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Retrieval-based learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423792/acronym-disambiguation-in-spanish-electronic-health-narratives-using-machine-learning-techniques
#1
Ignacio Rubio-López, Roberto Costumero, Héctor Ambit, Consuelo Gonzalo-Martín, Ernestina Menasalvas, Alejandro Rodríguez González
Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are now being massively used in hospitals what has motivated current developments of new methods to process clinical narratives (unstructured data) making it possible to perform context-based searches. Current approaches to process the unstructured texts in EHRs are based in applying text mining or natural language processing (NLP) techniques over the data. In particular Named Entity Recognition (NER) is of paramount importance to retrieve specific biomedical concepts from the text providing the semantic type of the concept retrieved...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422613/the-impact-of-prospective-telemedicine-implementation-in-the-management-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-recife-brazil
#2
Francisco Pedrosa, Faisal Shaikh, Gaston Rivera, Raul Ribeiro, Ibrahim Qaddoumi
BACKGROUND: A gap in childhood cancer outcomes remains between developed and developing countries. Persistence of this gap may be caused by financial, social, or educational disparities. Twinning and distance learning initiatives may improve such disparities. Integrating telemedicine into pediatric oncology twinning programs enhances education and facilitates patient-centered capacity building. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an analysis of Web-based meetings held from August 2005 through July 2009 between the International Outreach Program at St...
April 19, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416633/intrusions-in-episodic-memory-reconsolidation-or-interference
#3
Angela Klingmüller, Jeremy B Caplan, Tobias Sommer
It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a previous study). Our goal was to replicate the central result, a high intrusion rate during recall of the target list, and evaluate the reconsolidation account relative to an alternative account, based on state-dependent learning and interference...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412964/mesh-now-automatic-mesh-indexing-at-pubmed-scale-via-learning-to-rank
#4
Yuqing Mao, Zhiyong Lu
BACKGROUND: MeSH indexing is the task of assigning relevant MeSH terms based on a manual reading of scholarly publications by human indexers. The task is highly important for improving literature retrieval and many other scientific investigations in biomedical research. Unfortunately, given its manual nature, the process of MeSH indexing is both time-consuming (new articles are not immediately indexed until 2 or 3 months later) and costly (approximately ten dollars per article). In response, automatic indexing by computers has been previously proposed and attempted but remains challenging...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410053/nested-clique-network-model-of-neural-associative-memory
#5
Asieh Abolpour Mofrad, Matthew G Parker
Clique-based neural associative memories introduced by Gripon and Berrou (GB), have been shown to have good performance, and in our previous work we improved the learning capacity and retrieval rate by local coding and precoding in the presence of partial erasures. We now take a step forward and consider nested-clique graph structures for the network. The GB model stores patterns as small cliques, and we here replace these by nested cliques. Simulation results show that the nested-clique structure enhances the clique-based model...
April 14, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408408/students-use-of-optional-online-reviews-and-its-relationship-to-summative-assessment-outcomes-in-introductory-biology
#6
Shana K Carpenter, Shuhebur Rahman, Terry J S Lund, Patrick I Armstrong, Monica H Lamm, Robert D Reason, Clark R Coffman
Retrieval practice has been shown to produce significant enhancements in student learning of course information, but the extent to which students make use of retrieval to learn information on their own is unclear. In the current study, students in a large introductory biology course were provided with optional online review questions that could be accessed as Test questions (requiring students to answer the questions before receiving feedback) or as Read questions (providing students with the question and correct answer up-front)...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397861/preventing-the-return-of-fear-using-reconsolidation-updating-and-methylene-blue-is-differentially-dependent-on-extinction-learning
#7
Allison M Auchter, Jason Shumake, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Marie H Monfils
Many factors account for how well individuals extinguish conditioned fears, such as genetic variability, learning capacity and conditions under which extinction training is administered. We predicted that memory-based interventions would be more effective to reduce the reinstatement of fear in subjects genetically predisposed to display more extinction learning. We tested this hypothesis in rats genetically selected for differences in fear extinction using two strategies: (1) attenuation of fear memory using post-retrieval extinction training, and (2) pharmacological enhancement of the extinction memory after extinction training by low-dose USP methylene blue (MB)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396630/eeg-error-prediction-as-a-solution-for-combining-the-advantages-of-retrieval-practice-and-errorless-learning
#8
Ellyn A Riley, Dennis J McFarland
Given the frequency of naming errors in aphasia, a common aim of speech and language rehabilitation is the improvement of naming. Based on evidence of significant word recall improvements in patients with memory impairments, errorless learning methods have been successfully applied to naming therapy in aphasia; however, other evidence suggests that although errorless learning can lead to better performance during treatment sessions, retrieval practice may be the key to lasting improvements. Task performance may vary with brain state (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394161/abrupt-strategy-change-underlies-gradual-performance-change-bayesian-hierarchical-models-of-component-and-aggregate-strategy-use
#9
Sarah K A Wynton, Jeromy Anglim
While researchers have often sought to understand the learning curve in terms of multiple component processes, few studies have measured and mathematically modeled these processes on a complex task. In particular, there remains a need to reconcile how abrupt changes in strategy use can co-occur with gradual changes in task completion time. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the degree to which strategy change was abrupt or gradual, and whether strategy aggregation could partially explain gradual performance change...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376785/patients-support-for-health-information-exchange-a-literature-review-and-classification-of-key-factors
#10
Pouyan Esmaeilzadeh, Murali Sambasivan
BACKGROUND: Literature indicates that one of the most important factors affecting the widespread adoption of Health Information Exchange (HIE) is patient support and endorsement. In order to reap all the expected benefits of HIE, patients' acceptance of technology is a challenge that is not fully studied. There are a few studies which have focused on requirements of electronic medical information exchange from consumers' views and expectations. This study is aimed at reviewing the literature to articulate factors that affect patients to support HIE efforts...
April 4, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362607/partial-hash-update-via-hamming-subspace-learning
#11
Chao Ma, Ivor W Tsang, Furong Peng, Chuancai Liu
Hashing technique has become an effective method for information retrieval due to the fast calculation of the Hamming distance. However, with the continuous growth of data coming from the Internet, the online update of hashing on the massive social data becomes very time-consuming. To alleviate this issue, in this paper, we propose a novel updating technique for hashing methods, namely Hamming Subspace Learning (HSL). The motivation of HSL is to generate a low-dimensional Hamming subspace from a high-dimensional Hamming space by selecting representative hash functions...
March 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327985/the-need-to-approximate-the-use-case-in-clinical-machine-learning
#12
Sohrab Saeb, Luca Lonini, Arun Jayaraman, David C Mohr, Konrad P Kording
Background: The availability of smartphone and wearable sensor technology is leading to a rapid accumulation of human subject data, and machine learning is emerging as a technique to map that data into clinical predictions. As machine learning algorithms are increasingly used to support clinical decision making, it is vital to reliably quantify their prediction accuracy. Cross-validation is the standard approach where the accuracy of such algorithms is evaluated on data the algorithm has not seen during training...
March 15, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304000/outcome-based-approach-to-medical-education-towards-academic-programmes-accreditation-a-review-article
#13
Abdelmarouf H Mohieldein
The rapid change worldwide, as a consequence of advances in science and technology, necessitates the graduation of well-qualified graduates who have the appropriate knowledge and skills to fulfill specific work requirements. Hence, redesigning academic models by focusing on educational outcomes became the target and priority for universities around the world. In this systematic review we collected and retrieved literature using a selection of electronic databases. The objectives of this report is to: 1) provide an overview of the evolution of outcome-based education (OBE), (2) illustrate the philosophy and principle of OBE, (3) list the OBE advantages and benefits, (4) describe the assessment strategies used in OBE, and (5) discuss the role of teachers and students as key elements...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295877/neuroscientific-insights-into-the-development-of-analogical-reasoning
#14
Kirstie J Whitaker, Michael S Vendetti, Carter Wendelken, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning, or the ability to find correspondences between entities based on shared relationships, supports knowledge acquisition. As such, the development of this ability during childhood is thought to promote learning. Here, we sought to better understand the mechanisms by which analogical reasoning about semantic relations improves over childhood and adolescence (e.g. chalk is to chalkboard as pen is to…?). We hypothesized that age-related differences would manifest as differences in the brain regions associated with one or more of the following cognitive functions: (1) controlled semantic retrieval, or the ability to retrieve task-relevant semantic associations; (2) response control, or the ability to override the tendency to respond to a salient distractor; and/or (3) relational integration, or the ability to consider jointly two mental relations...
March 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293674/monitoring-and-analysis-of-the-change-process-in-curriculum-mapping-compared-to-the-national-competency-based-learning-objective-catalogue-for-undergraduate-medical-education-nklm-at-four-medical-faculties-part-i-conducive-resources-and-structures
#15
Maria Lammerding-Koeppel, Marianne Giesler, Maryna Gornostayeva, Elisabeth Narciss, Annette Wosnik, Stephan Zipfel, Jan Griewatz, Olaf Fritze
Objective: After passing of the National Competency-based Learning Objectives Catalogue in Medicine (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin, [NKLM, retrieved on 22.03.2016]), the German medical faculties must take inventory and develop their curricula. NKLM contents are expected to be present, but not linked well or sensibly enough in locally grown curricula. Learning and examination formats must be reviewed for appropriateness and coverage of the competences. The necessary curricular transparency is best achieved by systematic curriculum mapping, combined with effective change management...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293256/ranking-support-vector-machine-with-kernel-approximation
#16
Kai Chen, Rongchun Li, Yong Dou, Zhengfa Liang, Qi Lv
Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293255/sparse-codebook-model-of-local-structures-for-retrieval-of-focal-liver-lesions-using-multiphase-medical-images
#17
Jian Wang, Xian-Hua Han, Yingying Xu, Lanfen Lin, Hongjie Hu, Chongwu Jin, Yen-Wei Chen
Characterization and individual trait analysis of the focal liver lesions (FLL) is a challenging task in medical image processing and clinical site. The character analysis of a unconfirmed FLL case would be expected to benefit greatly from the accumulated FLL cases with experts' analysis, which can be achieved by content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR). CBMIR mainly includes discriminated feature extraction and similarity calculation procedures. Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) (codebook-based model) has been proven to be effective for different classification and retrieval tasks...
2017: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284761/embedding-of-semantic-predications
#18
Trevor Cohen, Dominic Widdows
This paper concerns the generation of distributed vector representations of biomedical concepts from structured knowledge, in the form of subject-relation-object triplets known as semantic predications. Specifically, we evaluate the extent to which a representational approach we have developed for this purpose previously, known as Predication-based Semantic Indexing (PSI), might benefit from insights gleaned from neural-probabilistic language models, which have enjoyed a surge in popularity in recent years as a means to generate distributed vector representations of terms from free text...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282439/iterative-free-energy-optimization-for-recurrent-neural-networks-inferno
#19
Alexandre Pitti, Philippe Gaussier, Mathias Quoy
The intra-parietal lobe coupled with the Basal Ganglia forms a working memory that demonstrates strong planning capabilities for generating robust yet flexible neuronal sequences. Neurocomputational models however, often fails to control long range neural synchrony in recurrent spiking networks due to spontaneous activity. As a novel framework based on the free-energy principle, we propose to see the problem of spikes' synchrony as an optimization problem of the neurons sub-threshold activity for the generation of long neuronal chains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278464/learning-discriminative-binary-codes-for-large-scale-cross-modal-retrieval
#20
Xing Xu, Fumin Shen, Yang Yang, Heng Tao Shen, Xuelong Li
Hashing based methods have attracted considerable attention for efficient cross-modal retrieval on large-scale multimedia data. The core problem of cross-modal hashing is how to learn compact binary codes that construct the underlying correlations between heterogeneous features from different modalities. A majority of recent approaches aim at learning hash functions to preserve the pairwise similarities defined by given class labels. However, these methods fail to explicitly explore the discriminative property of class labels during hash function learning...
May 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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