keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Retrieval-based learning

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327985/the-need-to-approximate-the-use-case-in-clinical-machine-learning
#1
Sohrab Saeb, Luca Lonini, Arun Jayaraman, David C Mohr, Konrad P Kording
Background: The availability of smartphone and wearable sensor technology is leading to a rapid accumulation of human subject data, and machine learning is emerging as a technique to map that data into clinical predictions. As machine learning algorithms are increasingly used to support clinical decision making, it is vital to reliably quantify their prediction accuracy. Cross-validation is the standard approach where the accuracy of such algorithms is evaluated on data the algorithm has not seen during training...
March 15, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304000/outcome-based-approach-to-medical-education-towards-academic-programmes-accreditation-a-review-article
#2
Abdelmarouf H Mohieldein
The rapid change worldwide, as a consequence of advances in science and technology, necessitates the graduation of well-qualified graduates who have the appropriate knowledge and skills to fulfill specific work requirements. Hence, redesigning academic models by focusing on educational outcomes became the target and priority for universities around the world. In this systematic review we collected and retrieved literature using a selection of electronic databases. The objectives of this report is to: 1) provide an overview of the evolution of outcome-based education (OBE), (2) illustrate the philosophy and principle of OBE, (3) list the OBE advantages and benefits, (4) describe the assessment strategies used in OBE, and (5) discuss the role of teachers and students as key elements...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295877/neuroscientific-insights-into-the-development-of-analogical-reasoning
#3
Kirstie J Whitaker, Michael S Vendetti, Carter Wendelken, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning, or the ability to find correspondences between entities based on shared relationships, supports knowledge acquisition. As such, the development of this ability during childhood is thought to promote learning. Here, we sought to better understand the mechanisms by which analogical reasoning about semantic relations improves over childhood and adolescence (e.g. chalk is to chalkboard as pen is to…?). We hypothesized that age-related differences would manifest as differences in the brain regions associated with one or more of the following cognitive functions: (1) controlled semantic retrieval, or the ability to retrieve task-relevant semantic associations; (2) response control, or the ability to override the tendency to respond to a salient distractor; and/or (3) relational integration, or the ability to consider jointly two mental relations...
March 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293674/monitoring-and-analysis-of-the-change-process-in-curriculum-mapping-compared-to-the-national-competency-based-learning-objective-catalogue-for-undergraduate-medical-education-nklm-at-four-medical-faculties-part-i-conducive-resources-and-structures
#4
Maria Lammerding-Koeppel, Marianne Giesler, Maryna Gornostayeva, Elisabeth Narciss, Annette Wosnik, Stephan Zipfel, Jan Griewatz, Olaf Fritze
Objective: After passing of the National Competency-based Learning Objectives Catalogue in Medicine (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin, [NKLM, retrieved on 22.03.2016]), the German medical faculties must take inventory and develop their curricula. NKLM contents are expected to be present, but not linked well or sensibly enough in locally grown curricula. Learning and examination formats must be reviewed for appropriateness and coverage of the competences. The necessary curricular transparency is best achieved by systematic curriculum mapping, combined with effective change management...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293256/ranking-support-vector-machine-with-kernel-approximation
#5
Kai Chen, Rongchun Li, Yong Dou, Zhengfa Liang, Qi Lv
Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293255/sparse-codebook-model-of-local-structures-for-retrieval-of-focal-liver-lesions-using-multiphase-medical-images
#6
Jian Wang, Xian-Hua Han, Yingying Xu, Lanfen Lin, Hongjie Hu, Chongwu Jin, Yen-Wei Chen
Characterization and individual trait analysis of the focal liver lesions (FLL) is a challenging task in medical image processing and clinical site. The character analysis of a unconfirmed FLL case would be expected to benefit greatly from the accumulated FLL cases with experts' analysis, which can be achieved by content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR). CBMIR mainly includes discriminated feature extraction and similarity calculation procedures. Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) (codebook-based model) has been proven to be effective for different classification and retrieval tasks...
2017: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284761/embedding-of-semantic-predications
#7
Trevor Cohen, Dominic Widdows
This paper concerns the generation of distributed vector representations of biomedical concepts from structured knowledge, in the form of subject-relation-object triplets known as semantic predications. Specifically, we evaluate the extent to which a representational approach we have developed for this purpose previously, known as Predication-based Semantic Indexing (PSI), might benefit from insights gleaned from neural-probabilistic language models, which have enjoyed a surge in popularity in recent years as a means to generate distributed vector representations of terms from free text...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282439/iterative-free-energy-optimization-for-recurrent-neural-networks-inferno
#8
Alexandre Pitti, Philippe Gaussier, Mathias Quoy
The intra-parietal lobe coupled with the Basal Ganglia forms a working memory that demonstrates strong planning capabilities for generating robust yet flexible neuronal sequences. Neurocomputational models however, often fails to control long range neural synchrony in recurrent spiking networks due to spontaneous activity. As a novel framework based on the free-energy principle, we propose to see the problem of spikes' synchrony as an optimization problem of the neurons sub-threshold activity for the generation of long neuronal chains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278464/learning-discriminative-binary-codes-for-large-scale-cross-modal-retrieval
#9
Xing Xu, Fumin Shen, Yang Yang, Heng Tao Shen, Xuelong Li
Hashing based methods have attracted considerable attention for efficient cross-modal retrieval on large-scale multimedia data. The core problem of cross-modal hashing is how to learn compact binary codes that construct the underlying correlations between heterogeneous features from different modalities. A majority of recent approaches aim at learning hash functions to preserve the pairwise similarities defined by given class labels. However, these methods fail to explicitly explore the discriminative property of class labels during hash function learning...
March 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263937/identifying-drug-drug-interactions-by-data-mining-a-pilot-study-of-warfarin-associated-drug-interactions
#10
Peter Wæde Hansen, Line Clemmensen, Thomas S G Sehested, Emil Loldrup Fosbøl, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Lars Køber, Gunnar H Gislason, Charlotte Andersson
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about drug-drug interactions commonly arises from preclinical trials, from adverse drug reports, or based on knowledge of mechanisms of action. Our aim was to investigate whether drug-drug interactions were discoverable without prior hypotheses using data mining. We focused on warfarin-drug interactions as the prototype. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed altered prothrombin time (measured as international normalized ratio [INR]) after initiation of a novel prescription in previously INR-stable warfarin-treated patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation...
November 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259430/nilu-uv-multi-filter-radiometer-total-ozone-columns-comparison-with-satellite-observations-over-thessaloniki-greece
#11
Melina Maria Zempila, Michael Taylor, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Christophe Lerot, Konstantinos Fragkos, Ilias Fountoulakis, Alkiviadis Bais, Dimitrios Balis, Michel van Roozendael
This study aims to construct and validate a neural network (NN) model for the production of high frequency (~1min) ground-based estimates of total ozone column (TOC) at a mid-latitude UV and ozone monitoring station in the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LAP/AUTh) for the years 2005-2014. In the first stage of model development, ~30,000 records of coincident solar UV spectral irradiance measurements from a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU)-UV multi-filter radiometer and TOC measurements from a co-located Brewer spectroradiometer are used to train a NN to learn the nonlinear functional relation between the irradiances and TOC...
March 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257498/text-mining-for-improved-exposure-assessment
#12
Kristin Larsson, Simon Baker, Ilona Silins, Yufan Guo, Ulla Stenius, Anna Korhonen, Marika Berglund
Chemical exposure assessments are based on information collected via different methods, such as biomonitoring, personal monitoring, environmental monitoring and questionnaires. The vast amount of chemical-specific exposure information available from web-based databases, such as PubMed, is undoubtedly a great asset to the scientific community. However, manual retrieval of relevant published information is an extremely time consuming task and overviewing the data is nearly impossible. Here, we present the development of an automatic classifier for chemical exposure information...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257420/effectiveness-of-a-neuropsychological-treatment-for-confabulations-after-brain-injury-a-clinical-trial-with-theoretical-implications
#13
Mónica Triviño, Estrella Ródenas, Juan Lupiáñez, Marisa Arnedo
Confabulators consistently generate false memories without intention to deceive and with great feelings of rightness. However, to our knowledge, there is currently no known effective treatment for them. In order to fill this gap, our aim was to design a neuropsychological treatment based on current theoretical models and test it experimentally in 20 confabulators sequentially allocated to two groups: an experimental and a control group. The experimental group received nine sessions of treatment for three weeks (three sessions per week)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241404/hippocampal-neural-activity-reflects-the-economy-of-choices-during-goal-directed-navigation
#14
Valerie L Tryon, Marsha R Penner, Shawn W Heide, Hunter O King, Joshua Larkin, Sheri J Y Mizumori
Distinguishing spatial contexts is likely essential for the well-known role of the hippocampus in episodic memory. We studied whether types of hippocampal neural organization thought to underlie context discrimination is impacted by learned economic considerations of choice behavior. Hippocampal place cells and theta activity were recorded as rats performed a maze-based probability discounting task that involved choosing between a small certain reward or a large probabilistic reward. Different spatial distributions of place fields were observed in response to changes in probability, the outcome of the rats' choice, and whether or not rats were free to make that choice...
February 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225448/predicting-hcahps-scores-from-hospitals-social-media-pages-a-sentiment-analysis
#15
John W Huppertz, Peter Otto
BACKGROUND: Social media is an important communication channel that can help hospitals and consumers obtain feedback about quality of care. However, despite the potential value of insight from consumers who post comments about hospital care on social media, there has been little empirical research on the relationship between patients' anecdotal feedback and formal measures of patient experience. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to test the association between informal feedback posted in the Reviews section of hospitals' Facebook pages and scores on two global items from the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey, Overall Hospital Rating and Willingness to Recommend the Hospital...
February 22, 2017: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209159/do-coursework-summative-assessments-predict-clinical-performance-a-systematic-review
#16
Rebecca Terry, Wayne Hing, Robin Orr, Nikki Milne
BACKGROUND: Two goals of summative assessment in health profession education programs are to ensure the robustness of high stakes decisions such as progression and licensing, and predict future performance. This systematic and critical review aims to investigate the ability of specific modes of summative assessment to predict the clinical performance of health profession education students. METHODS: PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and EMBASE databases were searched using key terms with articles collected subjected to dedicated inclusion criteria...
February 16, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207384/supervised-learning-of-semantics-preserving-hash-via-deep-convolutional-neural-networks
#17
Huei-Fang Yang, Kevin Lin, Chu-Song Chen
This paper presents a simple yet effective supervised deep hash approach that constructs binary hash codes from labeled data for large-scale image search. We assume that the semantic labels are governed by several latent attributes with each attribute on or off, and classification relies on these attributes. Based on this assumption, our approach, dubbed supervised semantics-preserving deep hashing (SSDH), constructs hash functions as a latent layer in a deep network and the binary codes are learned by minimizing an objective function defined over classification error and other desirable hash codes properties...
February 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134859/an-information-retrieval-approach-for-robust-prediction-of-road-surface-states
#18
Jae-Hyung Park, Kwanho Kim
Recently, due to the increasing importance of reducing severe vehicle accidents on roads (especially on highways), the automatic identification of road surface conditions, and the provisioning of such information to drivers in advance, have recently been gaining significant momentum as a proactive solution to decrease the number of vehicle accidents. In this paper, we firstly propose an information retrieval approach that aims to identify road surface states by combining conventional machine-learning techniques and moving average methods...
January 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123033/the-caudate-nucleus-mediates-learning-of-stimulus-control-state-associations
#19
Yu-Chin Chiu, Jiefeng Jiang, Tobias Egner
A longstanding dichotomy in cognitive psychology and neuroscience pits controlled, top-down driven behavior against associative, bottom-up driven behavior, where cognitive control processes allow us to override well-learned stimulus-response (S-R) associations. By contrast, some previous studies have raised the intriguing possibility of an integration between associative and controlled processing in the form of stimulus-control state (S-C) associations, the learned linkage of specific stimuli to particular control states, such as high attentional selectivity...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122063/flow-cytometric-single-cell-identification-of-populations-in-synthetic-bacterial-communities
#20
Peter Rubbens, Ruben Props, Nico Boon, Willem Waegeman
Bacterial cells can be characterized in terms of their cell properties using flow cytometry. Flow cytometry is able to deliver multiparametric measurements of up to 50,000 cells per second. However, there has not yet been a thorough survey concerning the identification of the population to which bacterial single cells belong based on flow cytometry data. This paper not only aims to assess the quality of flow cytometry data when measuring bacterial populations, but also suggests an alternative approach for analyzing synthetic microbial communities...
2017: PloS One
keyword
keyword
57206
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"