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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792468/teamwork-and-collaboration-in-long-duration-space-missions-going-to-extremes
#1
Lauren Blackwell Landon, Kelley J Slack, Jamie D Barrett
The scientific study of teamwork in the context of spaceflight has uncovered a considerable amount of knowledge over the past 20 years. Although much is known about the underlying factors and processes of teamwork, much is left to be discovered for teams who will be operating in extreme isolation and confinement during a future Mars mission. Special considerations must be made to enhance teamwork and team well-being for multi-year missions during which the small team will live and work together. We discuss the unique challenges of effective teamwork in a Mars mission scenario, and the difficulties of studying teamwork using analogs of the space environment...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773841/ocular-counter-rolling-in-astronauts-after-short-and-long-duration-spaceflight
#2
Millard F Reschke, Scott J Wood, Gilles Clément
Ocular counter-rolling (OCR) is a reflex generated by the activation of the gravity sensors in the inner ear that stabilizes gaze and posture during head tilt. We compared the OCR measures that were obtained in 6 astronauts before, during, and after a spaceflight lasting 4-6 days with the OCR measures obtained from 6 astronauts before and after a spaceflight lasting 4-9 months. OCR in the short-duration fliers was measured using the afterimage method during head tilt at 15°, 30°, and 45°. OCR in the long-duration fliers was measured using video-oculography during whole body tilt at 25°...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768035/microgravity-induced-ocular-changes-are-related-to-body-weight
#3
Jay C Buckey, Scott D Phillips, Allison P Anderson, Ariane B Chepko, Veronique Archambault-Leger, Jiang Gui, Abigail M Fellows
On Earth, tissue weight generates compressive forces that press on body structures and act on the walls of vessels throughout the body. In microgravity tissues no longer have any weight and tissue compressive forces are lost, suggesting individuals who weigh more may show greater effects from microgravity exposure. One unique effect of long-duration microgravity exposure is the spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) which can present with globe flattening, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, and a hyperopic visual shift...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761979/-remodeling-simulation-of-human-femur-under-bed-rest-and-spaceflight-circumstances-based-on-three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis
#4
Wenting Yang, Dongmei Wang, Zhoujixin Lei, Chunhui Wang, Shanguang Chen
Astronauts who are exposed to weightless environment in long-term spaceflight might encounter bone density and mass loss for the mechanical stimulus is smaller than normal value. This study built a three dimensional model of human femur to simulate the remodeling process of human femur during bed rest experiment based on finite element analysis (FEA). The remodeling parameters of this finite element model was validated after comparing experimental and numerical results. Then, the remodeling process of human femur in weightless environment was simulated, and the remodeling function of time was derived...
December 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753741/long-term-hindlimb-unloading-causes-a-preferential-reduction-of-medullary-thymic-epithelial-cells-expressing-autoimmune-regulator-aire
#5
Kenta Horie, Takashi Kudo, Riko Yoshinaga, Nobuko Akiyama, Hiroki Sasanuma, Tetsuya J Kobayashi, Miki Shimbo, Hyojung Jeon, Takahisa Miyao, Maki Miyauchi, Masaki Shirakawa, Dai Shiba, Nobuaki Yoshida, Masafumi Muratani, Satoru Takahashi, Taishin Akiyama
Hindlimb unloading (HU) of rodents has been used as a ground-based model of spaceflight. In this study, we investigated the detailed impact of 14-day HU on the murine thymus. Thymic mass and cell number were significantly reduced after 14 days of hindlimb unloading, which was accompanied by an increment of plasma corticosterone. Although corticosterone reportedly causes selective apoptosis of CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes (CD4+ CD8+ DPs) in mice treated with short-term HU, the reduction of thymocyte cellularity after the 14-day HU was not selective for CD4+ CD8+ DPs...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753413/development-of-a-step-down-method-for-altering-male-c57bl-6-mouse-housing-density-and-hierarchical-structure-preparations-for-spaceflight-studies
#6
David C Scofield, Jeffrey D Rytlewski, Paul Childress, Kishan Shah, Aamir Tucker, Faisal Khan, Jessica Peveler, Ding Li, Todd O McKinley, Tien-Min G Chu, Debra L Hickman, Melissa A Kacena
This study was initiated as a component of a larger undertaking designed to study bone healing in microgravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Spaceflight experimentation introduces multiple challenges not seen in ground studies, especially with regard to physical space, limited resources, and inability to easily reproduce results. Together, these can lead to diminished statistical power and increased risk of failure. It is because of the limited space, and need for improved statistical power by increasing sample size over historical numbers, NASA studies involving mice require housing mice at densities higher than recommended in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Research Council, 2011)...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753412/biological-filters-and-their-use-in-potable-water-filtration-systems-in-spaceflight-conditions
#7
REVIEW
Starla G Thornhill, Manish Kumar
Providing drinking water to space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) is a costly requirement for human habitation. To limit the costs of water transport, wastewater is collected and purified using a variety of physical and chemical means. To date, sand-based biofilters have been designed to function against gravity, and biofilms have been shown to form in microgravity conditions. Development of a universal silver-recycling biological filter system that is able to function in both microgravity and full gravity conditions would reduce the costs incurred in removing organic contaminants from wastewater by limiting the energy and chemical inputs required...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753411/solar-particle-event-storm-shelter-requirements-for-missions-beyond-low-earth-orbit
#8
REVIEW
L W Townsend, J H Adams, S R Blattnig, M S Clowdsley, D J Fry, I Jun, C D McLeod, J I Minow, D F Moore, J W Norbury, R B Norman, D V Reames, N A Schwadron, E J Semones, R C Singleterry, T C Slaba, C M Werneth, M A Xapsos
Protecting spacecraft crews from energetic space radiations that pose both chronic and acute health risks is a critical issue for future missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Chronic health risks are possible from both galactic cosmic ray and solar energetic particle event (SPE) exposures. However, SPE exposures also can pose significant short term risks including, if dose levels are high enough, acute radiation syndrome effects that can be mission- or life-threatening. In order to address the reduction of short term risks to spaceflight crews from SPEs, we have developed recommendations to NASA for a design-standard SPE to be used as the basis for evaluating the adequacy of proposed radiation shelters for cislunar missions beyond LEO...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752376/effects-of-prolonged-spaceflight-on-atrial-size-atrial-electrophysiology-and-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Htet W Khine, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Jeffrey L Hastings, Jamie Kowal, James D Daniels, Richard L Page, Jeffery J Goldberger, Jason Ng, Beverley Adams-Huet, Michael W Bungo, Benjamin D Levine
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in active astronauts is ≈5%, similar to the general population but at a younger age. Risk factors for AF include left atrial enlargement, increased number of premature atrial complexes, and certain parameters on signal-averaged electrocardiography, such as P-wave duration, root mean square voltage for the terminal 20 ms of the signal-averaged P wave, and P-wave amplitude. We aimed to evaluate changes in atrial structure, supraventricular beats, and atrial electrophysiology to determine whether spaceflight could increase the risk of AF...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745798/intraocular-pressure-and-cardiovascular-alterations-investigated-in-artificial-gravity-as-a-countermeasure-to-spaceflight-associated-neuro-ocular-syndrome
#10
Allison P Anderson, Joseph S Butterfield, Prem S Subramanian, Torin K Clark
INTRODUCTION: Artificial gravity (AG) has been proposed as a countermeasure to spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS). The etiology of SANS is unknown, but mimicking gravitational loading through AG may mitigate these negative adaptations. METHODS: Seventeen subjects (9M, 8F, 18-32 years) were analyzed in four experimental conditions: 1) Standing, 2) Supine, 3) AG with the center of rotation at the eye (AGEC), 4) AG with 2G's at the feet (AG2G). In both AG conditions, subjects were spun to produce 1G at their center of mass...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745771/effect-of-microgravity-space-radiation-on-microbes
#11
Giuliana Senatore, Felice Mastroleo, Natalie Leys, Gianluigi Mauriello
One of the new challenges facing humanity is to reach increasingly further distant space targets. It is therefore of upmost importance to understand the behavior of microorganisms that will unavoidably reach the space environment together with the human body and equipment. Indeed, microorganisms could activate their stress defense mechanisms, modifying properties related to human pathogenesis. The host-microbe interactions, in fact, could be substantially affected under spaceflight conditions and the study of microorganisms' growth and activity is necessary for predicting these behaviors and assessing precautionary measures during spaceflight...
May 10, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722847/dietary-acid-load-and-bone-turnover-during-long-duration-spaceflight-and-bed-rest
#12
Sara R Zwart, Barbara L Rice, Holly Dlouhy, Linda C Shackelford, Martina Heer, Matthew D Koslovsky, Scott M Smith
Background: Bed rest studies document that a lower dietary acid load is associated with lower bone resorption. Objective: We tested the effect of dietary acid load on bone metabolism during spaceflight. Design: Controlled 4-d diets with a high or low animal protein-to-potassium (APro:K) ratio (High and Low diets, respectively) were given to 17 astronauts before and during spaceflight. Each astronaut had 1 High and 1 Low diet session before flight and 2 High and 2 Low sessions during flight, in addition to a 4-d session around flight day 30 (FD30), when crew members were to consume their typical in-flight intake...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704889/from-spaceflight-to-blood-doping-devices-for-assessing-haemoglobin-mass-and-intravascular-volumes
#13
EDITORIAL
Andreas Breenfeldt Andersen, Laura Oberholzer, Thomas Haider, Anne-Kristine Meinild-Lundby, Nazzareno Fagoni
As highlighted recently in this journal,1 but also in others, quantification of total haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ), red blood cell volume (RBCV), plasma volume (PV), and blood volume (BV) is common and relevant in a clinical and scientific context.1-5 For instance, a decline in BV is observed in artificial microgravity and during spaceflight, while a PV reduction is observed when sojourning to high altitude.2 Moreover, Hbmass and RBCV are two major determinants of physical performance,1 and measuring Hbmass might be a potential technique to detect blood doping...
April 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693211/physiological-effects-of-weightlessness-countermeasure-system-development-for-a-long-term-chinese-manned-spaceflight
#14
REVIEW
Linjie Wang, Zhili Li, Cheng Tan, Shujuan Liu, Jianfeng Zhang, Siyang He, Peng Zou, Weibo Liu, Yinghui Li
The Chinese space station will be built around 2020. As a national space laboratory, it will offer unique opportunities for studying the physiological effects of weightlessness and the efficacy of the countermeasures against such effects. In this paper, we described the development of countermeasure systems in the Chinese space program. To emphasize the need of the Chinese space program to implement its own program for developing countermeasures, we reviewed the literature on the negative physiological effects of weightlessness, the challenges of completing missions, the development of countermeasure devices, the establishment of countermeasure programs, and the efficacy of the countermeasure techniques in American and Russian manned spaceflights...
April 25, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665013/planhab-hypoxia-does-not-worsen-the-impairment-of-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-function-induced-by-bed-rest-alone
#15
Desy Salvadego, Michail E Keramidas, Roger Kölegård, Lorenza Brocca, Stefano Lazzer, Irene Mavelli, Jörn Rittweger, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic, Bruno Grassi
KEY POINTS: Superposition of hypoxia on 21 day bed rest did not worsen the impairment of skeletal muscle oxidative function induced by bed rest alone. A significant impairment of maximal oxidative performance was identified downstream of cardiovascular O2 delivery, involving both the intramuscular matching between O2 supply and utilization and mitochondrial respiration. These chronic adaptations appear to be relevant in terms of exposure to spaceflights and reduced gravity habitats (Moon or Mars), as characterized by low gravity and hypoxia, in patients with chronic diseases characterized by hypomobility/immobility and hypoxia, as well as in ageing...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663938/cohousing-male-mice-with-and-without-segmental-bone-defects
#16
Jeffrey D Rytlewski, Paul J Childress, David C Scofield, Faisal Khan, Marta B Alvarez, Aamir T Tucker, Jonathan S Harris, Jessica L Peveler, Debra L Hickman, Tien-Min G Chu, Melissa A Kacena
Spaceflight results in bone loss like that associated with osteoporosis or decreased weight-bearing (for example, high-energy trauma such as explosive injuries and automobile accidents). Thus, the unique spaceflight laboratory on the International Space Station presents the opportunity to test bone healing agents during weightlessness. We are collaborating with NASA and the US Army to study bone healing in spaceflight. Given the unique constraints of spaceflight, study design optimization was required. Male mice were selected primarily because their femur is larger than females', allowing for more reproducible surgical outcomes...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652620/nasa-genelab-project-bridging-space-radiation-omics-with-ground-studies
#17
Afshin Beheshti, Jack Miller, Yared Kidane, Daniel Berrios, Samrawit G Gebre, Sylvain V Costes
Accurate assessment of risks of long-term space missions is critical for human space exploration. It is essential to have a detailed understanding of the biological effects on humans living and working in deep space. Ionizing radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major health risk factor for astronauts on extended missions outside the protective effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently, there are gaps in our knowledge of the health risks associated with chronic low-dose, low-dose-rate ionizing radiation, specifically ions associated with high (H) atomic number (Z) and energy (E)...
April 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651250/efficacy-of-stochastic-vestibular-stimulation-to-improve-locomotor-performance-during-adaptation-to-visuomotor-and-somatosensory-distortion
#18
David R Temple, Yiri E De Dios, Charles S Layne, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara
Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges affecting balance control when readapting to Earth's gravity upon return from spaceflight. Small amounts of electrical noise applied to the vestibular system have been shown to improve balance control during standing and walking under discordant sensory conditions in healthy subjects, likely by enhancing information transfer through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that imperceptible levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) could improve short-term adaptation to a locomotor task in a novel sensory discordant environment...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649415/generation-of-neural-organoids-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-using-the-rotary-cell-culture-system-effects-of-microgravity-on-neural-progenitor-cell-fate
#19
Cristiana Mattei, Abdullah Alshawaf, Giovanna D'Abaco, Bryony A Nayagam, Mirella Dottori
Progress in aeronautics and spaceflight technologies requires in parallel further research on how microgravity may affect human tissue. To date, little is known about the effects of microgravity on human development. Here we used the rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to investigate whether microgravity supports the generation and maintenance of neural organoids derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) as a model of human brain development. Our results show that although neural organoids could be generated and maintained in microgravity conditions, there were changes in expression of rostral-caudal neural patterning genes and cortical markers compared to organoids generated in standard conditions...
March 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644337/novel-moon-and-mars-partial-gravity-simulation-paradigms-and-their-effects-on-the-balance-between-cell-growth-and-cell-proliferation-during-early-plant-development
#20
Aránzazu Manzano, Raúl Herranz, Leonardus A den Toom, Sjoerd Te Slaa, Guus Borst, Martijn Visser, F Javier Medina, Jack J W A van Loon
Clinostats and Random Positioning Machine (RPM) are used to simulate microgravity, but, for space exploration, we need to know the response of living systems to fractional levels of gravity (partial gravity) as they exist on Moon and Mars. We have developed and compared two different paradigms to simulate partial gravity using the RPM, one by implementing a centrifuge on the RPM (RPMHW ), the other by applying specific software protocols to driving the RPM motors (RPMSW ). The effects of the simulated partial gravity were tested in plant root meristematic cells, a system with known response to real and simulated microgravity...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
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