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Central nucleus of the amygdala

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922639/mesolimbic-leptin-signaling-negatively-regulates-cocaine-conditioned-reward
#1
M Shen, C Jiang, P Liu, F Wang, L Ma
The regulatory mechanisms underlying the response to addictive drugs are complex, and increasing evidence indicates that there is a role for appetite-regulating pathways in substance abuse. Leptin, an important adipose hormone that regulates energy balance and appetite, exerts its physiological functions via leptin receptors. However, the role of leptin signaling in regulating the response to cocaine remains unclear. Here we examined the potential role of leptin signaling in cocaine reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919738/long-term-ethanol-self-administration-induces-%C3%AE-fosb-in-male-and-female-adolescent-but-not-in-adult-wistar-rats
#2
Aranza Wille-Bille, Soledad de Olmos, Leonardo Marengo, Florencia Chiner, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Early-onset ethanol consumption predicts later development of alcohol use disorders. Age-related differences in reactivity to ethanol's effects may underlie this effect. Adolescent rats are more sensitive and less sensitive than adults to the appetitive and aversive behavioral effects of ethanol, respectively, and more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of experimenter-administered binge doses of ethanol. However, less is known about age-related differences in the neural consequences of self-administered ethanol...
December 2, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909096/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#3
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We previously demonstrated that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we use neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections co-express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899281/sex-differences-in-responses-of-the-basolateral-central-amygdala-circuit-to-alcohol-corticosterone-and-their-interaction
#4
Marian L Logrip, Christopher Oleata, Marisa Roberto
Alcohol use disorders are chronically relapsing conditions that pose significant health challenges for our society. Stress is a prevalent trigger of relapse, particularly for women, yet the mechanisms by which alcohol and stress interact, and how this differs between males and females, remain poorly understood. The glutamatergic circuit connecting the basolateral (BLA) and central (CeA) nuclei of the amygdala is a likely locus for such adaptations, yet the impact of alcohol, corticosterone and their interaction on this circuit has been understudied...
November 26, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895565/challenges-to-the-pair-bond-neural-and-hormonal-effects-of-separation-and-reunion-in-a-monogamous-primate
#5
Katie Hinde, Chelsea Muth, Nicole Maninger, Benjamin J Ragen, Rebecca H Larke, Michael R Jarcho, Sally P Mendoza, William A Mason, Emilio Ferrer, Simon R Cherry, Marina L Fisher-Phelps, Karen L Bales
Social monogamy at its most basic is a group structure in which two adults form a unit and share a territory. However, many socially monogamous pairs display attachment relationships known as pair bonds, in which there is a mutual preference for the partner and distress upon separation. The neural and hormonal basis of this response to separation from the adult pair mate is under-studied. In this project, we examined this response in male titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), a socially monogamous New World primate...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876634/individual-and-interactive-sex-specific-effects-of-acute-restraint-and-systemic-ifn-%C3%AE-treatment-on-neurochemistry
#6
Darcy Litteljohn, Chris Rudyk, Sara Razmjou, Zach Dwyer, Shuaib Syed, Shawn Hayley
Compelling evidence supports the involvement of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IFN-α and TNF-α in depression and related stress-associated pathologies. A role has also been suggested for the Th1-type cytokine, IFN-γ, with most mechanistic accounts focusing on the cytokine's capacity to induce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), leading to diminished tryptophan and the generation of kynurenine metabolites. Beyond these IDO-dependent routes, there is surprisingly little evidence directly linking IFN-γ to alterations of brain regional monoamine activity and HPA axis functioning...
November 19, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867101/regulation-of-fear-extinction-by-long-term-depression-the-roles-of-endocannabinoids-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#7
REVIEW
Maxwell R Bennett, Jonathon Arnold, Sean N Hatton, Jim Lagopoulos
The extinction of a conditioned fear response is of great interest in the search for a means of ameliorating adverse neurobiological changes resulting from stress. The discovery that endocannibinoid (EC) levels are inversely related to the extent of such stress, and that the amygdala is a primary site mediating stress, suggests that ECs in this brain region might play a major role in extinction. Supporting this are the observations that the basolateral complex of the amygdala shows an increase in ECs only during extinction and that early clinical trials indicate that cannabinoid-like agents, when taken orally by patients suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reduce insomnia and nightmares...
November 17, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859973/reorganization-of-brain-connectivity-in-obesity
#8
Paul Geha, Guillermo Cecchi, R Todd Constable, Chadi Abdallah, Dana M Small
Global brain connectivity (GBC) identifies regions of the brain, termed "hubs," which are densely connected and metabolically costly, and have a wide influence on brain function. Since obesity is associated with central and peripheral metabolic dysfunction we sought to determine if GBC is altered in obesity. Two independent fMRI data sets were subjected to GBC analyses. The first data set was acquired while participants (n = 15 healthy weight and 15 obese) tasted milkshake and the second with participants at rest (n = 33 healthy weight and 28 obese)...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856342/angiotensin-ii-at1-receptors-mediate-neuronal-sensitization-and-sustained-blood-pressure-response-induced-by-a-single-injection-of-amphetamine
#9
N A Marchese, M C Paz, X Caeiro, F M Dadam, G Baiardi, M F Perez, C Bregonzio
A single exposure to amphetamine induces neurochemical sensitization in striatal areas. The neuropeptide angiotensin II, through AT1 receptors (AT1-R) activation, is involved in these responses. However, amphetamine-induced alterations can be extended to extra-striatal areas involved in blood pressure control and their physiological outcomes. Our aim for the present study was to analyze the possible role for AT1-R in these events using a two-injection protocol and to further characterize the proposed AT1-R antagonism protocol...
November 14, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849613/endogenous-central-amygdala-mu-opioid-receptor-signaling-promotes-sodium-appetite-in-mice
#10
Craig M Smith, Lesley L Walker, Tanawan Leeboonngam, Michael J McKinley, Derek A Denton, Andrew J Lawrence
Due to the importance of dietary sodium and its paucity within many inland environments, terrestrial animals have evolved an instinctive sodium appetite that is commensurate with sodium deficiency. Despite a well-established role for central opioid signaling in sodium appetite, the endogenous influence of specific opioid receptor subtypes within distinct brain regions remains to be elucidated. Using selective pharmacological antagonists of opioid receptor subtypes, we reveal that endogenous mu-opioid receptor (MOR) signaling strongly drives sodium appetite in sodium-depleted mice, whereas a role for kappa (KOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptor signaling was not detected, at least in sodium-depleted mice...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833538/impaired-decision-making-and-loss-of-inhibitory-control-in-a-rat-model-of-huntington-disease
#11
Nicole El Massioui, Charlotte Lamirault, Sara Yagüe, Najia Adjeroud, Daniel Garces, Alexis Maillard, Lucille Tallot, Libo Yu-Taeger, Olaf Riess, Philippe Allain, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Stephan von Hörsten, Valérie Doyère
Cognitive deficits associated with Huntington disease (HD) are generally dominated by executive function disorders often associated with disinhibition and impulsivity/compulsivity. Few studies have directly examined symptoms and consequences of behavioral disinhibition in HD and its relation with decision-making. To assess the different forms of impulsivity in a transgenic model of HD (tgHD rats), two tasks assessing cognitive/choice impulsivity were used: risky decision-making with a rat gambling task (RGT) and intertemporal choices with a delay discounting task (DD)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832450/neural-correlates-of-correct-and-failed-response-inhibition-in-heavy-versus-light-social-drinkers-an-fmri-study-during-a-go-no-go-task-by-healthy-participants
#12
Salvatore Campanella, Julie Absil, Carina Carbia Sinde, Elisa Schroder, Philippe Peigneux, Mathieu Bourguignon, Mathieu Petieau, Thierry Metens, Mustapha Nouali, Serge Goldman, Guy Cheron, Paul Verbanck, Xavier Detiège
The ability to suppress responses that are inappropriate, as well as the mechanisms monitoring the accuracy of actions in order to compensate for errors, is central to human behavior. Neural alterations that prevent stopping an inaccurate response, combined with a decreased ability of error monitoring, are considered to be prominent features of alcohol abuse. Moreover, (i) alterations of these processes have been reported in heavy social drinkers (i.e. young healthy individuals who do not yet exhibit a state of alcohol dependence); and (ii) through longitudinal studies, these alterations have been shown to underlie subsequent disinhibition that may lead to future alcohol use disorders...
November 10, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822501/inhibition-of-ikk%C3%AE-reduces-ethanol-consumption-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#13
Jay M Truitt, Yuri A Blednov, Jillian M Benavidez, Mendy Black, Olga Ponomareva, Jade Law, Morgan Merriman, Sami Horani, Kelly Jameson, Amy W Lasek, R Adron Harris, R Dayne Mayfield
Proinflammatory pathways in neuronal and non-neuronal cells are implicated in the acute and chronic effects of alcohol exposure in animal models and humans. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family of DNA transcription factors plays important roles in inflammatory diseases. The kinase IKKβ mediates the phosphorylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation of cytosolic protein inhibitors of NF-κB, leading to activation of NF-κB. The role of IKKβ as a potential regulator of excessive alcohol drinking had not previously been investigated...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805752/targeting-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-projections-from-the-oval-nucleus-of-the-bnst-using-cell-type-specific-neuronal-tracing-studies-in-mouse-and-rat-brain
#14
Joanna Dabrowska, Daisy Martinon, Mahsa Moaddab, Donald G Rainnie
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is known to play a critical role in mediating the behavioral and autonomic responses to stressors. The oval nucleus of the BNST (BNSTov) contains cell bodies that synthesize the stress hormone, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). Although afferent fibers originating from the BNSTov have been shown to innervate several key structures of the neuroendocrine and central autonomic system, the question remains as to whether, some of these fibers are CRF-positive. To directly address this question, we injected a "floxed" anterograde tracer (rAAV5/EF1a-DIO-mCherry) into the BNSTov of CRFp3...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798128/a-functional-switch-in-tonic-gaba-currents-alters-the-output-of-central-amygdala-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-neurons-following-chronic-ethanol-exposure
#15
Melissa A Herman, Candice Contet, Marisa Roberto
: The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system in the central amygdala (CeA) has been implicated in the effects of acute ethanol and the development of alcohol dependence. We previously demonstrated that CRF receptor 1 (CRF1) neurons comprise a specific component of the CeA microcircuitry that is selectively engaged by acute ethanol. To investigate the impact of chronic ethanol exposure on inhibitory signaling in CRF1+ CeA neurons, we used CRF1:GFP mice subjected to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) inhalation and examined changes in local inhibitory control, the effects of acute ethanol, and the output of these neurons from the CeA...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777554/whole-brain-monosynaptic-afferent-inputs-to-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-system
#16
Rongfeng Hu, Sen Jin, Xiaobin He, Fuqiang Xu, Ji Hu
The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) robustly modulates many important behaviors, such as arousal, attention, learning and memory, through heavy projections to cortex and hippocampus. However, the presynaptic partners governing BFCS activity still remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized a recently developed rabies virus-based cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system to map the whole-brain afferent inputs of the BFCS. We found that the BFCS receives inputs from multiple cortical areas, such as orbital frontal cortex, motor cortex, and insular cortex, and that the BFCS also receives dense inputs from several subcortical nuclei related to motivation and stress, including lateral septum, central amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, and parabrachial nucleus...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769717/progressive-neuronal-activation-accompanies-epileptogenesis-caused-by-hippocampal-glutamine-synthetase-inhibition
#17
Benjamin Albright, Roni Dhaher, Helen Wang, Roa Harb, Tih-Shih W Lee, Hitten Zaveri, Tore Eid
Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in hippocampal astrocytes has been implicated in the causation of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, the mechanism by which the deficiency in GS leads to epilepsy is incompletely understood. Here we ask how hippocampal GS inhibition affects seizure phenotype and neuronal activation during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis). Epileptogenesis was induced by infusing the irreversible GS blocker methionine sulfoximine (MSO) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation of rats...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760822/rhythm-generation-coordination-and-initiation-in-the-vocal-pathways-of-male-african-clawed-frogs
#18
Ayako Yamaguchi, Jessica Cavin Barnes, Todd Appleby
Central pattern generators (CPG) in the brainstem are considered to underlie vocalizations in many vertebrate species, but the detailed mechanisms underlying how motor rhythms are generated, coordinated, and initiated remain unclear. We addressed these issues using isolated brain preparations of Xenopus laevis from which fictive vocalizations can be elicited. Advertisement calls of male X. laevis that consist of fast and slow trills are generated by vocal CPGs contained in the brainstem. Brainstem central vocal pathways consist of a premotor nucleus (DTAM) and a laryngeal motor nucleus (n...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744641/somatosensory-regulation-of-serotonin-release-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-is-mediated-via-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#19
Ryota Tokunaga, Rie Shimoju, Hideshi Shibata, Mieko Kurosawa
Noxious cutaneous stimulation increases, whereas innocuous cutaneous stimulation decreases serotonin (5-HT) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in anesthetized rats. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to those responses. Release of 5-HT in the CeA was monitored by microdialysis before and after 10-min stimulation by pinching or stroking. Increased 5-HT release in the CeA in response to pinching was abolished by CRF2 receptor antagonism in the DRN...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733273/gomisin-n-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depressive-like-behaviors-by-attenuating-inflammation-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-and-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-in-mice
#20
Ryota Araki, Yosuke Hiraki, Shoji Nishida, Yuka Inatomi, Takeshi Yabe
Emotional impairments such as depressive symptoms often develop in patients with sustained and systemic immune activation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of gomisin N, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the dried fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., which exhibited inhibitory effects of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in a screening assay, on inflammation-induced depressive symptoms. We examined the effects of gomisin N on inflammation induced by LPS in murine microglial BV-2 cells and on LPS-induced behavioral changes in mice...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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