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Retrieval-based learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933906/neural-bases-of-automaticity
#1
Mathieu Servant, Peter Cassey, Geoffrey F Woodman, Gordon D Logan
Automaticity allows us to perform tasks in a fast, efficient, and effortless manner after sufficient practice. Theories of automaticity propose that across practice processing transitions from being controlled by working memory to being controlled by long-term memory retrieval. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have sought to test this prediction, however, these experiments did not use the canonical paradigms used to study automaticity. Specifically, automaticity is typically studied using practice regimes with consistent mapping between targets and distractors and spaced practice with individual targets, features that these previous studies lacked...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922600/ptml-model-for-proteome-mining-of-b-cell-epitopes-and-theoretic-experimental-study-of-bm86-protein-sequences-from-colima-mexico
#2
Saúl Gabriel Martínez, Esvieta Tenorio-Borroto, Alberto Barbabosa Pliego, Hector Diaz-Albiter, Juan C Vazquez-Chagoyan, Humbert Gonzalez-Diaz
In this work, we developed a general Perturbation Theory and Machine Learning (PTML) method for data mining of proteomes, in order to discover new B-cell epitopes useful for vaccine design. The method predicts the epitope activity εq(cqj) of one query peptide (q-peptide) in a set of experimental query conditions (cqj). The method uses as input the sequence of the q-peptide. The method also uses as input information about the sequence and epitope activity εr(crj) of a peptide of reference (r-peptide) assayed on similar experimental conditions (crj)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918435/infant-avoidance-training-alters-cellular-activation-patterns-in-prefronto-limbic-circuits-during-adult-avoidance-learning-ii-cellular-imaging-of-neurons-expressing-the-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-arg3-1
#3
Nicole Gröger, Anja Mannewitz, Jörg Bock, Susann Becker, Katja Guttmann, Gerd Poeggel, Katharina Braun
Positive and negative feedback learning is essential to optimize behavioral performance. We used the two-way active avoidance (TWA) task as an experimental paradigm for negative feedback learning with the aim to test the hypothesis that neuronal ensembles activate the activity-regulated cytoskeletal (Arc/Arg3.1) protein during different phases of avoidance learning and during retrieval. A variety of studies in humans and other animals revealed that the ability of aversive feedback learning emerges postnatally...
September 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899551/relationship-between-neuronal-network-architecture-and-naming-performance-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-connectome-based-approach-using-machine-learning
#4
REVIEW
B C Munsell, G Wu, J Fridriksson, K Thayer, N Mofrad, N Desisto, D Shen, L Bonilha
Impaired confrontation naming is a common symptom of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying this impairment are poorly understood but may indicate a structural disorganization of broadly distributed neuronal networks that support naming ability. Importantly, naming is frequently impaired in other neurological disorders and by contrasting the neuronal structures supporting naming in TLE with other diseases, it will become possible to elucidate the common systems supporting naming...
September 9, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899380/hotspots-in-research-on-the-measurement-of-medical-students-clinical-competence-from-2012-2016-based-on-co-word-analysis
#5
Xing Chang, Xin Zhou, Linzhi Luo, Chengjia Yang, Hui Pan, Shuyang Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify hotspots in research on clinical competence measurements from 2012 to 2016. METHODS: The authors retrieved literature published between 2012 and 2016 from PubMed using selected medical subject headings (MeSH) terms. They used BibExcel software to generate high-frequency MeSH terms and identified hotspots by co-word analysis and cluster analysis. RESULTS: The authors searched 588 related articles and identified 31 high-frequency MeSH terms...
September 12, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893591/neurosteroid-dehydroepiandrosterone-improves-active-avoidance-retrieval-and-induces-antidepressant-like-behavior-in-rats
#6
Janko Samardzic, Boris Hencic, Jasna Jancic, Dragana Jadzic, Milos Djuric, Dragan I Obradovic, Dubravka Svob Strac
Various studies reported beneficial effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEAS), the neurosteroids involved in various brain functions, on synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival, memory, learning and behavior. This study aimed to investigate the behavioral profile of acute DHEA treatment by using active avoidance (AA) task, primarily predictive of the effects on the retrieval-based learning, and by applying forced swim test (FST), for assessment of antidepressant-like potential. Adult male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of either DHEA (2, 10, 20mg/kg) or solvent, 30min prior to testing...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887385/prior-learning-of-relevant-non-aversive-information-is-a-boundary-condition-for-avoidance-memory-reconsolidation-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#7
Andressa Radiske, Maria Carolina Gonzalez, Sergio Conde-Ocaziones, Anatildes Feitosa, Cristiano A Köhler, Lia R Bevilaqua, Martín Cammarota
Reactivated memories can be modified during reconsolidation, making this process a potential therapeutic target for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by the recurring avoidance of situations that evoke trauma-related fears. However, avoidance memory reconsolidation depends on a set of still loosely defined boundary conditions, limiting the translational value of basic research. In particular, the involvement of the hippocampus in fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation remains controversial...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885168/generalized-multi-view-embedding-for-visual-recognition-and-cross-modal-retrieval
#8
Guanqun Cao, Alexandros Iosifidis, Ke Chen, Moncef Gabbouj
In this paper, the problem of multi-view embedding from different visual cues and modalities is considered. We propose a unified solution for subspace learning methods using the Rayleigh quotient, which is extensible for multiple views, supervised learning, and nonlinear embeddings. Numerous methods including canonical correlation analysis, partial least square regression, and linear discriminant analysis are studied using specific intrinsic and penalty graphs within the same framework. Nonlinear extensions based on kernels and (deep) neural networks are derived, achieving better performance than the linear ones...
September 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883804/the-influences-of-emotion-on-learning-and-memory
#9
REVIEW
Chai M Tyng, Hafeez U Amin, Mohamad N M Saad, Aamir S Malik
Emotion has a substantial influence on the cognitive processes in humans, including perception, attention, learning, memory, reasoning, and problem solving. Emotion has a particularly strong influence on attention, especially modulating the selectivity of attention as well as motivating action and behavior. This attentional and executive control is intimately linked to learning processes, as intrinsically limited attentional capacities are better focused on relevant information. Emotion also facilitates encoding and helps retrieval of information efficiently...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881973/biosses-a-semantic-sentence-similarity-estimation-system-for-the-biomedical-domain
#10
Gizem Sogancioglu, Hakime Öztürk, Arzucan Özgür
Motivation: The amount of information available in textual format is rapidly increasing in the biomedical domain. Therefore, natural language processing (NLP) applications are becoming increasingly important to facilitate the retrieval and analysis of these data. Computing the semantic similarity between sentences is an important component in many NLP tasks including text retrieval and summarization. A number of approaches have been proposed for semantic sentence similarity estimation for generic English...
July 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880900/phase-separation-of-the-plasma-membrane-in-human-red-blood-cells-as-a-potential-tool-for-diagnosis-and-progression-monitoring-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Giuseppe Maulucci, Ermanno Cordelli, Alessandro Rizzi, Francesca De Leva, Massimiliano Papi, Gabriele Ciasca, Daniela Samengo, Giovambattista Pani, Dario Pitocco, Paolo Soda, Giovanni Ghirlanda, Giulio Iannello, Marco De Spirito
Glycosylation, oxidation and other post-translational modifications of membrane and transmembrane proteins can alter lipid density, packing and interactions, and are considered an important factor that affects fluidity variation in membranes. Red blood cells (RBC) membrane physical state, showing pronounced alterations in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), could be the ideal candidate for monitoring the disease progression and the effects of therapies. On these grounds, the measurement of RBC membrane fluidity alterations can furnish a more sensitive index in T1DM diagnosis and disease progression than Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), which reflects only the information related to glycosylation processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880177/hashing-with-angular-reconstructive-embeddings
#12
Mengqiu Hu, Yang Yang, Fumin Shen, Ning Xie, Heng Tao Shen
Large-scale search methods are increasingly critical for many content-based visual analysis applications, among which hashing-based approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) search techniques have attracted broad interests due to their high efficiency in storage and retrieval. However, existing hashing works are commonly designed for measuring data similarity by the Euclidean distances. In this paper, we focus on the problem of learning compact binary codes using the cosine similarity. Specifically, we proposed novel Angular Reconstructive Embeddings (ARE) method, which aims at learning binary codes by minimizing the reconstruction error between the cosine similarities computed by original features and the resulting binary embeddings...
September 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880120/reward-related-limbic-memory-and-stimulation-of-the-cannabinoid-system-an-upgrade-in-value-attribution
#13
Anna Brancato, Angela Cavallaro, Gianluca Lavanco, Fulvio Plescia, Carla Cannizzaro
While a lot is known about the mechanisms promoting aversive learning, the impact of rewarding factors on memory has received comparatively less attention. This research investigates reward-related explicit memory in male rats, by taking advantage of the emotional-object recognition test. This is based on the prior association, during conditioned learning, between a rewarding experience (the encounter with a receptive female rat) and an object; afterwards rat discrimination and recognition of the 'emotional object' is recorded in the presence of a novel object, as a measure of positive limbic memory formation...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879173/integrating-public-health-and-health-promotion-practice-in-the-medical-curriculum-a-self-directed-team-based-project-approach
#14
Geraldine Kershaw, Michal Grivna, Iffat Elbarazi, Souheila AliHassan, Faisal Aziz, Aysha Ibrahim Al Dhaheri
Preparing health professionals in health promotion (HP) and disease prevention is essential for improvement of population health, community HP, and better health care for individuals. The aim of this article is to describe an HP project in the form of a major self-directed project-based learning task integrated within the curriculum in the second year of the medical degree program at United Arab Emirates University. The project introduces students to public health and HP practice and develops students' literature searching, writing, presentation skills, and team work...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875474/no-advantage-for-remembering-horizontal-over-vertical-spatial-locations-learned-from-a-single-viewpoint
#15
Thomas Hinterecker, Caroline Leroy, Mintao Zhao, Martin V Butz, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Tobias Meilinger
Previous behavioral and neurophysiological research has shown better memory for horizontal than for vertical locations. In these studies, participants navigated toward these locations. In the present study we investigated whether the orientation of the spatial plane per se was responsible for this difference. We thus had participants learn locations visually from a single perspective and retrieve them from multiple viewpoints. In three experiments, participants studied colored tags on a horizontally or vertically oriented board within a virtual room and recalled these locations with different layout orientations (Exp...
September 5, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866491/fusion-of-deep-learning-and-compressed-domain-features-for-content-based-image-retrieval
#16
Peizhong Liu, Jing-Ming Guo, Chi-Yi Wu, Danlin Cai
This paper presents an effective image retrieval method by combining high-level features from Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model and low-level features from Dot-Diffused Block Truncation Coding (DDBTC). The low-level features, e.g., texture and color, are constructed by VQ-indexed histogram from DDBTC bitmap, maximum, and minimum quantizers. Conversely, high-level features from CNN can effectively capture human perception. With the fusion of the DDBTC and CNN features, the extended deep learning two-layer codebook features (DL-TLCF) is generated using the proposed two-layer codebook, dimension reduction, and similarity reweighting to improve the overall retrieval rate...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859140/data-augmentation-assisted-deep-learning-of-hand-drawn-partially-colored-sketches-for-visual-search
#17
Jamil Ahmad, Khan Muhammad, Sung Wook Baik
In recent years, image databases are growing at exponential rates, making their management, indexing, and retrieval, very challenging. Typical image retrieval systems rely on sample images as queries. However, in the absence of sample query images, hand-drawn sketches are also used. The recent adoption of touch screen input devices makes it very convenient to quickly draw shaded sketches of objects to be used for querying image databases. This paper presents a mechanism to provide access to visual information based on users' hand-drawn partially colored sketches using touch screen devices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858796/synergistic-instance-level-subspace-alignment-for-fine-grained-sketch-based-image-retrieval
#18
Ke Li, Kaiyue Pang, Yi-Zhe Song, Timothy M Hospedales, Tao Xiang, Honggang Zhang
We study the problem of fine-grained sketch-based image retrieval. By performing instance-level (rather than category-level) retrieval, it embodies a timely and practical application, particularly with the ubiquitous availability of touchscreens. Three factors contribute to the challenging nature of the problem: (i) free-hand sketches are inherently abstract and iconic, making visual comparisons with photos difficult, (ii) sketches and photos are in two different visual domains, i.e. black and white lines vs...
August 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853966/what-we-can-learn-from-naming-errors-of-children-with-language-impairment-at-preschool-age
#19
Michal Biran, Rama Novogrodsky, Efrat Harel-Nov, Mali Gil, Aviva Mimouni-Bloch
Naming is a complex, multi-level process. It is composed of distinct semantic and phonological levels. Children with naming deficits produce different error types when failing to retrieve the target word. This study explored the error characteristics of children with language impairment compared to those with typical language development. 46 preschool children were tested on a naming test: 16 with language impairment and a naming deficit and 30 with typical language development. The analysis compared types of error in both groups...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838801/optimization-of-infobutton-design-and-implementation-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Miguel Teixeira, David A Cook, Bret S E Heale, Guilherme Del Fiol
OBJECTIVE: Infobuttons are clinical decision tools embedded in the electronic health record that attempt to link clinical data with context sensitive knowledge resources. We systematically reviewed technical approaches that contribute to improved infobutton design, implementation and functionality. METHODS: We searched databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library database from inception to March 1, 2016 for studies describing the use of infobuttons...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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