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Amygdala and pain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888073/early-life-inflammation-with-lps-delays-fear-extinction-in-adult-rodents
#1
V M Doenni, C M Song, M N Hill, Q J Pittman
A large body of evidence has been brought forward connecting developmental immune activation to abnormal fear and anxiety levels. Anxiety disorders have extremely high lifetime prevalence, yet susceptibility factors that contribute to their emergence are poorly understood. In this research we investigated whether an inflammatory insult early in life can alter the response to fear conditioning in adulthood. Fear learning and extinction are important and adaptive behaviors, mediated largely by the amygdala and its interconnectivity with cortico-limbic circuits...
November 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876655/dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation-attenuates-the-bold-signal-response-to-noxious-sensory-input-in-specific-brain-regions-insights-into-a-possible-mechanism-for-analgesia
#2
Christopher P Pawela, Jeffery M Kramer, Quinn H Hogan
Targeted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) electrical stimulation (i.e. ganglionic field stimulation - GFS) is an emerging therapeutic approach to alleviate chronic pain. Here we describe blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to noxious hind-limb stimulation in a rat model that replicates clinical GFS using an electrode implanted adjacent to the DRG. Acute noxious sensory stimulation in the absence of GFS caused robust BOLD fMRI response in brain regions previously associated with sensory and pain-related response, such as primary/secondary somatosensory cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, thalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and amygdala...
November 19, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857679/bold-imaging-in-awake-wild-type-and-mu-opioid-receptor-knock-out-mice-reveals-on-target-activation-maps-in-response-to-oxycodone
#3
Kelsey Moore, Dan Madularu, Sade Iriah, Jason R Yee, Praveen Kulkarni, Emmanuel Darcq, Brigitte L Kieffer, Craig F Ferris
Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) imaging in awake mice was used to identify differences in brain activity between wild-type, and Mu (μ) opioid receptor knock-outs (MuKO) in response to oxycodone (OXY). Using a segmented, annotated MRI mouse atlas and computational analysis, patterns of integrated positive and negative BOLD activity were identified across 122 brain areas. The pattern of positive BOLD showed enhanced activation across the brain in WT mice within 15 min of intraperitoneal administration of 2...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849648/amygdala-mediated-mechanisms-regulate-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-adult-females-following-early-life-stress-importance-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor
#4
Dawn K Prusator, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
Alterations in amygdala activity are apparent in women who report a history of early life stress (ELS) as well as those diagnosed with chronic pain disorders. Chronic stress in adulthood induces visceral hypersensitivity via alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression within the central amygdala (CeA). Here we hypothesized that unpredictable ELS, previously shown to induce visceral hypersensitivity in adult female rats, alters GR and CRF expression in the CeA...
November 14, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837170/differential-contributions-of-vasopressin-v1a-and-oxytocin-receptors-in-the-amygdala-to-pain-related-behaviors-in-rats
#5
Bryce Cragg, Guangchen Ji, Volker Neugebauer
Neuroplastic changes in the amygdala account for emotional-affective aspects of pain and involve neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide and corticotropin-releasing factor. Another neuropeptide system, central arginine vasopressin, has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, but its role in pain-related emotional expression and neuroplasticity remains to be determined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that arginine vasopressin in the amygdala contributes to pain-related emotional-affective responses, using stereotaxic applications of arginine vasopressin and antagonists for G-protein coupled vasopressin V1A and oxytocin receptors in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826033/the-neurobiology-of-safety-and-threat-learning-in-infancy
#6
REVIEW
Jacek Debiec, Regina M Sullivan
What an animal needs to learn to survive is altered dramatically as they change from dependence on the parent for protection to independence and reliance on self-defense. This transition occurs in most altricial animals, but our understanding of the behavioral neurobiology has mostly relied on the infant rat. The transformation from dependence to independence occurs over three weeks in pups and is accompanied by complex changes in responses to both natural and learned threats and the supporting neural circuitry...
November 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812328/adverse-social-experiences-in-adolescent-rats-result-in-enduring-effects-on-social-competence-pain-sensitivity-and-endocannabinoid-signaling
#7
Peggy Schneider, Laura Bindila, Christian Schmahl, Martin Bohus, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Beat Lutz, Rainer Spanagel, Miriam Schneider
Social affiliation is essential for many species and gains significant importance during adolescence. Disturbances in social affiliation, in particular social rejection experiences during adolescence, affect an individual's well-being and are involved in the emergence of psychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown, partly because of a lack of valid animal models. By using a novel animal model for social peer-rejection, which compromises adolescent rats in their ability to appropriately engage in playful activities, here we report on persistent impairments in social behavior and dysregulations in the endocannabinoid (eCB) system...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764759/6-methoxyflavanone-attenuates-mechanical-allodynia-and-vulvodynia-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-neuropathic-pain
#8
Shehla Akbar, Fazal Subhan, Nasiara Karim, Muhammad Shahid, Nisar Ahmad, Gowhar Ali, Wajahat Mahmood, Khwaja Fawad
BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathy is the most prevalent, persistent and debilitating complication of diabetes mellitus often coupled with vulvodynia that may present as an isolated symptom or as a part of constellation of other neuropathic abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: Flavonoids have selective affinity for GABA receptors and 6-methoxyflavanone (6-MeOF) is a positive allosteric modulator of GABA responses at human recombinant GABAA receptors. GABAergic and opioidergic system inhibition have been shown to facilitate neuropathic pain...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732892/decreasing-gaba-function-within-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-or-basolateral-amygdala-decreases-sociability
#9
Tracie A Paine, Nathan Swedlow, Lucien Swetschinski
INTRODUCTION: Decreased sociability is a symptom of psychiatric conditions including autism-spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Both of these conditions are associated with decreases in GABA function, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA); structures that are components of the social brain. Here, we determined if decreasing GABA transmission within either the PFC or the BLA decreases social behavior. METHODS: Rats were implanted with cannulae aimed at either the medial PFC or the BLA and then were tested on up to 4 behavioral tests following bilateral infusions of 0...
January 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712014/generation-of-a-nk1r-creer-knockin-mouse-strain-to-study-cells-involved-in-neurokinin-1-receptor-signaling
#10
Huizhen Huang, Marissa S Kuzirian, Xiaoyun Cai, Lindsey M Snyder, Jonathan Cohen, Daniel H Kaplan, Sarah E Ross
The Neurokinin 1 Receptor (NK1R), which binds Substance P, is expressed in discrete populations of neurons throughout the nervous system, where it has numerous roles including the modulation of pain and affective behaviors. Here, we report the generation of a NK1R-CreER knockin allele, in which CreER(T2) replaces the coding sequence of the TACR1 gene (encoding NK1R) in order to gain genetic access to these cells. We find that the NK1R-CreER allele mediates recombination in many regions of the nervous system that are important in pain and anxiety including the amygdala, hypothalamus, frontal cortex, raphe nucleus, and dorsal horn of the spinal cord...
November 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686278/deficient-fear-extinction-memory-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Manon Wicking, Frauke Steiger, Frauke Nees, Slawomira J Diener, Oliver Grimm, Michaela Ruttorf, Lothar R Schad, Tobias Winkelmann, Gustav Wirtz, Herta Flor
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be maintained by deficient extinction memory. We used a cued fear conditioning design with extinction and a post-extinction phase to provoke the return of fear and examined the role of the interplay of amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal regions. METHODS: We compared 18 PTSD patients with two healthy control groups: 18 trauma-exposed subjects without PTSD (nonPTSD) and 18 healthy controls (HC) without trauma experience...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664369/impairment-of-decision-making-associated-with-disruption-of-phase-locking-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-viscerally-hypersensitive-rats
#12
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Li Mu, David Chun-Hei Poon, Ying Li
Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a key factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous studies have identified an enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in VH rats, which can be observed up to 7weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colonic inflammation. The induction of VH produces a change in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity at the ACC circuitry. In clinical practice, a positive link between IBS and cognitive impairments has been noted for years, but no animal model has been reported...
December 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649266/n-palmitoylethanolamide-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-attenuates-inflammatory-pain-behaviour-indirectly-via-a-cb1-receptor-mediated-mechanism
#13
Bright N Okine, Manish K Madasu, Fiona McGowan, Charles Prendergast, Jessica C Gaspar, Brendan Harhen, Michelle Roche, David P Finn
The neural substrates and mechanisms mediating the antinociceptive effects of the endogenous bioactive lipid, N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), require further investigation. We investigated the effects of exogenous PEA administration into the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an important brain region linked with cognitive and affective modulation of pain, on formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour in rats. Potential involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoforms (PPAR) α and γ or endocannabinoid-mediated entourage effects at cannabinoid1 (CB1) receptors or transient receptor potential subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in mediating the effects of PEA was also investigated...
August 16, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628528/ethanol-increases-mechanical-pain-sensitivity-in-rats-via-activation-of-gabaa-receptors-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Kai-Wen Geng, Ting He, Rui-Rui Wang, Chun-Li Li, Wen-Jun Luo, Fang-Fang Wu, Yan Wang, Zhen Li, Yun-Fei Lu, Su-Min Guan, Jun Chen
Ethanol is widely known for its ability to cause dramatic changes in emotion, social cognition, and behavior following systemic administration in humans. Human neuroimaging studies suggest that alcohol dependence and chronic pain may share common mechanisms through amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) interactions. However, whether acute administration of ethanol in the mPFC can modulate pain perception is unknown. Here we showed that bilateral microinjections of ethanol into the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the mPFC lowered the bilateral mechanical pain threshold for 48 h without influencing thermal pain sensitivity in adult rats...
October 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621368/the-effects-of-extended-pain-on-behavior-recent-progress
#15
REVIEW
Ted B Usdin, Eugene L Dimitrov
Chronic pain is frequently associated with anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction. This review discusses recent work in rodents that contributes to the understanding of their neurobiological links. Brain regions that contain circuits that mediate persistent changes in behavior that are caused by nerve injury or joint inflammation include the rostral anterior cingulate and other parts of the medial prefrontal cortex, the basolateral and central nucleus of the amygdala, and the nucleus accumbens. Functional changes, including increases in the activity within specific neuronal pathways and in the levels of specific synaptic components, that are associated with the behavior changes, or are in some cases necessary for them, have recently been identified...
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575449/hypnosis-and-anesthesia-back-to-the-future
#16
Enrico Facco
Hypnosis is a physiological mind activity characterized by focused attention, absorption, dissociation and plastic imagination. In the early 19th century, several hundred surgical interventions were described with hypnosis as the sole anesthetic, in an epoch when no anesthetic drugs were available; then hypnosis was prejudicially abandoned and forgotten after their introduction. In the past two decades, an increasing number of studies on hypnosis has shown its capacity to modify the activity of the prefrontal cortex, default mode network and pain neuromatrix (including the anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, thalamus, insula and somatosensory cortex) and increase pain threshold up to the level of surgical anesthesia...
August 30, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574286/topography-of-microglial-activation-in-sensory-and-affect-related-brain-regions-in-chronic-pain
#17
Anna M W Taylor, Sadaf Mehrabani, Steve Liu, Alison J Taylor, Catherine M Cahill
Microglial activation in the spinal cord plays a central role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain after a peripheral nerve injury (PNI). There has not yet been a thorough assessment of microglial activation in brain regions associated with pain and reward. To this end, this study uses a mouse model of neuropathic pain in which the left sciatic nerve of male C57Bl/6J mice is loosely constricted (chronic constriction injury) to assess microglial activation in several brain regions 2 weeks after injury, a time point at which pain hypersensitivity is well established...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567942/involvement-of-the-dynorphin-kor-system-on-the-nociceptive-emotional-and-cognitive-manifestations-of-joint-pain-in-mice
#18
Roger Negrete, María Salud García Gutiérrez, Jorge Manzanares, Rafael Maldonado
Joint pain is a major clinical problem mainly associated to osteoarthritis, and characterized by articular cartilage degradation resulting in a complex chronic pain state that includes nociceptive, emotional and cognitive manifestations. Memory impairment, depressive- and anxiety-like symptoms have been reported to be associated with chronic pain, leading to a decrease of life quality. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of the endogenous dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system on the nociceptive, emotional, cognitive, neurochemical and epigenetic manifestations of joint pain...
August 24, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520589/hormonal-and-molecular-effects-of-restraint-stress-on-formalin-induced-pain-like-behavior-in-male-and-female-mice
#19
Caela C Long, Katelyn E Sadler, Benedict J Kolber
The evolutionary advantages to the suppression of pain during a stressful event (stress-induced analgesia (SIA)) are obvious, yet the reasoning behind sex-differences in the expression of this pain reduction are not. The different ways in which males and females integrate physiological stress responses and descending pain inhibition are unclear. A potential supraspinal modulator of stress-induced analgesia is the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). This limbic brain region is involved in both the processing of stress and pain; the CeA is anatomically and molecularly linked to regions of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and descending pain network...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507941/neural-correlates-of-fear-of-movement-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-vs-pain-free-individuals
#20
Michael L Meier, Philipp Stämpfli, Andrea Vrana, Barry K Humphreys, Erich Seifritz, Sabina Hotz-Boendermaker
Fear of movement (FOM) can be acquired by a direct aversive experience such as pain or by social learning through observation and instruction. Excessive FOM results in heightened disability and is an obstacle for recovery from acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain (cLBP). FOM has further been identified as a significant explanatory factor in the Fear Avoidance (FA) model of cLBP that describes how individuals experiencing acute back pain may become trapped into a vicious circle of chronic disability and suffering...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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