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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226955/an-investigation-of-animal-and-human-bones-for-predicting-probable-location-of-fractures
#1
Irfan Manarvi, Irfan Manarvi, Irfan Manarvi
Predicting location of fracture in animal and human bones has been a keen area of research for the past few decades. It has been established that it is various types of stress that results into bone failure. Past studies were mostly based on experimental testing of variety of bones with limited accuracy equipment leading to experimental errors. An effort has been made in present research to use latest experimental testing equipment in parallel with some modern techniques and tools such as 3D scanners for creating computer models and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to conduct structural analysis that could allow unlimited changes in boundary conditions expected to be faced by a bone...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216729/aerospace-dermatology
#2
Gp Capt Sandeep Arora
Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206820/tolerance-to-x-rays-and-heavy-ions-fe-he-in-the-tardigrade-richtersius-coronifer-and-the-bdelloid-rotifer-mniobia-russeola
#3
K Ingemar Jönsson, Andrzej Wojcik
The aim of this study was to analyze tolerance to heavy ions in desiccated animals of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer and the bdelloid rotifer Mniobia russeola within the STARLIFE project. Both species were exposed to iron (Fe) and helium (He) ions at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan, and to X-rays at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne, Germany. Results show no effect of Fe and He on viability up to 7 days post-rehydration in both R. coronifer and M. russeola, while X-rays tended to reduce viability in R...
February 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198840/laboratory-simulation-of-laser-propagation-through-plasma-sheaths-containing-ablation-particles-of-zrb-sub-2-sub-sic-c-during-hypersonic-flight
#4
Qing Zang, Xiangxing Bai, Ping Ma, Jie Huang, Jing Ma, Siyuan Yu, Hongyan Shi, Xiudong Sun, Yang Liu, Yueguang Lu
The optical communication method has potential for solving the blackout problem, which is a big challenge faced in the development of aerospace. Two laser transmission systems were set up to explore the influence of the plasma and the ablation particles on the propagation of the laser. The experimental results indicate that the laser can transmit through the plasma with little attenuation. When there are ablation particles of ZrB<sub>2</sub>-SiC-C added in the plasma, the intensity of the laser has fluctuations...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186727/controlled-synthesis-of-ultralong-carbon-nanotubes-with-perfect-structures-and-extraordinary-properties
#5
Rufan Zhang, Yingying Zhang, Fei Wei
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have drawn intensive research interest in the past 25 years due to their excellent properties and wide applications. Ultralong CNTs refers to the horizontally aligned CNT arrays which are usually grown on flat substrates, parallel with each other with large intertube distances. They usually have perfect structures, excellent properties, and lengths up to centimeters, even decimeters. Ultralong CNTs are promising candidates as building blocks for transparent displays, nanoelectronics, superstrong tethers, aeronautics and aerospace materials, etc...
February 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185235/impact-of-a-simulated-gravity-load-for-atmospheric-reentry-10%C3%A2-g-for-2%C3%A2-min-on-conscious-mice
#6
Hironobu Morita, Aoi Yamaguchi, Dai Shiba, Masaki Shirakawa, Satoru Takahashi
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency recently performed a mouse experiment in the International Space Station in which mice were raised for 35 days, retrieved using the Dragon spacecraft, and then harvested for analysis 2 days after splashdown. However, the impact of the retrieval procedure, which exposed mice to 5-10 g for 2 min during atmospheric reentry and splashdown, was unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a 10 g load for 2 min (using a gondola-type centrifuge with a 1...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167315/modeling-of-un-deformed-chip-thickness-in-rum-process-and-study-of-size-effects-in-%C3%AE-rum
#7
Anil Kumar Jain, Pulak M Pandey
Un-deformed chip thickness is a critical parameter in machining processes. Measuring un-deformed chip thickness experimentally is a complicated process, especially in micro machining and may not even be measured accurately. The un-deformed chip thickness has an influence on material removal rate, cutting forces, specific energy and surface finish etc. In ceramic machining, it is also an indication of material removal mode such as ductile or brittle fracture. In the present study, an effort is made to model undeformed chip thickness, cutting forces and specific cutting energy in rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) applied to the side milling operation...
January 23, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155328/advanced-laser-based-techniques-for-gas-phase-diagnostics-in-combustion-and-aerospace-engineering
#8
Andreas Ehn, Jiajian Zhu, Xuesong Li, Johannes Kiefer
Gaining information of species, temperature, and velocity distributions in turbulent combustion and high-speed reactive flows is challenging, particularly for conducting measurements without influencing the experimental object itself. The use of optical and spectroscopic techniques, and in particular laser-based diagnostics, has shown outstanding abilities for performing non-intrusive in situ diagnostics. The development of instrumentation, such as robust lasers with high pulse energy, ultra-short pulse duration, and high repetition rate along with digitized cameras exhibiting high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and frame rates on the order of MHz, has opened up for temporally and spatially resolved volumetric measurements of extreme dynamics and complexities...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155272/flexible-dielectric-nanocomposites-with-ultra-wide-zero-temperature-coefficient-window-for-electrical-energy-storage-and-conversion-under-extreme-conditions
#9
Khurram Shehzad, Yang Xu, Chao Gao, Hanying Li, Zhimin Dang, Tawfique Hasan, Jack Jikui Luo, Xiangfeng Duan
Polymer dielectrics offer key advantages over their ceramic counterparts such as flexibility, scalability, low-cost, and high-breakdown voltages. However, a major drawback that limits more widespread application of polymer dielectrics is their temperature-dependent dielectric properties. To achieve dielectric constants with low/zero temperature coefficient (L/0TC) over a broad temperature range is essential for applications in diverse technologies. Here, we report a hybrid filler strategy to produce polymer composites with an ultra-wide L/0TC window of dielectric constant, as well as significantly enhanced dielectric value, maximum energy storage density, thermal conductivity and stability...
February 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154775/three-dimensional-printing-review-of-application-in-medicine-and-hepatic-surgery
#10
Rui Yao, Gang Xu, Shuang-Shuang Mao, Hua-Yu Yang, Xin-Ting Sang, Wei Sun, Yi-Lei Mao
Three-dimensional (3D) printing (3DP) is a rapid prototyping technology that has gained increasing recognition in many different fields. Inherent accuracy and low-cost property enable applicability of 3DP in many areas, such as manufacturing, aerospace, medical, and industrial design. Recently, 3DP has gained considerable attention in the medical field. The image data can be quickly turned into physical objects by using 3DP technology. These objects are being used across a variety of surgical specialties. The shortage of cadaver specimens is a major problem in medical education...
December 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151691/starlife-an-international-campaign-to-study-the-role-of-galactic-cosmic-radiation-in-astrobiological-model-systems
#11
Ralf Moeller, Marina Raguse, Stefan Leuko, Thomas Berger, Christine Elisabeth Hellweg, Akira Fujimori, Ryuichi Okayasu, Gerda Horneck
In-depth knowledge regarding the biological effects of the radiation field in space is required for assessing the radiation risks in space. To obtain this knowledge, a set of different astrobiological model systems has been studied within the STARLIFE radiation campaign during six irradiation campaigns (2013-2015). The STARLIFE group is an international consortium with the aim to investigate the responses of different astrobiological model systems to the different types of ionizing radiation (X-rays, γ rays, heavy ions) representing major parts of the galactic cosmic radiation spectrum...
February 2, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147584/the-symmetry-and-coupling-properties-of-solutions-in-general-anisotropic-multilayer-waveguides
#12
F Hernando Quintanilla, M J S Lowe, R V Craster
Multilayered plate and shell structures play an important role in many engineering settings where, for instance, coated pipes are commonplace such as in the petrochemical, aerospace, and power generation industries. There are numerous demands, and indeed requirements, on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) to detect defects or to measure material properties using guided waves; to choose the most suitable inspection approach, it is essential to know the properties of the guided wave solutions for any given multilayered system and this requires dispersion curves computed reliably, robustly, and accurately...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145484/complexion-mediated-martensitic-phase-transformation-in-titanium
#13
J Zhang, C C Tasan, M J Lai, A-C Dippel, D Raabe
The most efficient way to tune microstructures and mechanical properties of metallic alloys lies in designing and using athermal phase transformations. Examples are shape memory alloys and high strength steels, which together stand for 1,500 million tons annual production. In these materials, martensite formation and mechanical twinning are tuned via composition adjustment for realizing complex microstructures and beneficial mechanical properties. Here we report a new phase transformation that has the potential to widen the application window of Ti alloys, the most important structural material in aerospace design, by nanostructuring them via complexion-mediated transformation...
February 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125236/nanocrystalline-high-entropy-alloys-a-new-paradigm-in-high-temperature-strength-and-stability
#14
Yu Zou, Jeffrey M Wheeler, Huan Ma, Philipp Okle, Ralph Spolenak
Metals with nanometer-scale grains or nanocrystalline metals exhibit high strengths at ambient conditions, yet their strengths substantially decrease with increasing temperature, rendering them unsuitable for usage at high temperatures. Here, we show that a nanocrystalline high-entropy alloy (HEA) retains an extraordinarily high yield strength over 5 GPa up to 600 °C, 1 order of magnitude higher than that of its coarse-grained form and 5 times higher than that of its single-crystalline equivalent. As a result, such nanostructured HEAs reveal strengthening figures of merit-normalized strength by the shear modulus above 1/50 and strength-to-density ratios above 0...
February 9, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113846/an-integrated-acousto-ultrasonic-structural-health-monitoring-system-for-composite-pressure-vessels
#15
Andrea Bulletti, Pietro Giannelli, Marco Calzolai, Lorenzo Capineri
This paper describes the implementation of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) method for mechanical components and structures in composite materials with a focus on Carbon Fiber Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) used in the aerospace industry. Two flex arrays of PVDF interdigital transducers have been designed, realized and mounted on the COPV to generate guided Lamb waves (mode A0) for damage assessment. We developed a custom electronic instrument capable of performing two functions using the same transducers: passive mode detection of impacts and active mode damage assessment using Lamb waves...
March 23, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102327/super-strong-materials-for-temperatures-exceeding-2000%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c
#16
Laura Silvestroni, Hans-Joachim Kleebe, William G Fahrenholtz, Jeremy Watts
Ceramics based on group IV-V transition metal borides and carbides possess melting points above 3000 °C, are ablation resistant and are, therefore, candidates for the design of components of next generation space vehicles, rocket nozzle inserts, and nose cones or leading edges for hypersonic aerospace vehicles. As such, they will have to bear high thermo-mechanical loads, which makes strength at high temperature of great importance. While testing of these materials above 2000 °C is necessary to prove their capabilities at anticipated operating temperatures, literature reports are quite limited...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095963/this-month-in-aerospace-medicine-history
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094933/accurate-gas-phase-formation-enthalpies-of-alloys-and-refractories-decomposition-products
#18
Yury Minenkov, Valery V Sliznev, Luigi Cavallo
Accurate gas phase formation enthalpies, ΔHf, of metal oxides and halides are critical for the prediction of the stability of high temperature materials used in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Unfortunately, the experimental ΔHf values of these compounds in the most used databases, such as the NIST-JANAF database, are often reported with large inaccuracy, while some other ΔHf values clearly differ from the value predicted by CCSD(T) methods. To address this point, in this work we systematically predicted the ΔHf values of a series of these compounds having a group 4, 6, or 14 metal...
January 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094506/superior-performance-of-artificial-nacre-based-on-graphene-oxide-nanosheets
#19
Yang Wang, Hao Yuan, Piming Ma, Huiyu Bai, Mingqing Chen, Weifu Dong, Yi Xie, Yogesh S Deshmukh
Natural nacre is well-known by its unique properties due to the well-recognized "bricks-and-mortar" structure. Inspired by the natural nacre, graphene oxide (GO) was reduced by dopamine with simultaneous coating by polydopamine (PDA) in aqueous solution to yield polydopamine-capped reduce GO (PDG). The artificial nacre nanocomposite materials of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and PDG presenting layered structure had been successfully constructed via a vacuum-assisted assembly process, in which PDG and PVA served as "bricks" and "mortar", respectively...
February 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074649/bio-based-artificial-nacre-with-excellent-mechanical-and-barrier-properties-realized-by-a-facile-in-situ-reduction-and-cross-linking-reaction
#20
Kiran Shahzadi, Imran Mohsin, Lin Wu, Xuesong Ge, Yijun Jiang, Hui Li, Xindong Mu
Demands for high strength integrated materials have substantially increased across various kinds of industries. Inspired by the relationship of excellent integration of mechanical properties and hierarchical nano/microscale structure of the natural nacre, a simple and facile method to fabricate high strength integrated artificial nacre based on sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and borate cross-linked graphene oxide (GO) sheets has been developed. The tensile strength and toughness of cellulose-based hybrid material reached 480...
January 11, 2017: ACS Nano
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