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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430607/simulated-weightlessness-affects-the-expression-and-activity-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-rat-brain
#1
Nara Yoon, Kiyong Na, Hyun-Soo Kim
Spaceflight induces pathophysiological alterations in various organs. To study pathophysiological adaptations to weightlessness on the ground, the tail suspension (TS) rat model has been used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. There is currently little information on the effect of TS on the expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the brain. In this study, we examined time-dependent alterations in the expression and activity of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in the brains of TS rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were tail-suspended for 1 (TS1), 7 (TS7), and 14 (TS14) days or rested on the ground for 3 days after 14 days of TS...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430554/role-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-spaceflight-induced-ocular-changes-and-visual-impairment-in-astronauts
#2
Noam Alperin, Ahmet M Bagci, Carlos J Oliu, Sang H Lee, Byron L Lam
Purpose To determine the respective roles of vascular and cerebrospinal fluids in spaceflight-induced vision impairment in astronauts, known as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration institutional review board and is HIPAA compliant. All subjects provided written informed consent. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data from nine astronauts (mean age, 46.9 years) who flew on the space shuttle (14...
April 21, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417833/jugular-and-portal-vein-volume-middle-cerebral-vein-velocity-and-intracranial-pressure-in-dry-immersion
#3
Philippe Arbeille, Paul Avan, Loïc Treffel, Kathryn Zuj, Herve Normand, Pierre Denise
BACKGROUND: The objective was to determine if short term exposure to dry immersion (DI) results in a cephalic fluid shift similar to what has been observed with spaceflight. METHODS: Data were collected from 10 individuals at rest and during the first 2 h of dry immersion. Jugular vein (JV), portal vein (PV), and thyroid volume were measured using 3D echography. Middle cerebral vein velocity (MCVv) was determined using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. The cochlear response to audio stimulation was used to derive an estimate of intracranial pressure (dICP)...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393904/transcriptomic-changes-in-an-animal-bacterial-symbiosis-under-modeled-microgravity-conditions
#4
Giorgio Casaburi, Irina Goncharenko-Foster, Alexandrea A Duscher, Jamie S Foster
Spaceflight imposes numerous adaptive challenges for terrestrial life. The reduction in gravity, or microgravity, represents a novel environment that can disrupt homeostasis of many physiological processes. Additionally, it is becoming increasingly clear that an organism's microbiome is critical for host health and examining its resiliency in microgravity represents a new frontier for space biology research. In this study, we examine the impact of microgravity on the interactions between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its beneficial symbiont Vibrio fischeri, which form a highly specific binary mutualism...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360122/increased-cerebral-blood-volume-pulsatility-during-head-down-tilt-with-elevated-carbon-dioxide-the-spacecot-study
#5
Gary E Strangman, Quan Zhang, Karina Marshall-Goebel, Edwin Mulder, Brian Stevens, Jonathan B Clark, Eric M Bershad
Astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have exhibited hyperopic shifts, posterior eye globe flattening, dilated optic nerve sheaths, and even optic disc swelling from spaceflight. Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) consequent to cephalad fluid shifts is commonly hypothesized as contributing to these ocular changes. Head-down tilt (HDT) is frequently utilized as an Earth-based analog to study similar fluid shifts. Sealed environments like the ISS also exhibit elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), a potent arteriolar vasodilator that could further affect cerebral blood volume and flow, intracranial compliance, and ICP...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341594/itraq-based-proteomics-analysis-of-hippocampus-in-spatial-memory-deficiency-rats-induced-by-simulated-microgravity
#6
Tingmei Wang, Hailong Chen, Ke Lv, Guohua Ji, Yongliang Zhang, Yanli Wang, Yinghui Li, Lina Qu
It has been demonstrated that simulated microgravity (SM) may lead to cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In present study, tail-suspension (30°) rat was employed to explore the effects of 28 days of SM on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory capability and the underlying mechanisms. We found that 28-day tail-suspension rats displayed decline of learning and memory ability in Morris water maze (MWM) test. Using iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis, a total of 4774 proteins were quantified in hippocampus...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324673/a-framework-to-guide-the-assessment-of-human-machine-systems
#7
Kimberly Stowers, James Oglesby, Shirley Sonesh, Kevin Leyva, Chelsea Iwig, Eduardo Salas
OBJECTIVE: We have developed a framework for guiding measurement in human-machine systems. BACKGROUND: The assessment of safety and performance in human-machine systems often relies on direct measurement, such as tracking reaction time and accidents. However, safety and performance emerge from the combination of several variables. The assessment of precursors to safety and performance are thus an important part of predicting and improving outcomes in human-machine systems...
March 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292630/a-plate-method-for-rapid-screening-of-ketogulonicigenium-vulgare-mutants-for-enhanced-2-keto-l-gulonic-acid-production
#8
Weichao Yang, Litao Han, Mandlaa Mandlaa, Haihong Zhang, Zhongze Zhang, Hui Xu
A new plate method was developed for rapid screening of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare mutants overproducing 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG). The screening methodology took the advantage of the acidity caused by 2-KLG, which changes the color of bromothymol blue (pH indicator) from blue to yellow. Using the proposed method, a mutant, K. vulgare 65, was selected from 20,000 colonies produced by a strain subjected to spaceflight mutagenesis. When co-cultured with Bacillus megaterium 2980 in 20-L fermenters, K. vulgare 65 showed a high conversion rate (94...
February 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279267/astronaut-adherence-to-exercise-based-reconditioning-psychological-considerations-and-future-directions
#9
Carly D McKay, Martyn Standage
INTRODUCTION: Exercise-based reconditioning is essential for mitigating the negative physiological and functional effects of spaceflight. Astronaut adherence to prescribed reconditioning programmes is imperative, but there has been limited research in this area. PURPOSE: This commentary discusses adherence predictors in analogous terrestrial populations (sport, clinical rehabilitation, general exercise) that may translate to spaceflight environments. IMPLICATIONS: Reconditioning programmes should foster intrinsic motivation, realistic outcome expectancies, self-regulation skills, and strong therapeutic alliances to promote ongoing exercise adherence...
January 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279266/parallels-between-astronauts-and-terrestrial-patients-taking-physiotherapy-rehabilitation-to-infinity-and-beyond
#10
Julie Hides, Gunda Lambrecht, Gita Ramdharry, Rebecca Cusack, Jacob Bloomberg, Maria Stokes
Exposure to the microgravity environment induces physiological changes in the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and sensorimotor systems in healthy astronauts. As space agencies prepare for extended duration missions, it is difficult to predict the extent of the effects that prolonged exposure to microgravity will have on astronauts. Prolonged bed rest is a model used by space agencies to simulate the effects of spaceflight on the human body, and bed rest studies have provided some insights into the effects of immobilisation and inactivity...
January 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275377/impact-of-particle-irradiation-on-the-immune-system-from-the-clinic-to-mars
#11
REVIEW
Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sarah Baatout, Marjan Moreels
Despite the generalized use of photon-based radiation (i.e., gamma rays and X-rays) to treat different cancer types, particle radiotherapy (i.e., protons and carbon ions) is becoming a popular, and more effective tool to treat specific tumors due to the improved physical properties and biological effectiveness. Current scientific evidence indicates that conventional radiation therapy affects the tumor immunological profile in a particular manner, which in turn, might induce beneficial effects both at local and systemic (i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273516/2-d-clinorotation-alters-the-uptake-of-some-nutrients-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Ellen Polinski, Oliver Schueler, Lars Krause, Monika A Wimmer, Ruth Hemmersbach, Heiner E Goldbach
Future long-term spaceflight missions rely on bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) in order to provide the required resources for crew survival. Higher plants provide an essential part since they supply food and oxygen and recycle carbon dioxide. There are indications that under space conditions plants might be inefficient regarding the uptake, transport and distribution of nutrients, which in turn affects growth and metabolism. Therefore, Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) seeds were germinated and grown for five days under fast clinorotation (2-D clinostat, 60rpm) in order to simulate microgravity...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271409/the-effect-of-spaceflight-and-microgravity-on-the-human-brain
#13
Angelique Van Ombergen, Athena Demertzi, Elena Tomilovskaya, Ben Jeurissen, Jan Sijbers, Inessa B Kozlovskaya, Paul M Parizel, Paul H Van de Heyning, Stefan Sunaert, Steven Laureys, Floris L Wuyts
Microgravity, confinement, isolation, and immobilization are just some of the features astronauts have to cope with during space missions. Consequently, long-duration space travel can have detrimental effects on human physiology. Although research has focused on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system in particular, the exact impact of spaceflight on the human central nervous system remains to be determined. Previous studies have reported psychological problems, cephalic fluid shifts, neurovestibular problems, and cognitive alterations, but there is paucity in the knowledge of the underlying neural substrates...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248986/cellular-responses-and-gene-expression-profile-changes-due-to-bleomycin-induced-dna-damage-in-human-fibroblasts-in-space
#14
Tao Lu, Ye Zhang, Yared Kidane, Alan Feiveson, Louis Stodieck, Fathi Karouia, Govindarajan Ramesh, Larry Rohde, Honglu Wu
Living organisms in space are constantly exposed to radiation, toxic chemicals or reactive oxygen species generated due to increased levels of environmental and psychological stresses. Understanding the impact of spaceflight factors, microgravity in particular, on cellular responses to DNA damage is essential for assessing the radiation risk for astronauts and the mutation rate in microorganisms. In a study conducted on the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblasts in culture were treated with bleomycin for three hours in the true microgravity environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228581/spaceflight-induced-synaptic-modifications-within-hair-cells-of-the-mammalian-utricle
#15
David R Sultemeier, Kristel R Choy, Felix E Schweizer, Larry F Hoffman
Exposure to the microgravity conditions of spaceflight alleviates the load normally imposed by the Earth's gravitational field upon the inner ear utricular epithelia. Previous ultrastructural investigations showed that spaceflight induced an increase in synapse density within hair cells of the rat utricle. However, the utricle exhibits broad physiologic heterogeneity across different epithelial regions, and it is unknown whether capabilities for synaptic plasticity generalize to hair cells across its topography...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212706/sclerostin-antibody-inhibits-skeletal-deterioration-in-mice-exposed-to-partial-weight-bearing
#16
J M Spatz, R Ellman, A M Cloutier, L Louis, M van Vliet, D Dwyer, M Stolina, H Z Ke, M L Bouxsein
Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209740/quantitative-mri-volumetry-diffusivity-cerebrovascular-flow-and-cranial-hydrodynamics-during-head-down-tilt-and-hypercapnia-the-spacecot-study
#17
Larry Allen Kramer, Khader M Hasan, Ashot E Sargsyan, Karina Marshall-Goebel, Jörn Rittweger, Dorit Donoviel, Saki Higashi, Benson Mwangi, Darius A Gerlach, Eric M Bershad
PURPOSE: In order to improve the pathophysiologic understanding of visual changes observed in astronauts, we aimed to use quantitative MRI to measure anatomic and physiologic responses during a ground-based spaceflight analogue (head down tilt, HDT) combined with increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2). METHODS: Six healthy, male subjects participated in the double-blinded, randomized cross-over design study with two conditions: 26.5 h of -12° HDT with ambient air and with 0...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205656/an-autonomous-lab-on-a-chip-for-space-flight-calibration-of-gravity-induced-transcellular-calcium-polarization-in-single-cell-fern-spores
#18
J Park, M L Salmi, W W A Wan Salim, A Rademacher, B Wickizer, A Schooley, J Benton, A Cantero, P F Argote, M Ren, M Zhang, D M Porterfield, A J Ricco, S J Roux, J L Rickus
This report describes the development of lab-on-a-chip device designed to measure changes in cellular ion gradients that are induced by changes in gravitational (g) forces. The bioCD presented here detects differential calcium ion concentrations outside of individual cells. The device includes sufficient replicates for statistical analysis of the gradients around multiple single cells and around control wells that are empty or include dead cells. In the data presented, the degree of the cellular response correlates with the magnitude of the g-force applied via rotation of the bioCD...
March 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173932/systematic-review-of-countermeasures-to-minimise-physiological-changes-and-risk-of-injury-to-the-lumbopelvic-area-following-long-term-microgravity
#19
Andrew Winnard, Mona Nasser, Dorothee Debuse, Maria Stokes, Simon Evetts, Mick Wilkinson, Julie Hides, Nick Caplan
BACKGROUND: No studies have been published on an astronaut population to assess the effectiveness of countermeasures for limiting physiological changes in the lumbopelvic region caused by microgravity exposure during spaceflight. However, several studies in this area have been done using spaceflight simulation via bed-rest. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures designed to limit physiological changes to the lumbopelvic region caused by spaceflight simulation by means of bed-rest...
January 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173930/methodology-for-astronaut-reconditioning-research
#20
David J Beard, Jonathan A Cook
Space medicine offers some unique challenges, especially in terms of research methodology. A specific challenge for astronaut reconditioning involves identification of what aspects of terrestrial research methodology hold and which require modification. This paper reviews this area and presents appropriate solutions where possible. It is concluded that spaceflight rehabilitation research should remain question/problem driven and is broadly similar to the terrestrial equivalent on small populations, such as rare diseases and various sports...
January 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
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