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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167819/successful-amplification-of-dna-aboard-the-international-space-station
#1
Anna-Sophia Boguraev, Holly C Christensen, Ashley R Bonneau, John A Pezza, Nicole M Nichols, Antonio J Giraldez, Michelle M Gray, Brandon M Wagner, Jordan T Aken, Kevin D Foley, D Scott Copeland, Sebastian Kraves, Ezequiel Alvarez Saavedra
As the range and duration of human ventures into space increase, it becomes imperative that we understand the effects of the cosmic environment on astronaut health. Molecular technologies now widely used in research and medicine will need to become available in space to ensure appropriate care of astronauts. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold standard for DNA analysis, yet its potential for use on-orbit remains under-explored. We describe DNA amplification aboard the International Space Station (ISS) through the use of a miniaturized miniPCR system...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167331/spaceflight-induced-intracranial-hypertension-and-visual-impairment-pathophysiology-and-countermeasures
#2
REVIEW
Li-Fan Zhang, Alan R Hargens
Visual impairment intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is considered an unexplained major risk for future long-duration spaceflight. NASA recently redefined this syndrome as Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS). Evidence thus reviewed supports that chronic, mildly elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in space (as opposed to more variable ICP with posture and activity on Earth) is largely accounted for by loss of hydrostatic pressures and altered hemodynamics in the intracranial circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163058/adaptive-changes-in-the-vestibular-system-of-land-snail-to-a-30-day-spaceflight-and-readaptation-on-return-to-earth
#3
Nikolay Aseyev, Alia Kh Vinarskaya, Matvey Roshchin, Tatiana A Korshunova, Aleksey Yu Malyshev, Alena B Zuzina, Victor N Ierusalimsky, Maria S Lemak, Igor S Zakharov, Ivan A Novikov, Peter Kolosov, Ekaterina Chesnokova, Svetlana Volkova, Artem Kasianov, Leonid Uroshlev, Yekaterina Popova, Richard D Boyle, Pavel M Balaban
The vestibular system receives a permanent influence from gravity and reflexively controls equilibrium. If we assume gravity has remained constant during the species' evolution, will its sensory system adapt to abrupt loss of that force? We address this question in the land snail Helix lucorum exposed to 30 days of near weightlessness aboard the Bion-M1 satellite, and studied geotactic behavior of postflight snails, differential gene expressions in statocyst transcriptome, and electrophysiological responses of mechanoreceptors to applied tilts...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161391/an-overview-of-space-medicine
#4
P D Hodkinson, R A Anderton, B N Posselt, K J Fong
Space medicine is fundamental to the human exploration of space. It supports survival, function and performance in this challenging and potentially lethal environment. It is international, intercultural and interdisciplinary, operating at the boundaries of exploration, science, technology and medicine. Space medicine is also the latest UK specialty to be recognized by the Royal College of Physicians in the UK and the General Medical Council. This review introduces the field of space medicine and describes the different types of spaceflight, environmental challenges, associated medical and physiological effects, and operational medical considerations...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157333/a-cohort-mortality-study-among-soviet-and-russian-cosmonauts-1961-2014
#5
Igor B Ushakov, Yuri I Voronkov, Igor V Bukhtiyarov, Galina I Tikhonova, Tatyana Yu Gorchakova, Mariya S Bryleva
INTRODUCTION: Over 500 people from different countries have been to space since the first manned spaceflight in 1961. Factors of space and spaceflights might cause functional and somatic disorders, leading to increased mortality. Our research goal was to assess cause-specific risk of death among Soviet and Russian cosmonauts who had at least one spaceflight. METHODS: The epidemiological cohort study included 115 male cosmonauts. The observation period was 54 yr (January 1, 1961-December 31, 2014) and 2707 person-years of follow-up were obtained...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155620/role-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-spaceflight-induced-ocular-changes-and-visual-impairment-in-astronaut
#6
Noam Alperin, Ahmet M Bagci, Carlos J Oliu, Sang H Lee, Byron L Lam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134470/the-effect-of-long-term-confinement-and-the-efficacy-of-exercise-countermeasures-on-muscle-strength-during-a-simulated-mission-to-mars-data-from-the-mars500-study
#7
Christopher J Gaffney, Elena Fomina, Dennis Babich, Vladimir Kitov, Konstantin Uskov, David A Green
BACKGROUND: Isolation and long duration spaceflight are associated with musculoskeletal deconditioning. Mars500 was a unique, high-fidelity analogue of the psychological challenges of a 520-day manned mission to Mars. We aimed to explore the effect of musculoskeletal deconditioning on three outcome measures: (1) if lower limb muscle strength was reduced during the 520-day isolation; (2) if type I or II muscle fibres were differentially affected; and (3) whether any 70-day exercise interventions prevented any isolation-induced loss of strength...
November 13, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127482/a-single-low-dose-of-fe-ions-can-cause-long-term-biological-responses-in-nl20-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#8
Qianlin Cao, Wei Liu, Jingdong Wang, Jianping Cao, Hongying Yang
Space radiation cancer risk may be a potential obstacle for long-duration spaceflight. Among all types of cancer space radiation may induce, lung cancer has been estimated to be the largest potential risk. Although previous animal study has shown that Fe ions, the most important contributor to the total dose equivalent of space radiation, induced a higher incidence of lung tumorigenesis per dose than X-rays, the underlying mechanisms at cellular level remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated long-term biological changes in NL20 human bronchial epithelial cells after exposure to Fe ion or X-ray irradiation...
November 10, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126773/clomipramine-counteracts-lipid-raft-disturbance-due-to-short-term-muscle-disuse
#9
Irina G Bryndina, Maria N Shalagina, Alexey V Sekunov, Andrei L Zefirov, Alexey M Petrov
Disuse-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction is a serious consequence of long-term spaceflight, numerous diseases and conditions for which treatment possibilities are still strictly limited. We have previously shown that acute hindlimb suspension (HS)-mediated disuse disrupts membrane lipid rafts in the unloaded muscle. Here, we investigated whether pretreatment of rats with the inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase, clomipramine (1.25mg/g/day, intramuscularly, for 5days before HS), is able to hinder the loss in lipid raft integrity in response to 12h of HS...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116818/pure-and-oxidized-copper-materials-as-potential-antimicrobial-surfaces-for-spaceflight-activities
#10
C Hahn, M Hans, C Hein, R L Mancinelli, F Mücklich, R Wirth, P Rettberg, C E Hellweg, R Moeller
Microbial biofilms can lead to persistent infections and degrade a variety of materials, and they are notorious for their persistence and resistance to eradication. During long-duration space missions, microbial biofilms present a danger to crew health and spacecraft integrity. The use of antimicrobial surfaces provides an alternative strategy for inhibiting microbial growth and biofilm formation to conventional cleaning procedures and the use of disinfectants. Antimicrobial surfaces contain organic or inorganic compounds, such as antimicrobial peptides or copper and silver, that inhibit microbial growth...
November 8, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091569/effects-of-spaceflight-on-astronaut-brain-structure-as-indicated-on-mri
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Donna R Roberts, Moritz H Albrecht, Heather R Collins, Davud Asemani, A Rano Chatterjee, M Vittoria Spampinato, Xun Zhu, Marc I Chimowitz, Michael U Antonucci
BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the effects of spaceflight on the anatomical configuration of the brain and on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. METHODS: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare images of 18 astronauts' brains before and after missions of long duration, involving stays on the International Space Station, and of 16 astronauts' brains before and after missions of short duration, involving participation in the Space Shuttle Program...
November 2, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089932/cryptoendolithic-antarctic-black-fungus-cryomyces-antarcticus-irradiated-with-accelerated-helium-ions-survival-and-metabolic-activity-dna-and-ultrastructural-damage
#12
Claudia Pacelli, Laura Selbmann, Ralf Moeller, Laura Zucconi, Akira Fujimori, Silvano Onofri
Space represents an extremely harmful environment for life and survival of terrestrial organisms. In the last decades, a considerable deal of attention was paid to characterize the effects of spaceflight relevant radiation on various model organisms. The aim of this study was to test the survival capacity of the cryptoendolithic black fungus Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515 to space relevant radiation, to outline its endurance to space conditions. In the frame of an international radiation campaign, dried fungal colonies were irradiated with accelerated Helium ion (150 MeV/n, LET 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079684/spaceflight-induced-changes-in-white-matter-hyperintensity-burden-in-astronauts
#13
Noam Alperin, Ahmet M Bagci, Sang H Lee
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weightlessness and the respective roles of CSF and vascular fluid on changes in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden in astronauts. METHODS: We analyzed prespaceflight and postspaceflight brain MRI scans from 17 astronauts, 10 who flew a long-duration mission on the International Space Station (ISS) and 7 who flew a short-duration mission on the Space Shuttle. Automated analysis methods were used to determine preflight to postflight changes in periventricular and deep WMH, CSF, and brain tissue volumes in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging...
October 27, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075195/falls-and-fall-prevention-in-older-persons-geriatrics-meets-spaceflight
#14
REVIEW
Nandu Goswami
This paper provides a general overview of key physiological consequences of microgravity experienced during spaceflight and of important parallels and connections to the physiology of aging. Microgravity during spaceflight influences cardiovascular function, cerebral autoregulation, musculoskeletal, and sensorimotor system performance. A great deal of research has been carried out to understand these influences and to provide countermeasures to reduce the observed negative consequences of microgravity on physiological function...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061459/spaceflight-and-neurosurgery-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-relevant-literature
#15
REVIEW
Christian Swinney, Zain Allison
OBJECT: Spaceflight and the associated gravitational fluctuations may impact various components of the central nervous system. These include changes in intracranial pressure, the spine, and neurocognitive performance. The implications of altered astronaut performance on critical spaceflight missions are potentially significant. The current body of research on this important topic is extremely limited and a comprehensive review has not been published. Herein, the authors address this notable gap, as well as the role of the neurosurgeon in optimizing potential diagnostic and therapeutic modalities...
October 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056408/effect-of-gravitational-gradients-on-cardiac-filling-and-performance
#16
Kazuaki Negishi, Allen G Borowski, Zoran B Popović, Neil L Greenberg, David S Martin, Michael W Bungo, Benjamin D Levine, James D Thomas
BACKGROUND: Gravity affects every aspect of cardiac performance. When gravitational gradients are at their greatest on Earth (i.e., during upright posture), orthostatic intolerance may ensue and is a common clinical problem that appears to be exacerbated by the adaptation to spaceflight. We sought to elucidate the alterations in cardiac performance during preload reduction with progressive upright tilt that are relevant both for space exploration and the upright posture, particularly the preload dependence of various parameters of cardiovascular performance...
October 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054708/semantic-analysis-of-thyroid-cancer-cell-proteins-obtained-from-rare-research-opportunities
#17
Johann Bauer, Daniela Grimm, Erich Gombocz
Research in natural sciences is mainly done by means of experiments. Some of those experiments such as spaceflight-dependent experiments are extremely laborious, complex and expensive. Hence, they often remain rare events with little chances of statistical tests and possibilities of repetition. In order to make each single event as valuable as possible, a sophisticated comparison of experimental data received with the hundreds of millions of computer-stored documents appears necessary. We used results of an earlier study on proteome analysis of microgravity-exposed human thyroid cancer cells, selected twenty proteins which appeared gravity sensitive and investigated whether their change observed in cells under the loss of gravity could cause health problems in astronauts...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046178/a-psychiatric-formulary-for-long-duration-spaceflight
#18
Eric Friedman, Brian Bui
Behavioral health is essential for the safety, well-being, and performance of crewmembers in both human spaceflight and Antarctic exploration. Over the past five decades, psychiatric issues have been documented in orbital spaceflight. In Antarctica, literature suggests up to 5% of wintering crewmembers could meet criteria for a psychiatric illness, including mood disorders, stressor-related disorders, sleep-wake disorders, and substance-related disorders. Experience from these settings indicates that psychiatric disorders on deep space missions must be anticipated...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046176/dysrhythmias-in-laypersons-during-centrifuge-simulated-suborbital-spaceflight
#19
Rahul Suresh, Rebecca S Blue, Charles H Mathers, Tarah L Castleberry, James M Vanderploeg
INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on cardiac dysrhythmias in laypersons during hypergravity exposure. We report layperson electrocardiograph (ECG) findings and tolerance of dysrhythmias during centrifuge-simulated suborbital spaceflight. METHODS: Volunteers participated in varied-length centrifuge training programs of 2-7 centrifuge runs over 0.5-2 d, culminating in two simulated suborbital spaceflights of combined +Gz and +Gx (peak +4.0 Gz, +6.0 Gx, duration 5 s)...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035346/redox-signaling-and-its-impact-on-skeletal-and-vascular-responses-to-spaceflight
#20
REVIEW
Candice G T Tahimic, Ruth K Globus
Spaceflight entails exposure to numerous environmental challenges with the potential to contribute to both musculoskeletal and vascular dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to describe current understanding of microgravity and radiation impacts on the mammalian skeleton and associated vasculature at the level of the whole organism. Recent experiments from spaceflight and ground-based models have provided fresh insights into how these environmental stresses influence mechanisms that are related to redox signaling, oxidative stress, and tissue dysfunction...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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