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Central nucleus of the amygdala

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351398/visceral-hypersensitivity-induced-by-optogenetic-activation-of-the-amygdala-in-conscious-rats
#1
Anthony C Johnson, Rocco Latorre, Casey O Ligon, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
In vivo optogenetics identifies brain circuits controlling behaviors in conscious animals by using light to alter neuronal function and offers a novel tool to study the brain-gut axis. Using adenoviral-mediated expression, we aimed to investigate whether photoactivation with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) or photoinhibition with halorhodopsin (HR3.0) of fibers originating from the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) at the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) had any effect on colonic sensitivity. We also investigated whether that there was any deleterious effect of the adenovirus on the neuronal population or the neuronal phenotype within the CeA-BNST circuitry activated during the optogenetic stimulation...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343732/the-neural-correlates-of-the-unified-percept-of-alcohol-related-craving-a-fmri-and-eeg-study
#2
Yuefeng Huang, Anusha Mohan, Dirk De Ridder, Stefan Sunaert, Sven Vanneste
Alcohol addiction is accompanied by aberrant neural activity. Previously, task-based fMRI and resting-state EEG studies have revealed that craving, a critical component of addiction, is linked to abnormal activity in cortical regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), etc. In this study, we combine these two imaging techniques to investigate a group of alcohol-addicted patients and provide convergent evidence for the neural correlates of craving not only in alcohol but substance abuse in general...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333482/flexibility-in-the-face-of-fear-hippocampal-prefrontal-regulation-of-fear-and-avoidance
#3
Justin M Moscarello, Stephen Maren
Generating appropriate defensive behaviors in the face of threat is essential to survival. Although many of these behaviors are 'hard-wired', they are also flexible. For example, Pavlovian fear conditioning generates learned defensive responses, such as conditioned freezing, that can be suppressed through extinction. The expression of extinguished responses is highly context-dependent, allowing animals to engage behavioral responses appropriate to the contexts in which threats are encountered. Likewise, animals and humans will avoid noxious outcomes if given the opportunity...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331615/increased-brain-glucocorticoid-actions-following-social-defeat-in-rats-facilitates-the-long-term-establishment-of-social-subordination
#4
Meltem Weger, Yannick Sevelinges, Jocelyn Grosse, Isabelle Guillot de Suduiraut, Olivia Zanoletti, Carmen Sandi
Social rank is frequently established through aggressive encounters between new conspecifics. Despite increasing evidence suggesting that social rank is critical for the well-being of both humans and animals, knowledge about the factors influencing social rank remain scarce. Stress was previously shown to affect the establishment and maintenance of social hierarchies in rats. Likewise, increasing systemic corticosterone levels post-encounter in the emerging subordinate rat facilitates the long-term establishment of social subordination...
January 10, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323226/lateral-and-basal-amygdala-account-for-opposite-behavioral-responses-during-the-long-term-expression-of-fearful-memories
#5
Eugenio Manassero, Annamaria Renna, Luisella Milano, Benedetto Sacchetti
Memories of fearful events can be maintained throughout the lifetime of animals. Here we showed that lesions of the lateral nucleus (LA) performed shortly after training impaired the retention of long-term memories, assessed by the concomitant measurement of two dissociable defensive responses, freezing and avoidance in rats. Strikingly, when LA lesions were performed four weeks after training, rats did not show freezing to a learned threat stimulus, but they were able to direct their responses away from it...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304875/antinociceptive-tolerance-to-nsaids-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-is-mediated-via-endogenous-opioid-mechanism
#6
Nana Tsiklauri, Natia Pirkulashvili, Ivliane Nozadze, Marina Nebieridze, Gulnaz Gurtskaia, Elene Abzianidze, Merab G Tsagareli
BACKGROUND: In the past decade several studies have reported that in some brain areas, particularly, in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventro-medial medulla, central nucleus of amygdala, nucleus raphe magnus, and dorsal hippocampus, microinjections of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce antinociception with distinct development of tolerance. Given this evidence, in this study we investigated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effects of NSAIDs diclofenac, ketorolac and xefocam microinjected into the rostral part of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in rats...
January 6, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299214/intervention-of-the-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-type-b-receptors-of-the-amygdala-central-nucleus-on-the-sensitivity-of-the-morphine-induced-conditionally-preferred-location-in-wistar-female-rats
#7
Firoozeh Alavian, Saeedeh Ghiasvand, Hedayat Sahraei, Maryam Rafiei-Rad
Background: The amygdala is one of the nerve centers involved in drug reward. It is suggested that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is involved in morphine dependency. The CeA gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) system is a mediator of morphine rewarding effects. In this research, the effects of stimulation or inhibition of CeA GABA type B (GABAB) receptors on sensitization acquisition to morphine-induced reward was evaluated in Wistar female rats using conditioned place preferential (CPP) method...
April 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299201/acute-sleep-deprivation-preconditions-the-heart-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-the-role-of-central-gaba-a-receptors
#8
Hoda Parsa, Alireza Imani, Mahdieh Faghihi, Esmail Riahi, Mohammad Badavi, Abbas Shakoori, Tayebeh Rastegar, Marjan Aghajani, Sulail Fatima Rajani
Objectives: Central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission modulates cardiovascular functions and sleep. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD) affects functions of various body organs via different mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of ASD on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), and studied the role of GABA-A receptor inhibition in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) by assessing nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: The CeA in sixty male Wistar rats was cannulated for saline or bicuculline (GABA-A receptor antagonist) administration...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274353/oxidative-stress-in-the-amygdala-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain
#9
B Sagalajev, H Wei, Z Chen, I Albayrak, A Koivisto, A Pertovaara
Earlier studies indicate that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) contributes to neuropathic pain. Here we studied whether amygdaloid administration of antioxidants or antagonists of TRPA1 that is among ion channels activated by oxidative stress attenuates nociceptive or affective pain in experimental neuropathy, and whether this effect involves amygdaloid astrocytes or descending serotonergic pathways acting on the spinal 5-HT1A receptor. The experiments were performed in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI)...
December 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235190/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-central-extended-amygdala
#10
Rachael M Tillman, Melissa D Stockbridge, Brendon M Nacewicz, Salvatore Torrisi, Andrew S Fox, Jason F Smith, Alexander J Shackman
The central extended amygdala (EAc)-including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce)-plays a critical role in triggering fear and anxiety and is implicated in the development of a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Although it is widely believed that these disorders reflect the coordinated activity of distributed neural circuits, the functional architecture of the EAc network and the degree to which the BST and the Ce show distinct patterns of functional connectivity is unclear...
December 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228949/a-mathematical-model-for-histamine-synthesis-release-and-control-in-varicosities
#11
Janet Best, H F Nijhout, Srimal Samaranayake, Parastoo Hashemi, Michael Reed
BACKGROUND: Histamine (HA), a small molecule that is synthesized from the amino acid histidine, plays an important role in the immune system where it is associated with allergies, inflammation, and T-cell regulation. In the brain, histamine is stored in mast cells and other non-neuronal cells and also acts as a neurotransmitter. The histamine neuron cell bodies are in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus of the hypothalamus and these neurons send projections throughout the central nervous system (CNS), in particular to the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, retina, and spinal cord...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225348/a-multi-dimensional-characterization-of-anxiety-in-monozygotic-twin-pairs-reveals-susceptibility-loci-in-humans
#12
Reid S Alisch, Carol Van Hulle, Pankaj Chopra, Anita Bhattacharyya, Su-Chun Zhang, Richard J Davidson, Ned H Kalin, H Hill Goldsmith
The etiology of individual differences in human anxiousness is complex and includes contributions from genetic, epigenetic (i.e., DNA methylation) and environmental factors. Past genomic approaches have been limited in their ability to detect human anxiety-related differences in these factors. To overcome these limitations, we employed both a multi-dimensional characterization method, to select monozygotic twin pairs discordant for anxiety, and whole genome DNA methylation sequencing. This approach revealed 230 anxiety-related differentially methylated loci that were annotated to 183 genes, including several known stress-related genes such as NAV1, IGF2, GNAS, and CRTC1...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222936/role-of-central-oxytocin-and-dopamine-systems-in-nociception-and-their-possible-interactions-suggested-hypotheses
#13
Mohammed Gamal-Eltrabily, Alfredo Manzano-García
Central oxytocin and dopamine have an important role in the process of nociception at the spinal level as well as supraspinal structures, e.g. anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus. Many studies have pointed out the importance of both systems in the pain descending modulatory system and in pain-related symptoms in some chronic disorders, e.g. Parkinson disease and fibromyalgia. The interaction between oxytocin and dopamine systems has been addressed in some motivational behaviors, e...
December 9, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208411/distribution-of-nadph-diaphorase-reactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-common-toad-bufo-bufo
#14
Claudia Pinelli, Arun G Jadhao, Anna Scandurra, Biagio D'Aniello
We examined the distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-reactive elements in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common toad, Bufo bufo. The investigation involved adult male and female toads collected during the breeding season. Labeled neurons of different morphological appearances (weakly or darkly stained, unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar) and fibers were observed across all subdivisions of the amphibian brain. Overall, a similar distribution of NADPH-d-labeled neurons was observed in the brain of male and female toads...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195911/the-central-extended-amygdala-in-fear-and-anxiety-closing-the-gap-between-mechanistic-and-neuroimaging-research
#15
REVIEW
Andrew S Fox, Alexander J Shackman
Anxiety disorders impose a staggering burden on public health, underscoring the need to develop a deeper understanding of the distributed neural circuits underlying extreme fear and anxiety. Recent work highlights the importance of the central extended amygdala, including the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and neighboring bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). Anatomical data indicate that the Ce and BST form a tightly interconnected unit, where different kinds of threat-relevant information can be integrated to assemble states of fear and anxiety...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188378/receptor-driven-multimodal-mapping-of-the-human-amygdala
#16
Olga Kedo, Karl Zilles, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Axel Schleicher, Hartmut Mohlberg, Sebastian Bludau, Katrin Amunts
The human amygdala consists of subdivisions contributing to various functions. However, principles of structural organization at the cellular and molecular level are not well understood. Thus, we re-analyzed the cytoarchitecture of the amygdala and generated cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of ten subdivisions in stereotaxic space based on novel workflows and mapping tools. This parcellation was then used as a basis for analyzing the receptor expression for 15 receptor types. Receptor fingerprints, i.e...
November 29, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181815/effects-of-adolescent-alcohol-exposure-on-stress-induced-reward-deficits-brain-crf-monoamines-and-glutamate-in-adult-rats
#17
Nathalie Boutros, Andre Der-Avakian, James P Kesby, Soon Lee, Athina Markou, Svetlana Semenova
BACKGROUND: Adolescent alcohol exposure may increase depression vulnerability in adulthood by increasing the anhedonic response to stress. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (postnatal days 28-53) were exposed to binge-like adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) or water. In adulthood, rats were exposed to social defeat, consisting of daily confrontations with an aggressive conspecific, followed by testing of brain reward function in a discrete-trial current-intensity intracranial self-stimulation procedure for 10 consecutive days...
November 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181695/memri-reveals-altered-activity-in-brain-regions-associated-with-anxiety-locomotion-and-cardiovascular-reactivity-on-the-elevated-plus-maze-in-the-wky-vs-shr-rats
#18
Jasenka Zubcevic, Jacqueline Watkins, Pablo D Perez, Luis M Colon-Perez, Maureen T Long, Marcelo Febo, Linda Hayward
Individuals with anxiety/depression often have exaggerated cardiovascular responses to stressful stimuli and a comorbidity with hypertension. Alternatively, individuals with hypertension can be more anxious. In the present study cardiovascular changes were evaluated during behavioral testing of anxious behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a rodent model of neurogenic hypertension, and compared to the response of the more anxious, but normotensive, Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY)...
November 27, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163141/disrupted-functional-connectivity-of-basal-ganglia-across-tremor-dominant-and-akinetic-rigid-dominant-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Xiaojun Guan, Qiaoling Zeng, Tao Guo, Jiaqiu Wang, Min Xuan, Quanquan Gu, Tao Wang, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu, Minming Zhang
It is well known that disruption of basal ganglia function generates the motor symptoms in PD, however, these are presented in a heterogeneous manner; patients can be divided into tremor-dominant and akinesia/rigidity-dominant subtypes. To date, it is unknown if these differences in the motor symptoms could be explained by differences on the functional connectivity of basal ganglia with specific brain regions. In this study, we aimed to explore the alterations of the network-based and global functional connectivity linking to basal ganglia between the PD-TD and PD-AR patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146239/innately-activated-tlr4-signal-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-sustained-by-crf-amplification-loop-and-regulates-impulsivity
#20
Irina Balan, Kaitlin T Warnock, Adam Puche, Marjorie C Gondre-Lewis, Laure Aurelian
Cognitive impulsivity is a heritable trait believed to represent the behavior that defines the volition to initiate alcohol drinking. We have previously shown that a neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal located in the central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) controls the initiation of binge drinking in alcohol-preferring P rats, and TLR4 expression is upregulated by alcohol-induced corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) at these sites. However, the function of the TLR4 signal in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-shell), a site implicated in the control of reward, drug-seeking behavior and impulsivity and the contribution of other signal-associated genes, are still poorly understood...
November 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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