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Retrieval-based learning

Loïc Peter, Diana Mateus, Pierre Chatelain, Denis Declara, Noemi Schworm, Stefan Stangl, Gabriele Multhoff, Nassir Navab
The examination of biopsy samples plays a central role in the diagnosis and staging of numerous diseases, including most cancer types. However, because of the large size of the acquired images, the localization and quantification of diseased portions of a tissue is usually time-consuming, as pathologists must scroll through the whole slide to look for objects of interest which are often only scarcely distributed. In this work, we introduce an approach to facilitate the visual inspection of large digital histopathological slides...
October 5, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Byron C Wallace, Joël Kuiper, Aakash Sharma, Mingxi Brian Zhu, Iain J Marshall
Systematic reviews underpin Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) by addressing precise clinical questions via comprehensive synthesis of all relevant published evidence. Authors of systematic reviews typically define a Population/Problem, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome (a PICO criteria) of interest, and then retrieve, appraise and synthesize results from all reports of clinical trials that meet these criteria. Identifying PICO elements in the full-texts of trial reports is thus a critical yet time-consuming step in the systematic review process...
2016: Journal of Machine Learning Research: JMLR
Yan Li, Ruiping Wang, Zhen Cui, Shiguang Shan, Xilin Chen
We address the problem of face video retrieval in TV-series which searches video clips based on the presence of specific character, given one face track of his/her. This is tremendously challenging because on one hand, faces in TV-series are captured in largely uncontrolled conditions with complex appearance variations, and on the other hand retrieval task typically needs efficient representation with low time and space complexity. To handle this problem, we propose a compact and discriminative representation for the huge body of video data, named Compact Video Code (CVC)...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Leticia Ramírez-Lugo, Ana Peñas-Rincón, Sandybel Ángeles-Durán, Francisco Sotres-Bayon
: The ability to select an appropriate behavioral response guided by previous emotional experiences is critical for survival. Although much is known about brain mechanisms underlying emotional associations, little is known about how these associations guide behavior when several choices are available. To address this, we performed local pharmacological inactivations of several cortical regions before retrieval of an aversive memory in choice-based versus no-choice-based conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tasks in rats...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Qinkun Xiao, Ren Song
A novel motion retrieval approach based on statistical learning and Bayesian fusion is presented. The approach includes two primary stages. (1) In the learning stage, fuzzy clustering is utilized firstly to get the representative frames of motions, and the gesture features of the motions are extracted to build a motion feature database. Based on the motion feature database and statistical learning, the probability distribution function of different motion classes is obtained. (2) In the motion retrieval stage, the query motion feature is extracted firstly according to stage (1)...
2016: PloS One
Nadine Tix, Paul Gießler, Ursula Ohnesorge-Radtke, Cord Spreckelsen
BACKGROUND: The Semantically Annotated Media (SAM) project aims to provide a flexible platform for searching, browsing, and indexing medical learning objects (MLOs) based on a semantic network derived from established classification systems. Primarily, SAM supports the Aachen emedia skills lab, but SAM is ready for indexing distributed content and the Simple Knowledge Organizing System standard provides a means for easily upgrading or even exchanging SAM's semantic network. There is a lack of research addressing the usability of MLO indexes or search portals like SAM and the user behavior with such platforms...
November 11, 2015: JMIR Med Educ
Alvin Rajkomar, Sneha Lingam, Andrew G Taylor, Michael Blum, John Mongan
The study aimed to determine if computer vision techniques rooted in deep learning can use a small set of radiographs to perform clinically relevant image classification with high fidelity. One thousand eight hundred eighty-five chest radiographs on 909 patients obtained between January 2013 and July 2015 at our institution were retrieved and anonymized. The source images were manually annotated as frontal or lateral and randomly divided into training, validation, and test sets. Training and validation sets were augmented to over 150,000 images using standard image manipulations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Vishal Kumar, Mehak Baweja, Puneet K Singh, Pratyoosh Shukla
Microorganisms play a crucial role in the sustainability of the various ecosystems. The characterization of various interactions between microorganisms and other biotic factors is a necessary footstep to understand the association and functions of microbial communities. Among the different microbial interactions in an ecosystem, plant-microbe interaction plays an important role to balance the ecosystem. The present review explores plant-microbe interactions using gene editing and system biology tools toward the comprehension in improvement of plant traits...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ricardo A Minervino, Valeria Olguín, Máximo Trench
Research on analogical thinking has devised several ways of promoting an abstract encoding of base analogs, thus rendering them more retrievable during later encounters with similar situations lacking surface similarities. Recent studies have begun to explore ways of facilitating transfer at retrieval time, which could facilitate the retrieval of distant analogs learned within contexts that were not specially directed to emphasize their abstract structure. Such studies demonstrate that comparing a target problem to an analogous problem helps students retrieve base analogs that lack surface similarities...
October 7, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Jason M Scimeca, Perri L Katzman, David Badre
Adaptive memory requires context-dependent control over how information is retrieved, evaluated and used to guide action, yet the signals that drive adjustments to memory decisions remain unknown. Here we show that prediction errors (PEs) coded by the striatum support control over memory decisions. Human participants completed a recognition memory test that incorporated biased feedback to influence participants' recognition criterion. Using model-based fMRI, we find that PEs-the deviation between the outcome and expected value of a memory decision-correlate with striatal activity and predict individuals' final criterion...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Leanne Anderson, Jessie Wilson, Gary Williams
BACKGROUND/AIM: Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) demonstrate limited participation in daily occupations which negatively impacts their physical and psycho-social wellbeing. The CO-OP approach is strongly supported within the literature as an effective treatment for DCD when delivered as a one-on-one therapy. Group interventions have proven to be effective in increasing self-esteem, decreasing feelings of isolation and are a cost effective way of delivering therapy...
October 5, 2016: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Ashis Kumar Dhara, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay, Anirvan Dutta, Mandeep Garg, Niranjan Khandelwal
Visual information of similar nodules could assist the budding radiologists in self-learning. This paper presents a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system for pulmonary nodules, observed in lung CT images. The reported CBIR systems of pulmonary nodules cannot be put into practice as radiologists need to draw the boundary of nodules during query formation and feature database creation. In the proposed retrieval system, the pulmonary nodules are segmented using a semi-automated technique, which requires a seed point on the nodule from the end-user...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Millie Ngaage, Mark Agius
INTRODUCTION: The UK-based AESOP study conducted over a two-year period in three UK sites simultaneously (London, Nottingham, and Bristol), is the largest study to date to conduct a first contact case-control study of psychosis. The study found that rates of schizophrenia were markedly elevated in both African-Caribbean and Black African people, in both sexes and across all age groups. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: English language literature published up to 2016 was searched...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Kai Li, Guojun Qi, Jun Ye, Kien Hua
Hashing has attracted a great deal of research in recent years due to its effectiveness for the retrieval and indexing of large-scale high-dimensional multimedia data. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking-based hashing framework that maps data from different modalities into a common Hamming space where the cross-modal similarity can be measured using Hamming distance. Unlike existing cross-modal hashing algorithms where the learned hash functions are binary space partitioning functions, such as the sign and threshold function, the proposed hashing scheme takes advantage of a new class of hash functions closely related to rank correlation measures which are known to be scale-invariant, numerically stable, and highly nonlinear...
September 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Abderrahmane Sadiq, Abdelaziz El Fazziki, Jamal Ouarzazi, Mohamed Sadgal
This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality...
2016: SpringerPlus
Konstantinos Kyriakoulis, Athina Patelarou, Aggelos Laliotis, Andrew C Wan, Michail Matalliotakis, Chrysoula Tsiou, Evridiki Patelarou
PURPOSE: The aim of this systematic review was to find best teaching strategies for teaching evidence-based practice (EBP) to undergraduate health students that have been adopted over the last years in healthcare institutions worldwide. METHODS: The authors carried out a systematic, comprehensive bibliographic search using Medline database for the years 2005 to March 2015 (updated in March 2016). Search terms used were chosen from the USNLM Institutes of Health list of MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and free text key terms were used as well...
2016: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
Ningyu Zhang, Huajun Chen, Xi Chen, Jiaoyan Chen
In recent years, the advancement of sensor technology has led to the generation of heterogeneous Internet-of-Things (IoT) data by smart cities. Thus, the development and deployment of various aspects of IoT-based applications are necessary to mine the potential value of data to the benefit of people and their lives. However, the variety, volume, heterogeneity, and real-time nature of data obtained from smart cities pose considerable challenges. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework that integrates the IoT with machine learning for smart cities...
2016: Sensors
Soma Venkatesh, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Gunasekaran Dhandapany, Soundararajan Palanisamy, Srinivasan Sadagopan
AIM: To determine the magnitude and pattern of internet usage by undergraduate medical students to retrieve medical information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pretested questionnaire-based survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students who were willing to participate. The institute ethics committee approved the study. The responses of students to the questionnaire were analysed using VassarStats online statistical programme. Categorical variables were expressed as proportions...
September 19, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Felicia W Sun, Michael R Stepanovic, Joseph Andreano, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Bradford C Dickerson
UNLABELLED: Decline in cognitive skills, especially in memory, is often viewed as part of "normal" aging. Yet some individuals "age better" than others. Building on prior research showing that cortical thickness in one brain region, the anterior midcingulate cortex, is preserved in older adults with memory performance abilities equal to or better than those of people 20-30 years younger (i.e., "superagers"), we examined the structural integrity of two large-scale intrinsic brain networks in superaging: the default mode network, typically engaged during memory encoding and retrieval tasks, and the salience network, typically engaged during attention, motivation, and executive function tasks...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ivy Shiue
Rarely do we know the perception toward neighbourhoods in people specifically with health conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to understand the perception toward neighbourhoods among adults with a series of the existing health conditions in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data were retrieved from and analysed in Scottish Household Survey, 2007-2008. Information on demographics, self-reported health conditions and perception toward neighbourhoods and the surrounding facilities was obtained by household interview...
September 14, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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