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Fernando Garramiola, Javier Poza, Jon Del Olmo, Patxi Madina, Gaizka Almandoz
Due to the importance of sensors in control strategy and safety, early detection of faults in sensors has become a key point to improve the availability of railway traction drives. The presented sensor fault reconstruction is based on sliding mode observers and equivalent injection signals, and it allows detecting defective sensors and isolating faults. Moreover, the severity of faults is provided. The proposed on-board fault reconstruction has been validated in a hardware-in-the-loop platform, composed of a real-time simulator and a commercial traction control unit for a tram...
June 22, 2018: Sensors
Hillel Aharoni, Yu Xia, Xinyue Zhang, Randall D Kamien, Shu Yang
Programmable shape-shifting materials can take different physical forms to achieve multifunctionality in a dynamic and controllable manner. Although morphing a shape from 2D to 3D via programmed inhomogeneous local deformations has been demonstrated in various ways, the inverse problem-finding how to program a sheet in order for it to take an arbitrary desired 3D shape-is much harder yet critical to realize specific functions. Here, we address this inverse problem in thin liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) sheets, where the shape is preprogrammed by precise and local control of the molecular orientation of the liquid crystal monomers...
June 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michael L Kuntz, Ryan Vadori, M Ibraheem Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gentle and continuous loads are preferred for optimum orthodontic tooth movement. Nitinol, an alloy of nickel and titanium developed for the aerospace industry, found its first clinical applications in orthodontics because it has ideal load-deflection behavior. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the criteria for effective orthodontic mechanics relative to emerging Nitinol technology. The specialized materials with variable stiffness that were originally developed for orthodontics are increasingly attractive for in the temporomandibular joint, orthognathic surgery, and orthopedics...
June 20, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Luca Zoli, Antonio Vinci, Pietro Galizia, Cesare Melandri, Diletta Sciti
Aerospace provides a strong driving force for technological development. Recently a novel class of composites for harsh environments, based on ultra-high temperature ceramic composites reinforced with continuous fibers (UHTCMC), is being developed. The goal of this work is to overcome the current data patchwork about their microstructural optimization and structural behavior, by showing a consistent mechanical characterization of well-defined and developed UHTCMCs based on ZrB2 -matrix. The obtained composites have a density of 3...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fei Du, Chao Xu, Guannan Wu, Jie Zhang
L-shaped bolt lap joints are commonly used in aerospace and civil structures. However, bolt joints are frequently subjected to loosening, and this has a significant effect on the safety and reliability of these structures. Therefore, bolt preload monitoring is very important, especially at the early stage of loosening. In this paper, a virtual time reversal guided wave method is presented to monitor preload of bolted L-shaped lap joints accurately and simply. In this method, a referenced reemitting signal (RRS) is extracted from the bolted structure in fully tightened condition...
June 13, 2018: Sensors
Ester M Palmero, Javier Rial, Javier de Vicente, Julio Camarero, Björn Skårman, Hilmar Vidarsson, Per-Olof Larsson, Alberto Bollero
Searching for high-performance permanent magnets components with no limitation in shape and dimensions is highly desired to overcome the present design and manufacturing restrictions, which affect the efficiency of the final devices in energy, automotive and aerospace sectors. Advanced 3D-printing of composite materials and related technologies is an incipient route to achieve functional structures avoiding the limitations of traditional manufacturing. Gas-atomized MnAlC particles combined with polymer have been used in this work for fabricating scalable rare earth-free permanent magnet composites and extruded flexible filaments with continuous length exceeding 10 m...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Mengying Zhang, Hongqing Niu, Dezhen Wu
High strength and high modulus polyimide (HSHMPI) fibers are a type of novel high-performance organic fiber with an initial modulus higher than 90 GPa and extremely high tensile strength over 2.5 GPa realizing broad applications in the fields of electronic, engineering, aerospace, and atomic energy industries. There are currently two synthetic pathways, i.e., one-step and two-step methods, developed for the manufacture of HSHMPI fibers. An integrated fabrication process involving wet-spinning followed by thermal imidization is accepted as a typical two-step synthetic route for industrialization of HSHMPI fibers...
June 5, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Nicholas P Calta, Jenny Wang, Andrew M Kiss, Aiden A Martin, Philip J Depond, Gabriel M Guss, Vivek Thampy, Anthony Y Fong, Johanna Nelson Weker, Kevin H Stone, Christopher J Tassone, Matthew J Kramer, Michael F Toney, Anthony Van Buuren, Manyalibo J Matthews
In situ X-ray-based measurements of the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing process produce unique data for model validation and improved process understanding. Synchrotron X-ray imaging and diffraction provide high resolution, bulk sensitive information with sufficient sampling rates to probe melt pool dynamics as well as phase and microstructure evolution. Here, we describe a laboratory-scale LPBF test bed designed to accommodate diffraction and imaging experiments at a synchrotron X-ray source during LPBF operation...
May 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yan-Jun Wan, Peng-Li Zhu, Shu-Hui Yu, Rong Sun, Ching-Ping Wong, Wei-Hsin Liao
Metal-based materials with exceptional intrinsic conductivity own excellent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance. However, high density, corrosion susceptibility, and poor flexibility of the metal severely restrict their further applications in the areas of aircraft/aerospace, portable and wearable smart electronics. Herein, a lightweight, flexible, and anticorrosive silver nanowire wrapped carbon hybrid sponge (Ag@C) is fabricated and employed as ultrahigh efficiency EMI shielding material...
May 30, 2018: Small
Y Pan, W M Guan, Y Q Li
Transition metal silicides (TMSis) are attractive advanced functional materials due to their low electronic resistivity, high melting-point, excellent mechanical properties and thermal stability. However, the overall performances of binary silicides are not satisfactory enough to meet the requirements of many commercial applications. To overcome this problem, utilizing ternary silicide is a good path to adjust the balance between the overall performances because metallic bond plays a key role in electronic properties...
May 30, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yong Li, Rui Cai, Bei Yan, Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin, Haoqing Jing, Yi Wang
For fuel transmission and structural strengthening, small-diameter pipes of nonmagnetic materials are extensively adopted in engineering fields including aerospace, energy, transportation, etc. However, the hostile and corrosive environment leaves them vulnerable to external corrosion which poses a severe threat to structural integrity of pipes. Therefore, it is imperative to nondestructively detect and evaluate the external corrosion in nonmagnetic pipes. In light of this, a capsule-type Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) for in-situ nondestructive evaluation of nonmagnetic pipes and fast screening of external corrosion is proposed in this paper...
May 28, 2018: Sensors
Ha-Linh Thi Le, Jacek Goniakowski, Claudine Noguera, Alexey Koltsov, Jean-Michel Mataigne
The weak interaction between zinc and silica is responsible for the poor performance of anti-corrosive galvanic zinc coatings on modern advanced high-strength steels, which are fundamental in the automotive industry, and important for rail transport, shipbuilding, and aerospace. With the goal of identifying possible methods for its improvement, we report an ab initio study of the effect of surface hydroxylation on the adhesion characteristics of model zinc/β-cristobalite interfaces, representative of various surface hydroxylation/hydrogenation conditions...
May 29, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zhenzhen Qin, Guangzhao Qin, Ming Hu
Negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) in auxetic materials is of great interest due to the typically enhanced toughness, shear resistance, and sound and vibration absorption, which enables plenty of novel applications such as aerospace and defense. Insight into the mechanism underlying NPR is significant to the design of auxetic nanomaterials and nanostructures. However, the analysis of NPR in previous studies mainly remains on the level of the evolution of geometry parameters, such as bond length and bond angle, while a thorough and fundamental understanding is lacking...
May 29, 2018: Nanoscale
Mohammad Vatankhah-Varnoosfaderani, Xiaobo Hu, Qiaoxi Li, Hossein Adelnia, Maria Ina, Sergei S Sheiko
Multifunctional coatings that adhere to chemically-distinct substrates are vital in many industries, including automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding, construction, petrochemical, biomedical and pharmaceutical. We design well-defined, nearly monodisperse microgels that integrate hydrophobic dopamine methacrylamide (Dopamine-MA) monomers and hydrophilic zwitterionic monomers. The dopamine functionalities operate as both intra-particle crosslinkers and interfacial binders, respectively providing mechanical strength of the coatings and their strong adhesion to different substrates...
May 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jingjing Zhao, Fucai Li, Xiao Cao, Hongguang Li
Both the aerospace and marine industry have widely relied on a honeycomb sandwich structure (HSS) because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. However, the intrinsic nature of an adhesively bonded multi-layer structure increases the risk of debonding when the structure is under strain or exposed to varying temperatures. Such defects are normally concealed under the surface but can significantly compromise the strength and stiffness of a structure. In this paper, the guided wave method is used to detect debondings which are located between the skin and the honeycomb in sandwich plates...
May 23, 2018: Sensors
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Dimitrios A Exarchos, Panagiota T Dalla, Ilias K Tragazikis, Konstantinos G Dassios, Nikolaos E Zafeiropoulos, Maria M Karabela, Carmen De Crescenzo, Despina Karatza, Dino Musmarra, Simeone Chianese, Theodore E Matikas
This paper presents an innovative approach, which enables control of the mechanical properties of metallic components by external stimuli to improve the mechanical behavior of aluminum structures in aeronautical applications. The approach is based on the exploitation of the shape memory effect of novel Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) coatings deposited on metallic structural components, for the purpose of relaxing the stress of underlying structures by simple heating at field-feasible temperatures, therefore enhancing their structural integrity and increasing their stiffness and rigidity while allowing them to withstand expected loading conditions safely...
May 18, 2018: Materials
Adel Taha Abbas, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Ivan Nikolaevich Erdakov, Mohamed Adel Taha, Mahmoud Sayed Soliman, Magdy Mostafa El Rayes
Magnesium alloys are widely used in aerospace vehicles and modern cars, due to their rapid machinability at high cutting speeds. A novel Edgeworth⁻Pareto optimization of an artificial neural network (ANN) is presented in this paper for surface roughness ( Ra ) prediction of one component in computer numerical control (CNC) turning over minimal machining time ( Tm ) and at prime machining costs ( C ). An ANN is built in the Matlab programming environment, based on a 4-12-3 multi-layer perceptron (MLP), to predict Ra , Tm , and C , in relation to cutting speed, vc , depth of cut, ap , and feed per revolution, fr ...
May 16, 2018: Materials
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