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Central nucleus of the amygdala

Thomas A Avino, Nicole Barger, Martha V Vargas, Erin L Carlson, David G Amaral, Melissa D Bauman, Cynthia M Schumann
Remarkably little is known about the postnatal cellular development of the human amygdala. It plays a central role in mediating emotional behavior and has an unusually protracted development well into adulthood, increasing in size by 40% from youth to adulthood. Variation from this typical neurodevelopmental trajectory could have profound implications on normal emotional development. We report the results of a stereological analysis of the number of neurons in amygdala nuclei of 52 human brains ranging from 2 to 48 years of age [24 neurotypical and 28 autism spectrum disorder (ASD)]...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Aparna Ravikrishnan, Pauravi J Gandhi, Gajanan P Shelkar, Jinxu Liu, Ratnamala Pavuluri, Shashank M Dravid
Hypofunction of NMDA receptors in parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons has been proposed as a potential mechanism for cortical abnormalities and symptoms in schizophrenia. GluN2C-containing receptors have been linked to this hypothesis due to the higher affinity of psychotomimetic doses of ketamine for GluN1/2C receptors. However, the precise cell-type expression of GluN2C subunit remains unknown. We describe the expression of the GluN2C subunit using a novel EGFP reporter model. We observed EGFP(GluN2C) localization in PV-positive neurons in the nucleus reticularis of the thalamus, globus pallidus externa and interna, ventral pallidum and substantia nigra...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Sean J Farley, Heba Albazboz, Benjamin J De Corte, Jason J Radley, John H Freeman
Previous studies found that reversible inactivation of the central amygdala (CeA) severely impairs acquisition and retention of cerebellum-dependent eye-blink conditioning (EBC) with an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). A monosynaptic pathway between the CeA and basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) may be capable of facilitating cerebellar learning. However, given that the CeA projects to the medial auditory thalamus, a critical part of the auditory CS pathway in EBC, the CeA influence on cerebellar learning could be specific to auditory stimuli...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Monika J M Murphy, Ariel Y Deutch
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is usually defined as the frontal cortical area receiving a mediodorsal thalamic innervation. Certain areas in the medial wall of the rat frontal area receive an MD innervation. A second frontal area that is the target of MD projections is located dorsal to the rhinal sulcus and often referred to as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Both the mPFC and OFC are comprised of a large number of cytoarchitectonic regions. We assessed the afferent innervation of the different areas of the OFC, with a focus on projections arising from the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, and the midbrain dopamine neurons...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jonathan P Fadok, Milica Markovic, Philip Tovote, Andreas Lüthi
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) is a striatum-like structure orchestrating a diverse set of adaptive behaviors, including defensive and appetitive responses [1-3]. Studies using anatomical, electrophysiological, imaging and optogenetic approaches revealed that the CEA network consists of recurrent inhibitory circuits comprised of precisely connected functionally and genetically defined cell types that can select and control specific behavioral outputs [3,4,5• ,6• ,7-9,11,12]. While bivalent functionality of the CEA in adaptive behavior has been clearly demonstrated, we are just beginning to understand to which degree individual CEA circuit elements are functionally segregated or overlapping...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
M C Carvalho, A C Veloni, K Genaro, M L Brandão
A single threatening experience may change the behavior of an animal in a long-lasting way and elicit generalized behavioral responses to a novel threatening situation that is unrelated to the original aversive experience. Electrical stimulation (ES) of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) produces a range of defensive reactions, characterized by freezing, escape, and post-stimulation freezing (PSF). The latter reflects the processing of ascending aversive information to prosencephalic structures, including the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), which allows the animal to evaluate the consequences of the aversive situation...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Amal A Halawa, Joanne C Damborsky, G Simona Slaton, Ursula H Winzer-Serhan
Maternal smoking has negative long-term consequences on affective behaviors, and in rodents, chronic neonatal nicotine exposure (CNN) results in increased anxiety. In rat pups, acute nicotine stimulation activates brain regions associated with stress and anxiety, but chronic nicotine exposure could desensitize of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the molecular target of nicotine. Here, we determined whether CNN affected neuronal activation by an acute nicotine challenge. Using in situ hybridization, we analyzed mRNA expression of the immediate-early genes (IEGs) c-Fos, Arc, Egr-1 and Npas4, which are markers for neuronal activation and implicated in synaptic plasticity...
February 26, 2018: Brain Research
Cindy F Yang, Jack L Feldman
The preBötzinger complex (preBötC), a compact medullary region essential for generating normal breathing rhythm and pattern, is the kernel of the breathing central pattern generator (CPG). Excitatory preBötC neurons in rats project to major breathing-related brainstem regions. Here, we provide a brainstem connectivity map in mice for both excitatory and inhibitory preBötC neurons. Using a genetic strategy to label preBötC neurons, we confirmed extensive projections of preBötC excitatory neurons within the brainstem breathing CPG including the contralateral preBötC, Bötzinger Complex (BötC), ventral respiratory group (VRG), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), parahypoglossal nucleus, parafacial region (RTN/pFRG or alternatively, pFL /pFV ), parabrachial and Kölliker-Füse nuclei, as well as major projections to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Aina Luque-García, Vicent Teruel-Martí, Sergio Martínez-Bellver, Albert Adell, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Joana Martínez-Ricós
The stress system coordinates the adaptive reactions of the organism to stressors. So, dysfunctions in this circuit may correlate to anxiety-related disorders, including depression. Comprehending the dynamics of this network may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie these diseases. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and brainstem nodes by triggering endocrine, autonomic and behavioural stress responses. The medial prefrontal cortex plays a significant role in regulating reactions to stressors, and is specifically important for limiting fear responses...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Yoshihiko Yu, Daisuke Hasegawa, Yuji Hamamoto, Shunta Mizoguchi, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Masaya Tsuboi, James Ken Chambers, Michio Fujita, Kazuyuki Uchida
OBJECTIVE To investigate epilepsy-related neuropathologic changes in cats of a familial spontaneous epileptic strain (ie, familial spontaneous epileptic cats [FSECs]). ANIMALS 6 FSECs, 9 age-matched unrelated healthy control cats, and 2 nonaffected (without clinical seizures)dams and 1 nonaffected sire of FSECs. PROCEDURES Immunohistochemical analyses were used to evaluate hippocampal sclerosis, amygdaloid sclerosis, mossy fiber sprouting, and granule cell pathological changes. Values were compared between FSECs and control cats...
March 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
K László, L Péczely, A Kovács, O Zagoracz, T Ollmann, E Kertes, V Kállai, B Csetényi, Z Karádi, L Lénárd
Tridecapeptide Neurotensin (NT) is widely distributed in the central nervous system where it acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. The central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), part of the limbic system, plays an important role in learning, memory, anxiety and reinforcing mechanisms. Our previous data showed that NT microinjected into the CeA has positive reinforcing properties. We supposed that these effects might be due to modulations of the mesolimbic dopamine system. The aim of our study was to examine in the CeA the possible effects of NT and dopamine interaction on reinforcement by conditioned place preference test...
February 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Noora Tuovinen, Klaus Seppi, Francesco de Pasquale, Christoph Müller, Michael Nocker, Michael Schocke, Elke R Gizewski, Christian Kremser, Gregor K Wenning, Werner Poewe, Atbin Djamshidian, Christoph Scherfler, Morinobu Seki
INTRODUCTION: The study aim was to identify longitudinal abnormalities of functional connectivity and its relation with motor disability in early to moderately advanced stages of Parkinson's disease patients. METHODS: 3.0T structural and resting-state functional MRI was performed in healthy subjects (n = 16) and Parkinson's disease patients (n = 16) with mean disease duration of 2.2 ± 1.2 years at baseline with a clinical follow-up of 1.5 ± 0.3 years. Resting-state fMRI analysis included region-to-region connectivity in correlation with UPDRS-III scores and computation of Global Efficiency and Degree Centrality...
February 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Sergiy V Korol, Atieh Tafreshiha, Amol K Bhandage, Bryndis Birnir, Zhe Jin
Insulin, a pancreatic hormone, can access the central nervous system, activate insulin receptors distributed in selective brain regions and affect various cellular functions such as neurotransmission. We have previously shown that physiologically relevant concentration of insulin potentiates the GABA A receptor-mediated tonic inhibition and reduces excitability of rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) comprises heterogeneous neuronal populations that can respond to hormonal stimulus...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Bo Hu, Hu Qiao, Tian Cao, Bo Sun, Xiao Luo, Ru Jia, Yuanyuan Fan, Nan Wang, Yi Lu, Jianqun Yan
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical in the regulation of sodium appetite. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is important in the generation of sodium appetite and may function as a neurotransmitter or modulator to affect the synaptic transmission and the excitability of neurons. However, the role of Ang II in the CeA remains unclear. In this study, we determined the effects of Ang II on the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to the CeA neurons in brain slices with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings...
February 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ling Shan, Hang-Yuan Guo, Corina N A M van den Heuvel, Joop van Heerikhuize, Judith R Homberg
AIMS: One potential risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves the low activity (short; s) allelic variant of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), possibly due to reduced prefrontal control over the amygdala. Evidence shows that DNA methylation/demethylation is crucial for fear extinction in these brain areas and is associated with neuronal activation marker c-Fos expression. We hypothesized that impaired fear extinction in serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT-/- ) rats is related to changes in DNA (de) methylation and c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and/or amygdala...
February 9, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
William P Nobis, Stephen Schuele, Jessica W Templer, Guangyu Zhou, Gregory Lane, Joshua M Rosenow, Christina Zelano
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests disordered breathing is critically involved in Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). To that end, evaluating structures that are activated by seizures and can activate brain regions that produce cardiorespiratory changes can further our understanding of the pathophysiology of SUDEP. Prior preclinical studies have shown that electrical stimulation of the human amygdala induces apnea, suggesting a role for the amygdala in controlling respiration. In this study, we aimed to both confirm these findings in a larger group of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and also further explore the anatomical and cognitive properties of this effect...
February 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Hiroaki Ishida, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Masahiko Takada
The amygdala codes the visual-gustatory/somatosensory valence for feeding behavior. On the other hand, the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) plays a central role in reaching and grasping movements prerequisite for feeding behavior. This implies that object valence signals derived from the amygdala may be crucial for feeding-related motor actions exerted by PMv. However, since no direct connectivity between the amygdala and PMv has been reported, the structural basis of their functional interactions still remains elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Anna Beyeler, Chia-Jung Chang, Margaux Silvestre, Clémentine Lévêque, Praneeth Namburi, Craig P Wildes, Kay M Tye
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) mediates associative learning for both fear and reward. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that different BLA projections distinctly alter motivated behavior, including projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial aspect of the central amygdala (CeM), and ventral hippocampus (vHPC). Although there is consensus regarding the existence of distinct subsets of BLA neurons encoding positive or negative valence, controversy remains regarding the anatomical arrangement of these populations...
January 23, 2018: Cell Reports
Raffaella Rusconi, Ayse Ulusoy, Helia Aboutalebi, Donato A Di Monte
Increased expression of α-synuclein can initiate its long-distance brain transfer, representing a potential mechanism for pathology spreading in age-related synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease. In this study, the effects of overexpression-induced α-synuclein transfer were assessed over a 1-year period after injection of viral vectors carrying human α-synuclein DNA into the rat vagus nerve. This treatment causes targeted overexpression within neurons in the dorsal medulla oblongata and subsequent diffusion of the exogenous protein toward more rostral brain regions...
January 30, 2018: Aging Cell
Salvatore Torrisi, Adam X Gorka, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Katherine O'Connell, Nicholas Balderston, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and central amygdala (CeA) of the extended amygdala are small, anatomically interconnected brain regions. They are thought to mediate responses to sustained, unpredictable threat stimuli and phasic, predictable threat stimuli, respectively. They perform these operations largely through their interconnected networks. In two previous studies, we mapped and contrasted the resting functional connectivity networks of the BNST and CeA at 7 Tesla with high resolution...
January 31, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
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