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Central nucleus of the amygdala

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775703/ultrastructural-characterization-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-neuropeptide-y-in-the-rat-locus-coeruleus-anatomical-evidence-for-putative-interactions
#1
Catherine C Theisen, Beverly A S Reyes, E L Sabban, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
As a neurochemical mediator of stress resilience, NPY has been shown to oppose excitatory effects of the pro-stress neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Previous studies have described the anatomical organization of NPY and CRF in the central nucleus of the amygdala, which sends CRF projections to the locus coeruleus (LC), activating LC norepinephrine release. However, the cellular substrates for interactions between NPY and CRF in the LC remain unknown. In this study, we investigated these anatomical substrates in the male rat LC, using immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy to detect NPY and CRF, as well as CRF and Y1 or Y2 receptors (Y1R or Y2R)...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758386/the-neurokinin-1-receptor-mediates-escalated-alcohol-intake-induced-by-multiple-drinking-models
#2
Michelle K Sequeira, Britta S Nelson, Hannah D Fulenwider, Courtney E King, Sadie E Nennig, Jennifer B Bohannon, Kejun Cheng, Kenner C Rice, Markus Heilig, Jesse R Schank
We have previously demonstrated that the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) is upregulated in the central nucleus of the amygdala of alcohol preferring (P) rats and that this receptor mediates escalated alcohol consumption in this strain. However, it is unclear if non-genetic models of escalated consumption are also mediated by NK1R signaling, and if so, what brain regions govern this effect. In the experiments presented here, we use two methods of inducing escalated alcohol intake in outbred Wistar rats: yohimbine pretreatment and intermittent alcohol access (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday availability; 20% alcohol)...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750883/involvement-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-the-descending-antinociceptive-effect-induced-by-the-central-nucleus-of-amygdala
#3
N Bourbia, A Pertovaara
Here we studied whether descending control of mechanical nociception by glutamate in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) of healthy control animals is induced by amygdaloid NMDA receptors and relayed through the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Mechanical nociception in the hind paws was assessed in rats with chronic guide cannulae for glutamate administration in the right CeA and for inducing local anesthesia in the PAG. In a separate electrophysiological study, ON-like PAG neurons giving an excitatory response to noxious pinch of the tail were recorded in anesthetized rats following glutamate administration into the CeA...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748627/deficient-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-the-central-amygdala-contributes-to-alcohol-dependence-related-anxiety-like-behavior-and-excessive-alcohol-intake
#4
Antonia Serrano, Francisco J Pavon, Matthew W Buczynski, Joel Schlosburg, Luis A Natividad, Ilham Y Polis, David G Stouffer, Eric P Zorrilla, Marisa Roberto, Benjamin F Cravatt, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Loren H Parsons
Negative emotional states that are associated with excessive alcohol intake, particularly anxiety-like states, have been linked to opponent processes in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), affecting stress-related transmitters and monoamines. This study extends these observations to include endocannabinoid signaling in alcohol-dependent animals. Rats and mice were exposed to chronic intermittent alcohol with vapor inhalation or liquid diet to induce dependence. In vivo microdialysis was used to estimate interstitial concentrations of endocannabinoids [N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)] and amino acids (glutamate and GABA) in rat CeA...
April 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733975/role-of-trpv1-and-trpv4-in-surgical-incision-induced-tissue-swelling-and-fos-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-mice
#5
Yasuhito Motojima, Haruki Nishimura, Hiromichi Ueno, Satomi Sonoda, Kazuaki Nishimura, Kentaro Tanaka, Reiko Saito, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Takanori Matsuura, Hitoshi Suzuki, Makoto Kawasaki, Hideo Ohnishi, Akinori Sakai, Yoichi Ueta
Pain management remains a major concern regarding the treatment of postoperative patients. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are considered to be new therapeutic targets for pain control. We investigated whether the genes Trpv1 and Trpv4 are involved in hind paw swelling caused after surgical incision in mice or in incision-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) levels in the central nervous system. Mice were divided into four groups: wild-type (WT) control, WT incision, Trpv1 knockout (Trpv1-/- ) incision, and Trpv4 knockout (Trpv4-/- ) incision...
May 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730036/the-effects-of-fathering-experience-on-paternal-behaviors-and-levels-of-central-expression-of-oxytocin-and-dopamine-2-type-receptors-in-mandarin-voles
#6
Bo Wang, Lu Wang, Kai Wang, Fadao Tai
Mothers' brains change dramatically in response to the release of hormones related to pregnancy and labor; however, fathers' brains are also sensitive to the experience of paternal care. Thus, fathers with differing fathering experience may exhibit different behavioral responses towards pups. Using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), effects of fathering experience on levels of paternal behavior as well as oxytocin (OT) and dopamine-2 type (D2) receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NaCC) and medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) were investigated...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700576/targeted-overexpression-of-crh-receptor-subtype-1-in-central-amygdala-neurons-effect-on-alcohol-seeking-behavior
#7
L Broccoli, S Uhrig, G von Jonquieres, K Schönig, D Bartsch, N J Justice, R Spanagel, W H Sommer, M Klugmann, A C Hansson
RATIONALE: The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system is a key mediator of stress-induced responses in alcohol-seeking behavior. Recent research has identified the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a brain region involved in the regulation of fear and stress-induced responses that is especially rich in CRH-positive neurons, as a key player in mediating excessive alcohol seeking. However, detailed characterization of the specific influences that local neuronal populations exert in mediating alcohol responses is hampered by current limitations in pharmacological and immunohistochemical tools for targeting CRH receptor subtype 1 (CRHR1)...
April 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692727/analgesic-effects-of-duloxetine-on-formalin-induced-hyperalgesia-and-its-underlying-mechanisms-in-the-cea
#8
Lie Zhang, Jun-Bin Yin, Wei Hu, Wen-Jun Zhao, Qing-Rong Fan, Zhi-Chun Qiu, Ming-Jie He, Tan Ding, Yan Sun, Alan D Kaye, En-Ren Wang
In rodents, the amygdala has been proposed to serve as a key center for the nociceptive perception. Previous studies have shown that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) played a functional role in inflammation-induced peripheral hypersensitivity. Duloxetine (DUL), a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, produced analgesia on formalin-induced spontaneous pain behaviors. However, it is still unclear whether single DUL pretreatment influences formalin-induced hypersensitivity and what is the underlying mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684712/high-salt-intake-enhances-swim-stress-induced-pvn-vasopressin-cell-activation-and-active-stress-coping
#9
N C Mitchell, T L Gilman, L C Daws, G M Toney
PURPOSE: Stress contributes to many psychiatric disorders; however, responsivity to stressors can vary depending on previous or current stress exposure. Relatively innocuous heterotypic (differing in type) stressors can summate to result in exaggerated neuronal and behavioral responses. Here we investigated the ability of prior high dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake, a dehydrating osmotic stressor, to enhance neuronal and behavioral responses of mice to an acute psychogenic swim stress (SS)...
April 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684475/orexin-a-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-enhances-saccharin-induced-conditioned-flavor-preference-the-role-of-d1-receptors-in-central-nucleus-of-amygdala
#10
Severiano Risco, Cristina Mediavilla
In industrialized societies, food intake is largely determined by its hedonic characteristics, which can be modified by our experience via taste learning. In this learning, the hedonic value of a neutral flavor changes after its association with a motivationally significant stimulus. Experiment 1 analyzes the effect of orexin administration (53 and 107 ng) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on hedonic intake through acquisition of a flavor-taste preference and a flavor-taste aversion. Accordingly, animals underwent four one-bottle acquisition sessions with unilateral application of orexin-A or saline in the VTA at 10 min before a 15-min flavor intake period...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679646/chronic-methamphetamine-exposure-attenuates-neural-activation-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-associated-brain-regions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#11
Jason S Jacobskind, Zachary J Rosinger, Tiffany Gonzalez, Kristen L Zuloaga, Damian G Zuloaga
Sex differences in methamphetamine (MA) abuse and consequences of MA have been reported with females showing an increased addiction phenotype and withdrawal symptoms. One mechanism through which these effects might occur is via sex-specific alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its associated brain regions. In this study, mice were administered MA (5 mg/kg) or saline for 10 consecutive days. During early withdrawal, anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in the open field, light/dark box, and elevated plus maze...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671049/parent-offspring-cohabitation-after-weaning-inhibits-partner-preference-and-alters-central-oxytocin-and-dopamine-systems-in-adult-mandarin-vole
#12
Ruiyong Wu, Zhenzhen Song, Fadao Tai
In some mammals, offspring may live with their parents for a very long time after weaning, but little is known about the effect of post-weaning parent-offspring cohabitation on the behavioral and neurobiological development of offspring. Here, we explored the effect of this experience on partner preference in adult mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus). Levels of central oxytocin (OT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), as well as OT receptor (OTR), dopamine D1-type and D2-type receptors (D1R and D2R) mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and medial amygdala (MeA) were also measured...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604138/glucocorticoid-withdrawal-affects-stress-induced-changes-of-urocortin-2-gene-expression-in-rat-adrenal-medulla-and-brain
#13
Andrej Tillinger, Ľubica Horváthová, Regina Nostramo, Lidia I Serova, Richard Kvetňanský, Esther L Sabban, Boris Mravec
Corticotropin-releasing factor is well known activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, that represents crucial system participating on stress response of the organism. Urocortins are members of the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides with proposed effects on neuroendocrine and behavioral stress response mechanisms. Urocortin 2, one of three known urocortins, is present in central and peripheral stress response system and its expression can be augmented by glucocorticoids. In the present study we have examined how glucocorticoid withdrawal affects urocortin 2 gene expression after acute immobilization in the adrenal medulla and selected brain areas in rats...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596647/male-reproductive-behavior-sensory-signaling-in-the-brain-of-low-performing-domestic-rams
#14
Brenda M Alexander
Rams are selected for genetic traits a producer desires to propagate in his flock. Even though practically all sheep are naturally bred, rams are rarely evaluated for expression of sexual interest or behavior. Research at the United States Sheep Experiment Station reported that the proportion of rams with limited interest in ewes was nearly 30% of the total number of breeding rams. Breeding soundness tested rams with low sexual-interest sire less than 16% of the lamb crop. While producers recognize the problem, their usual solution is to increase the number of rams in breeding flocks decreasing the risk of open ewes...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593510/chronic-stress-alters-behavior-in-the-forced-swim-test-and-underlying-neural-activity-in-animals-exposed-to-alcohol-prenatally-sex-and-time-dependent-effects
#15
Vivian Y Y Lam, Charlis Raineki, Lily E Takeuchi, Linda Ellis, Todd S Woodward, Joanne Weinberg
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress response has been suggested to play a role in vulnerability to stress-related disorders, such as depression. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may result in HPA dysregulation, which in turn may predispose individuals to the effects of stress exposure throughout life, and increase their risk of developing depression compared to unexposed individuals. We examined the immediate and delayed effects of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in adulthood on behavior of PAE animals in the forced swim test (FST) and the neurocircuitry underlying behavioral, emotional, and stress regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569009/paraventricular-hypothalamic-and-amygdalar-crf-neurons-synapse-in-the-external-globus-pallidus
#16
Albert J Hunt, Rajan Dasgupta, Shivakumar Rajamanickam, Zhiying Jiang, Michael Beierlein, C Savio Chan, Nicholas J Justice
Stress evokes directed movement to escape or hide from potential danger. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons are highly activated by stress; however, it remains unclear how this activity participates in stress-evoked movement. The external globus pallidus (GPe) expresses high levels of the primary receptor for CRF, CRFR1, suggesting the GPe may serve as an entry point for stress-relevant information to reach basal ganglia circuits, which ultimately gate motor output. Indeed, projections from CRF neurons are present within the GPe, making direct contact with CRFR1-positive neurons...
March 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559529/neuron-numbers-increase-in-the-human-amygdala-from-birth-to-adulthood-but-not-in-autism
#17
Thomas A Avino, Nicole Barger, Martha V Vargas, Erin L Carlson, David G Amaral, Melissa D Bauman, Cynthia M Schumann
Remarkably little is known about the postnatal cellular development of the human amygdala. It plays a central role in mediating emotional behavior and has an unusually protracted development well into adulthood, increasing in size by 40% from youth to adulthood. Variation from this typical neurodevelopmental trajectory could have profound implications on normal emotional development. We report the results of a stereological analysis of the number of neurons in amygdala nuclei of 52 human brains ranging from 2 to 48 years of age [24 neurotypical and 28 autism spectrum disorder (ASD)]...
April 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559384/region-specific-expression-of-nmda-receptor-glun2c-subunit-in-parvalbumin-positive-neurons-and-astrocytes-analysis-of-glun2c-expression-using-a-novel-reporter-model
#18
Aparna Ravikrishnan, Pauravi J Gandhi, Gajanan P Shelkar, Jinxu Liu, Ratnamala Pavuluri, Shashank M Dravid
Hypofunction of NMDA receptors in parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons has been proposed as a potential mechanism for cortical abnormalities and symptoms in schizophrenia. GluN2C-containing receptors have been linked to this hypothesis due to the higher affinity of psychotomimetic doses of ketamine for GluN1/2C receptors. However, the precise cell-type expression of GluN2C subunit remains unknown. We describe the expression of the GluN2C subunit using a novel EGFP reporter model. We observed EGFP(GluN2C) localization in PV-positive neurons in the nucleus reticularis of the thalamus, globus pallidus externa and interna, ventral pallidum and substantia nigra...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535041/amygdala-central-nucleus-modulation-of-cerebellar-learning-with-a-visual-conditioned-stimulus
#19
Sean J Farley, Heba Albazboz, Benjamin J De Corte, Jason J Radley, John H Freeman
Previous studies found that reversible inactivation of the central amygdala (CeA) severely impairs acquisition and retention of cerebellum-dependent eye-blink conditioning (EBC) with an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). A monosynaptic pathway between the CeA and basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) may be capable of facilitating cerebellar learning. However, given that the CeA projects to the medial auditory thalamus, a critical part of the auditory CS pathway in EBC, the CeA influence on cerebellar learning could be specific to auditory stimuli...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524205/organization-of-afferents-to-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-the-rat
#20
Monika J M Murphy, Ariel Y Deutch
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is usually defined as the frontal cortical area receiving a mediodorsal thalamic (MD) innervation. Certain areas in the medial wall of the rat frontal area receive a MD innervation. A second frontal area that is the target of MD projections is located dorsal to the rhinal sulcus and often referred to as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Both the medial PFC and OFC are comprised of a large number of cytoarchitectonic regions. We assessed the afferent innervation of the different areas of the OFC, with a focus on projections arising from the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, and the midbrain dopamine neurons...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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