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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098427/emergence-of-mania-in-two-middle-aged-patients-with-a-history-of-unipolar-treatment-refractory-depression-receiving-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#1
Naji C Salloum, Marie C Walker, Sunil Gangwani, Charles R Conway
OBJECTIVES: We report on two patients who experienced emergence of full manic symptoms while receiving vagal nerve stimulation (VNS). METHODS: Two patients, both with a well-documented and verified history of longstanding unipolar depression, were initiated on VNS for treatment of their severe major depressive episodes. RESULTS: The two patients had emergence of full manic symptoms after 8 and 9 months of VNS, respectively. Manic symptoms were adequately managed with standard treatments (mood stabilizer and electroconvulsive therapy) and VNS was continued in the two subjects for up to 5 years without any further occurrences of manic/hypomanic episodes...
January 18, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096060/nutritional-status-and-bioelectrical-phase-angle-assessment-in-adult-crohn-disease-patients-receiving-anti-tnf%C3%AE-therapy
#2
Sara Emerenziani, Livia Biancone, Michele Pier Luca Guarino, Paola Balestrieri, Elisa Stasi, Mentore Ribolsi, Maria Paola Rescio, Annamaria Altomare, Silvia Cocca, Francesco Pallone, Michele Cicala
BACKGROUND: Altered body composition is frequently observed in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. AIMS: To investigate the nutritional status, and the effect of different therapeutic regimes in adult CD patients. METHODS: Fat free mass (FFM) and BIA-derived phase angle (PhA) were assessed in 45 CD patients, 22 on conventional therapy (CT) and 23 on maintenance therapy with infliximab (MT). Nutritional status was also assessed in 12 CD patients before and following the induction protocol with infliximab...
December 30, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095946/electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-for-treating-agitation-in-dementia-major-neurocognitive-disorder-a-promising-option
#3
Oliver M Glass, Brent P Forester, Adriana P Hermida
BACKGROUND: Agitation in patients with dementia increases caretaker burden, increases healthcare costs, and worsens the patient's quality of life. Antipsychotic medications, commonly used for the treatment of agitation in patients with dementia have a box warning from the FDA for elevated mortality risk. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has made significant advances over the past several years, and is efficacious in treating a wide range of psychiatric conditions. We provide a systematic review of published literature regarding the efficacy of ECT for the treatment of agitation in patients with dementia (major neurocognitive disorder)...
January 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095702/sleep-problems-and-suicide-associated-with-mood-instability-in-the-adult-psychiatric-morbidity-survey-2007
#4
Keltie C McDonald, Kate Ea Saunders, John R Geddes
OBJECTIVE: Mood instability is common in the general population. Mood instability is a precursor to mental illness and associated with a range of negative health outcomes. Sleep disturbance appears to be closely linked with mood instability. This study assesses the association between mood instability and sleep disturbance and the link with suicidal ideation and behaviour in a general population sample in England. METHOD: The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007 collected detailed information about mental health symptoms and correlates in a representative sample of adult household residents living in England ( n = 7303)...
January 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093967/anchored-lentiviral-vector-episomes-for-stem-cell-gene-therapy-in-fanconi-anemia
#5
Santhosh Chakkaramakkil Verghese, Peter Kurre
Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive¬, multisystem DNA repair disorder with prominent defects in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance that result in their progressive attrition and failure in early school age. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation has proved curative for patients with suitable donors. This, along with the characteristic survival advantage of phenotypically normal over non-corrected FA stem cells underscores the compelling rationale for stem cell gene therapy in FA. While integrating lentiviral vectors (LV) have become the preferred platform for genetic correction in several hematologic and immunodeficiency disorders, the residual oncogenic potential by these vectors raises concerns in FA stem cells with potentially preexisting genetic lesions...
January 13, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093873/diagnostic-and-management-challenges-from-childhood-puberty-through-to-transition-in-severe-insulin-resistance-due-to-insulin-receptor-mutations
#6
Christina Wei, Christine P Burren
Two Caucasian girls, both of normal weight and body mass indices, were diagnosed with type A insulin resistance (IR) in childhood. Case 1 presented with premature adrenarche aged 7 years, then by age 12 years had hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and asymptomatic diabetes. Subsequent investigation revealed raised adiponectin (15.3 mg/L) and heterozygous p.Pro1205Leu mutation in the INSR gene encoding the insulin receptor. She experienced postprandial hypoglycaemia on metformin; acarbose was trialled and discontinued aged 16 years, as she became normoglycaemic...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093426/oesophageal-presentation-of-crohn-s-disease
#7
Sara Monteiro, Maria João Moreira, José Manuel Ribeiro, José Cotter
Crohn's disease (CD) is characterised by a transmural inflammatory process, which can affect any part of the digestive tract; however, CD with oesophageal presentation is rare. We report a case of a previously healthy young woman with symptoms of dysphagia, odynophagia, chest pain and weight loss, who presented oesophageal ulcers at upper endoscopy and whose histology revealed granulomatous oesophagitis. After complementary study, a mild ileocaecal involvement of CD was demonstrated. The patient became asymptomatic with proton pump inhibitor and a course of prednisolone...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091879/new-medical-therapies-on-the-horizon-oral-octreotide
#8
REVIEW
Nienke R Biermasz
Somatostatin analog treatment is first line medical treatment in patients with acromegaly. This drug is currently mainly administered by monthly depot preparations of octreotide and lanreotide. With the innovative transient permeability enhancer, a technology enabling the absorption of drug molecules via transient opening of the tight junctions of the gut epithelium, it is possible to achieve therapeutic octreotide levels after oral ingestion. The present review summarized the preclinical work and the recently reported phase I and III study on oral octreotide capsules in patients with acromegaly...
January 16, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090819/toxoplasmic-encephalitis-relapse-rates-with-pyrimethamine-based-therapy-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Mark P Connolly, Elizabeth Goodwin, Carina Schey, Jacqueline Zummo
Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection and can be a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. This study evaluated the rate of relapse associated with pyrimethamine-based maintenance therapy (i.e. secondary prophylaxis) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDs treated prior to and after the common use (i.e. 1996) of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (pre-HAART and post-HAART, respectively). PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched to 6 June 2016 using search terms: pyrimethamine, Daraprim, Fansidar, Metakelfin, Fansimef, 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-2,4-pyrimidinediamine, encephalitis, cerebral, toxoplasmosis, toxoplasmic, and gondii...
January 16, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088983/the-epigenetic-basis-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-aging
#10
REVIEW
Ashley Kramer, Grant A Challen
Highly proliferative tissues such as the gut, skin, and bone marrow lose millions of cells each day to normal attrition and challenge from different biological adversities. To achieve a lifespan beyond the longevity of individual cell types, tissue-specific stem cells sustain these tissues throughout the life of a human. For example, the lifespan of erythrocytes is about 100 days and adults make about two million new erythrocytes every second. A small pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow is responsible for the lifetime maintenance of these populations...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088884/dual-raltegravir-etravirine-combination-as-maintenance-regimen-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-patients
#11
Leonardo Calza, Eleonora Magistrelli, Vincenzo Colangeli, Roberto Manfredi, Marco Borderi, Nicolò Rossi, Matteo Conti, Rita Mancini, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)- and protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing antiretroviral regimens may be useful in selected HIV-infected patients with resistance or intolerance to these drug classes. METHODS: This was an observational prospective study of patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy containing two NRTIs plus one ritonavir-boosted PI who switched to a dual regimen containing raltegravir plus etravirine. Patients were required not to have prior virological failure to raltegravir and to have efficacy of etravirine showed through the genotypic resistance assay in case of prior non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) virological failure...
January 15, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087591/clinical-trials-in-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-vasculitis-what-we-have-learnt-so-far-and-what-we-still-have-to-learn
#12
Divi Cornec, Emilie Cornec-Le Gall, Ulrich Specks
The prognosis of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitides (AAV), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and eosinophilic GPA (EGPA), has been fundamentally improved over the last five decades by the use of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants, turning them from consistently fatal diseases into chronic conditions. The long-term course is now largely determined by the frequency of disease flares and by accruing damage caused by disease activity and treatment-related comorbidities...
January 12, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081321/sleep-quality-in-opioid-naive-and-opioid-dependent-patientson-methadone-maintenance-therapy-in-malaysia
#13
Zalina Zahari, Muslih Abdulkarim Inrahim, Soo Choon Tan, Nasir Mohamad, Rusli Ismail
BACKGROUND/AIM: Sleep disturbances may contribute to poor treatment outcomes in opioid-dependent patients. The extent to which the sleep profiles of opioid-dependent patients differ from those of the general Malaysian population is not documented. This study compared opioid-naive subjects and opioid-dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in terms of their sleep quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants comprised Malay male opioid-naive subjects (n = 159) and opioid-dependent patients (n = 160) from MMT clinics in Kelantan, Malaysia, between March and October 2013...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079774/a-statewide-progestogen-promotion-program-in-ohio
#14
Jay D Iams, Mary S Applegate, Michael P Marcotte, Martha Rome, Michael A Krew, Jennifer L Bailit, Heather C Kaplan, Jessi Poteet, Melissa Nance, David S McKenna, Hetty C Walker, Jennifer Nobbe, Lakshmi Prasad, Maurizio Macaluso, Carole Lannon
OBJECTIVE: To promote use of progestogen therapy to reduce premature births in Ohio by 10%. METHODS: The Ohio Perinatal Quality Collaborative initiated a quality improvement project in 2014 working with clinics at 20 large maternity hospitals, Ohio Medicaid, Medicaid insurers, and service agencies to use quality improvement methods to identify eligible women and remove treatment barriers. The number of women eligible for prophylaxis, the percent prescribed a progestogen before 20 and 24 weeks of gestation, and barriers encountered were reported monthly...
January 9, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079262/pediatric-obesity-pharmacokinetic-alterations-and-effects-on-antimicrobial-dosing
#15
Stephanie Natale, John Bradley, William Huy Nguyen, Tri Tran, Pamela Ny, Kirsten La, Eva Vivian, Jennifer Le
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist for appropriate drug dosing in obese children. This comprehensive review summarizes pharmacokinetic alterations that occur with age and obesity, and these effects on antimicrobial dosing. A thorough comparison of different measures of body weight and specific antimicrobial agents, including cefazolin, cefepime, ceftazidime, daptomycin, doripenem, gentamicin, linezolid, meropenem, piperacill-tazobactam, tobramycin, vancomycin, and voriconazole, are presented...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079113/congenital-hearing-loss
#16
Anna M H Korver, Richard J H Smith, Guy Van Camp, Mark R Schleiss, Maria A K Bitner-Glindzicz, Lawrence R Lustig, Shin-Ichi Usami, An N Boudewyns
Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss that is present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and has long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A diagnosis of hearing loss is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss...
January 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078996/kinase-inhibitors-in-multitargeted-cancer-therapy
#17
Carla Gentile, Annamaria Martorana, Antonino Lauria, Riccardo Bonsignore
The old-fashioned anticancer approaches, aiming in arresting cancer cell proliferation interfering with non-specific targets (e.g. DNA), have been replaced, in the last decades, by more specific target oriented ones. Nonetheless, single-target approaches have not always led to optimal outcomes because, for its complexity, cancer needs to be tackled at various levels by modulation of several targets. Although at present, combinations of individual single-target drugs represent the most clinically practiced therapeutic approaches, the modulation of multiple proteins by a single drug, in accordance with the polypharmacological strategy, has become more and more appealing...
January 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078669/maintenance-phase-in-puva-phototherapy-of-early-stage-mycosis-fungoides-a-critically-appraised-topic
#18
REVIEW
V Grandi, C Delfino, A Pileri, N Pimpinelli
A 65-years-old patient affected by mycosis fungoides stage IB achieved complete remission after a cycle of PUVA phototherapy. As suggested by USCLC guidelines(1) , the patient should be kept in maintenance phase, defined as "period of gradual decrease of frequency of UVL while in clinical remission before discontinuation of phototherapy" by slowly tapering the number of PUVA applications over time up to clinical relapse. USCLC also suggest a standardized schedule for maintenance phase (table 1). Alternatively, the patient could end PUVA therapy and go straight to follow up...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078355/-compression-therapy-of-venous-leg-ulcers-in-the-decongestion-phase
#19
REVIEW
J Dissemond, S Eder, S Läuchli, H Partsch, M Stücker, W Vanscheidt
Compression therapy is the basis for successful treatment in most patients with venous leg ulcers. Concerning compression therapy, the initial phase of decongestion and the following phase of maintenance should be differentiated. While in the maintenance phase (ulcer) stocking systems are now frequently recommended, in the decongestion phase compression bandages are mostly still used, which however are often inappropriately applied. In German-speaking countries, compression therapy with short-stretch bandages has a long tradition...
January 11, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076386/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-for-predicting-loss-of-response-to-infliximab-in-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Yu Nishida, Shuhei Hosomi, Hirokazu Yamagami, Tomomi Yukawa, Koji Otani, Yasuaki Nagami, Fumio Tanaka, Koichi Taira, Noriko Kamata, Tetsuya Tanigawa, Masatsugu Shiba, Kenji Watanabe, Toshio Watanabe, Kazunari Tominaga, Yasuhiro Fujiwara
OBJECTIVES: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been used to determine the outcome in malignancies and coronary heart disease. Some reports considered the value of NLR as a predictor of response to infliximab in patients with Crohn's disease or rheumatoid arthritis; however, no similar studies have been reported for ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of the baseline NLR in patients with UC treated by infliximab. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with moderate-to-severe active UC who received the first infliximab infusion in our hospital between 2010 and 2015, who showed clinical response during the induction period, were retrospectively evaluated for long-term outcomes and risk factors for loss of response (LOR) during infliximab maintenance therapy...
2017: PloS One
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