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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346705/effect-of-dys-1-mutation-on-gene-expression-profile-in-space-flown-c-elegans
#1
Dan Xu, Ying Gao, Lin Guo, Chenggang Lin, Yeqing Sun
INTRODUCTION: Dystrophin-like dys-1 gene expression increases in the body-wall muscles of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) after spaceflight. Here, we utilized a dys-1(cx18) mutant to analyze the molecular adaptive responses of C. elegans to spaceflight. METHODS: DNA microarrays were performed to identify differentially expressed genes between wild-type and dys-1 mutant worms after spaceflight. We performed Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses, predicted human diseases and screened out key genes for human muscle diseases with NextBio...
January 18, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327060/optical-coherence-tomography-analysis-of-the-optic-nerve-head-and-surrounding-structures-in-long-duration-international-space-station-astronauts
#2
Nimesh Patel, Anastas Pass, Sara Mason, Charles R Gibson, Christian Otto
Importance: After long-duration spaceflight, morphological changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and surrounding tissues have been reported. Objective: To develop methods to quantify ONH and surrounding tissue changes using preflight and postflight optical coherence tomographic scans of the ONH region. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two separate analyses were done on retrospective data, with the first comparing a preflight group with a control group, followed by preflight to postflight analysis...
January 11, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320953/spaceflight-activates-protein-kinase-c-alpha-signaling-and-modifies-the-developmental-stage-of-human-neonatal-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells
#3
Jonathan Baio, Aida F Martinez, Leonard L Bailey, Nahidh Hasaniya, Michael Pecaut, Mary Kearns-Jonker
Spaceflight impacts cardiovascular function in astronauts; however, its impact on cardiac development and the stem cells that form the basis for cardiac repair is unknown. Accordingly, further research is needed to uncover the potential relevance of such changes to human health. Using simulated microgravity (SMG) generated via two-dimensional clinorotation and culture aboard the International Space Station (ISS), we assessed the effects of mechanical unloading on human neonatal cardiovascular progenitor cell (CPC) developmental properties and signaling...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286386/investigating-the-detrimental-effects-of-low-pressure-plasma-sterilization-on-the-survival-of-bacillus-subtilis-spores-using-live-cell-microscopy
#4
Felix M Fuchs, Marina Raguse, Marcel Fiebrandt, Kazimierz Madela, Peter Awakowicz, Michael Laue, Katharina Stapelmann, Ralf Moeller
Plasma sterilization is a promising alternative to conventional sterilization methods for industrial, clinical, and spaceflight purposes. Low pressure plasma (LPP) discharges contain a broad spectrum of active species, which lead to rapid microbial inactivation. To study the efficiency and mechanisms of sterilization by LPP, we use spores of the test organism Bacillus subtilis because of their extraordinary resistance against conventional sterilization procedures. We describe the production of B. subtilis spore monolayers, the sterilization process by low pressure plasma in a double inductively coupled plasma reactor, the characterization of spore morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the analysis of germination and outgrowth of spores by live cell microscopy...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233246/intraocular-lens-use-in-an-astronaut-during-long-duration-spaceflight
#5
Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, Josef F Schmid, William Lipsky, Ashot E Sargsyan, Kathleen Garcia, Jeffrey N Williams
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to report the first use of an intraocular lens (IOL) in an astronaut during long duration spaceflight (LDSF). An astronaut developed a unilateral cataract and underwent phacoemulsification with insertion of an acrylic IOL. Approximately 15 mo later he flew on a Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station (ISS), where he successfully completed a 6-mo mission. CASE REPORT: Ocular examination, including ultrasound (US), was performed before, during, and after his mission and he was questioned regarding visual changes during each portion of his flight...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233242/preflight-in-flight-and-postflight-imaging-of-the-cervical-and-lumbar-spine-in-astronauts
#6
Michael F Harrison, Kathleen M Garcia, Ashot E Sargsyan, Douglas Ebert, Roy F Riascos-Castaneda, Scott A Dulchavsky
BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common complaint during spaceflight that is commonly attributed to intervertebral disc swelling in microgravity. Ultrasound (US) represents the only imaging modality on the International Space Station (ISS) to assess its etiology. The present study investigated: 1) The agreement and correlation of spinal US assessments as compared to results of pre- and postflight MRI studies; and 2) the trend in intervertebral disc characteristics over the course of spaceflight to ISS...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233237/medical-implications-of-space-radiation-exposure-due-to-low-altitude-polar-orbits
#7
Jeffery C Chancellor, Serena M Auñon-Chancellor, John Charles
INTRODUCTION: Space radiation research has progressed rapidly in recent years, but there remain large uncertainties in predicting and extrapolating biological responses to humans. Exposure to cosmic radiation and solar particle events (SPEs) may pose a critical health risk to future spaceflight crews and can have a serious impact on all biomedical aspects of space exploration. The relatively minimal shielding of the cancelled 1960s Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program's space vehicle and the high inclination polar orbits would have left the crew susceptible to high exposures of cosmic radiation and high dose-rate SPEs that are mostly unpredictable in frequency and intensity...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214212/erratum-brain-structural-plasticity-with-spaceflight
#8
Vincent Koppelmans, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/s41526-016-0001-9.].
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207508/preparation-of-a-spaceflight-apoptosis-search-in-sutured-wound-healing-models
#9
Stefan Riwaldt, Monica Monici, Asbjørn Graver Petersen, Uffe Birk Jensen, Katja Evert, Desiré Pantalone, Kirsten Utpatel, Matthias Evert, Markus Wehland, Marcus Krüger, Sascha Kopp, Sofie Frandsen, Thomas Corydon, Jayashree Sahana, Johann Bauer, Ronald Lützenberg, Manfred Infanger, Daniela Grimm
To prepare the ESA (European Space Agency) spaceflight project "Wound healing and Sutures in Unloading Conditions", we studied mechanisms of apoptosis in wound healing models based on ex vivo skin tissue cultures, kept for 10 days alive in serum-free DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, hydrocortisone, insulin, ascorbic acid and antibiotics at 32 °C. The overall goal is to test: (i) the viability of tissue specimens; (ii) the gene expression of activators and inhibitors of apoptosis and extracellular matrix components in wound and suture models; and (iii) to design analytical protocols for future tissue specimens after post-spaceflight download...
December 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198318/growth-in-spaceflight-hardware-results-in-alterations-to-the-transcriptome-and-proteome
#10
Proma Basu, Colin P S Kruse, Darron R Luesse, Sarah E Wyatt
The Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware has been used to house many biology experiments on both the Space Transport System (STS, commonly known as the space shuttle) and the International Space Station (ISS). However, microscopic examination of Arabidopsis seedlings by Johnson et al. (2015) indicated the hardware itself may affect cell morphology. The experiment herein was designed to assess the effects of the BRIC-Petri Dish Fixation Units (BRIC-PDFU) hardware on the transcriptome and proteome of Arabidopsis seedlings...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198315/mimicking-the-effects-of-spaceflight-on-bone-combined-effects-of-disuse-and-chronic-low-dose-rate-radiation-exposure-on-bone-mass-in-mice
#11
Kanglun Yu, Alison H Doherty, Paula C Genik, Sara E Gookin, Danielle M Roteliuk, Samantha J Wojda, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Michael M Weil, Seth W Donahue
During spaceflight, crewmembers are subjected to biomechanical and biological challenges including microgravity and radiation. In the skeleton, spaceflight leads to bone loss, increasing the risk of fracture. Studies utilizing hindlimb suspension (HLS) as a ground-based model of spaceflight often neglect the concomitant effects of radiation exposure, and even when radiation is accounted for, it is often delivered at a high-dose rate over a very short period of time, which does not faithfully mimic spaceflight conditions...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198314/t-cell-resistance-to-activation-by-dendritic-cells-requires-long-term-culture-in-simulated-microgravity
#12
Jillian H Bradley, Rachel Stein, Brad Randolph, Emily Molina, Jennifer P Arnold, Randal K Gregg
Immune impairment mediated by microgravity threatens the success of space exploration requiring long-duration spaceflight. The cells of most concern, T lymphocytes, coordinate the host response against microbial and cancerous challenges leading to elimination and long-term protection. T cells are activated upon recognition of specific microbial peptides bound on the surface of antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DC). Subsequently, this engagement results in T cell proliferation and differentiation into effector T cells driven by autocrine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and other cytokines...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198313/modifiers-of-radiation-effects-in-the-eye
#13
REVIEW
Norman J Kleiman, Fiona A Stewart, Eric J Hall
World events, including the threat of radiological terrorism and the fear of nuclear accidents, have highlighted an urgent need to develop medical countermeasures to prevent or reduce radiation injury. Similarly, plans for manned spaceflight to a near-Earth asteroid or journey to Mars raise serious concerns about long-term effects of space radiation on human health and the availability of suitable therapeutic interventions. At the same time, the need to protect normal tissue from the deleterious effects of radiotherapy has driven considerable research into the design of effective radioprotectors...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198309/effects-of-simulated-microgravity-on-gene-expression-and-biological-phenotypes-of-a-single-generation-caenorhabditis-elegans-cultured-on-2-different-media
#14
Ling Fei Tee, Hui-Min Neoh, Sue Mian Then, Nor Azian Murad, Mohd Fairos Asillam, Mohd Helmy Hashim, Sheila Nathan, Rahman Jamal
Studies of multigenerational Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to long-term spaceflight have revealed expression changes of genes involved in longevity, DNA repair, and locomotion. However, results from spaceflight experiments are difficult to reproduce as space missions are costly and opportunities are rather limited for researchers. In addition, multigenerational cultures of C. elegans used in previous studies contribute to mixture of gene expression profiles from both larvae and adult worms, which were recently reported to be different...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198308/payload-hardware-and-experimental-protocol-development-to-enable-future-testing-of-the-effect-of-space-microgravity-on-the-resistance-to-gentamicin-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-its-%C3%AF-s-deficient-mutant
#15
A C Matin, J-H Wang, Mimi Keyhan, Rachna Singh, Michael Benoit, Macarena P Parra, Michael R Padgen, Antonio J Ricco, Matthew Chin, Charlie R Friedericks, Tori N Chinn, Aaron Cohen, Michael B Henschke, Timothy V Snyder, Matthew P Lera, Shannon S Ross, Christina M Mayberry, Sungshin Choi, Diana T Wu, Ming X Tan, Travis D Boone, Christopher C Beasley, Matthew E Piccini, Stevan M Spremo
Human immune response is compromised and bacteria can become more antibiotic resistant in space microgravity (MG). We report that under low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), stationary-phase uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) become more resistant to gentamicin (Gm), and that this increase is dependent on the presence of σs (a transcription regulator encoded by the rpoS gene). UPEC causes urinary tract infections (UTIs), reported to afflict astronauts; Gm is a standard treatment, so these findings could impact astronaut health...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175087/iso-risk-air-no-decompression-limits-after-scoring-marginal-decompression-sickness-cases-as-non-events
#16
F Gregory Murphy, Ashleigh J Swingler, Wayne A Gerth, Laurens E Howle
Decompression sickness (DCS) in humans is associated with reductions in ambient pressure that occur during diving, aviation, or certain manned spaceflight operations. Its signs and symptoms can include, but are not limited to, joint pain, radiating abdominal pain, paresthesia, dyspnea, general malaise, cognitive dysfunction, cardiopulmonary dysfunction, and death. Probabilistic models of DCS allow the probability of DCS incidence and time of occurrence during or after a given hyperbaric or hypobaric exposure to be predicted based on how the gas contents or gas bubble volumes vary in hypothetical tissue compartments during the exposure...
November 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170507/increased-core-body-temperature-in-astronauts-during-long-duration-space-missions
#17
Alexander C Stahn, Andreas Werner, Oliver Opatz, Martina A Maggioni, Mathias Steinach, Victoria Weller von Ahlefeld, Alan Moore, Brian E Crucian, Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart, Thomas Schlabs, Stefan Mendt, Tobias Trippel, Eberhard Koralewski, Jochim Koch, Alexander Choukèr, Günther Reitz, Peng Shang, Lothar Röcker, Karl A Kirsch, Hanns-Christian Gunga
Humans' core body temperature (CBT) is strictly controlled within a narrow range. Various studies dealt with the impact of physical activity, clothing, and environmental factors on CBT regulation under terrestrial conditions. However, the effects of weightlessness on human thermoregulation are not well understood. Specifically, studies, investigating the effects of long-duration spaceflight on CBT at rest and during exercise are clearly lacking. We here show that during exercise CBT rises higher and faster in space than on Earth...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167819/successful-amplification-of-dna-aboard-the-international-space-station
#18
Anna-Sophia Boguraev, Holly C Christensen, Ashley R Bonneau, John A Pezza, Nicole M Nichols, Antonio J Giraldez, Michelle M Gray, Brandon M Wagner, Jordan T Aken, Kevin D Foley, D Scott Copeland, Sebastian Kraves, Ezequiel Alvarez Saavedra
As the range and duration of human ventures into space increase, it becomes imperative that we understand the effects of the cosmic environment on astronaut health. Molecular technologies now widely used in research and medicine will need to become available in space to ensure appropriate care of astronauts. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold standard for DNA analysis, yet its potential for use on-orbit remains under-explored. We describe DNA amplification aboard the International Space Station (ISS) through the use of a miniaturized miniPCR system...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167331/spaceflight-induced-intracranial-hypertension-and-visual-impairment-pathophysiology-and-countermeasures
#19
REVIEW
Li-Fan Zhang, Alan R Hargens
Visual impairment intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is considered an unexplained major risk for future long-duration spaceflight. NASA recently redefined this syndrome as Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS). Evidence thus reviewed supports that chronic, mildly elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in space (as opposed to more variable ICP with posture and activity on Earth) is largely accounted for by loss of hydrostatic pressures and altered hemodynamics in the intracranial circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163058/adaptive-changes-in-the-vestibular-system-of-land-snail-to-a-30-day-spaceflight-and-readaptation-on-return-to-earth
#20
Nikolay Aseyev, Alia Kh Vinarskaya, Matvey Roshchin, Tatiana A Korshunova, Aleksey Yu Malyshev, Alena B Zuzina, Victor N Ierusalimsky, Maria S Lemak, Igor S Zakharov, Ivan A Novikov, Peter Kolosov, Ekaterina Chesnokova, Svetlana Volkova, Artem Kasianov, Leonid Uroshlev, Yekaterina Popova, Richard D Boyle, Pavel M Balaban
The vestibular system receives a permanent influence from gravity and reflexively controls equilibrium. If we assume gravity has remained constant during the species' evolution, will its sensory system adapt to abrupt loss of that force? We address this question in the land snail Helix lucorum exposed to 30 days of near weightlessness aboard the Bion-M1 satellite, and studied geotactic behavior of postflight snails, differential gene expressions in statocyst transcriptome, and electrophysiological responses of mechanoreceptors to applied tilts...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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