predicted events with current perceptual input, generating a mismatch signal when predictions are violated. However, most prior studies have only inferred when predictions occur without directly measuring them. Moreover, an important but unresolved question is whether hippocampal mismatch signals are modulated by the degree to which predictions differ from outcomes. Here we conducted a human fMRI study in which subjects repeatedly studied various word-picture pairs, learning to predict particular pictures (outcomes) from the words (cues)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821256/the-parallel-episodic-processing-pep-model-2-0-a-single-computational-model-of-stimulus-response-binding-contingency-learning-power-curves-and-mixing-costs
#12
James R Schmidt, Jan De Houwer, Klaus Rothermund
The current paper presents an extension of the Parallel Episodic Processing model. The model is developed for simulating behaviour in performance (i.e., speeded response time) tasks and learns to anticipate both how and when to respond based on retrieval of memories of previous trials. With one fixed parameter set, the model is shown to successfully simulate a wide range of different findings. These include: practice curves in the Stroop paradigm, contingency learning effects, learning acquisition curves, stimulus-response binding effects, mixing costs, and various findings from the attentional control domain...
November 4, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800568/flexible-goal-imitation-vicarious-feedback-influences-stimulus-response-binding-by-observation
#13
Carina Giesen, Kerstin Scherdin, Klaus Rothermund
This study investigated whether vicarious feedback influences binding processes between stimuli and observed responses. Two participants worked together in a shared color categorization task, taking the roles of actor and observer in turns. During a prime trial, participants saw a word while observing the other person executing a specific response. Automatic binding of words and observed responses into stimulus-response (S-R) episodes was assessed via word repetition effects in a subsequent probe trial in which either the same (compatible) or a different (incompatible) response had to be executed by the participants in response to the same or a different word...
October 31, 2016: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797556/memory-states-influence-value-based-decisions
#14
Katherine D Duncan, Daphna Shohamy
Using memory to guide decisions allows past experience to improve future outcomes. However, the circumstances that modulate how and when memory influences decisions are not well understood. Here, we report that the use of memories to guide decisions depends on the context in which these decisions are made. We show that decisions made in the context of familiar images are more likely to be influenced by past events than are decisions made in the context of novel images (Experiment 1), that this bias persists even when a temporal gap is introduced between the image presentation and the decision (Experiment 2), and that contextual novelty facilitates value learning whereas familiarity facilitates the retrieval and use of previously learned values (Experiment 3)...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776568/relationship-of-lutein-and-zeaxanthin-levels-to-neurocognitive-functioning-an-fmri-study-of-older-adults
#15
Cutter A Lindbergh, Catherine M Mewborn, Billy R Hammond, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Joanne M Curran-Celentano, L Stephen Miller
OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) improve eye health and an accumulating evidence base suggests cognitive benefits as well. The present study investigated underlying neural mechanisms using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). It was hypothesized that lower L and Z concentrations would be associated with neurobiological inefficiency (i.e., increased activation) during cognitive performance. METHODS: Forty-three community-dwelling older adults (mean age=72 years; 58% female; 100% Caucasian) were asked to learn and recall pairs of unrelated words in an fMRI-adapted paradigm...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775517/sequential-discrete-hashing-for-scalable-cross-modality-similarity-retrieval
#16
Li Liu, Zijia Lin, Ling Shao, Fumin Shen, Guiguang Ding, Jungong Han
With the dramatic development of the Internet, how to exploit large-scale retrieval techniques for multimodal web data has become one of the most popular but challenging problems in computer vision and multimedia. Recently, hashing methods are used for fast nearest neighbor search in large-scale data spaces, by embedding high-dimensional feature descriptors into a similarity-preserving Hamming space with a low dimension. Inspired by this, in this paper, we introduce a novel supervised cross-modality hashing framework which can generate unified binary codes for instances represented in different modalities...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750189/assisting-the-examination-of-large-histopathological-slides-with-adaptive-forests
#17
Loïc Peter, Diana Mateus, Pierre Chatelain, Denis Declara, Noemi Schworm, Stefan Stangl, Gabriele Multhoff, Nassir Navab
The examination of biopsy samples plays a central role in the diagnosis and staging of numerous diseases, including most cancer types. However, because of the large size of the acquired images, the localization and quantification of diseased portions of a tissue is usually time-consuming, as pathologists must scroll through the whole slide to look for objects of interest which are often only scarcely distributed. In this work, we introduce an approach to facilitate the visual inspection of large digital histopathological slides...
October 5, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746703/extracting-pico-sentences-from-clinical-trial-reports-using-supervised-distant-supervision
#18
Byron C Wallace, Joël Kuiper, Aakash Sharma, Mingxi Brian Zhu, Iain J Marshall
Systematic reviews underpin Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) by addressing precise clinical questions via comprehensive synthesis of all relevant published evidence. Authors of systematic reviews typically define a Population/Problem, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome (a PICO criteria) of interest, and then retrieve, appraise and synthesize results from all reports of clinical trials that meet these criteria. Identifying PICO elements in the full-texts of trial reports is thus a critical yet time-consuming step in the systematic review process...
2016: Journal of Machine Learning Research: JMLR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740484/spatial-pyramid-covariance-based-compact-video-code-for-robust-face-retrieval-in-tv-series
#19
Yan Li, Ruiping Wang, Zhen Cui, Shiguang Shan, Xilin Chen
We address the problem of face video retrieval in TV-series which searches video clips based on the presence of specific character, given one face track of his/her. This is tremendously challenging because on one hand, faces in TV-series are captured in largely uncontrolled conditions with complex appearance variations, and on the other hand retrieval task typically needs efficient representation with low time and space complexity. To handle this problem, we propose a compact and discriminative representation for the huge body of video data, named Compact Video Code (CVC)...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733609/choice-behavior-guided-by-learned-but-not-innate-taste-aversion-recruits-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#20
Leticia Ramírez-Lugo, Ana Peñas-Rincón, Sandybel Ángeles-Durán, Francisco Sotres-Bayon
: The ability to select an appropriate behavioral response guided by previous emotional experiences is critical for survival. Although much is known about brain mechanisms underlying emotional associations, little is known about how these associations guide behavior when several choices are available. To address this, we performed local pharmacological inactivations of several cortical regions before retrieval of an aversive memory in choice-based versus no-choice-based conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tasks in rats...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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