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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720196/this-month-in-aerospace-medicine-history
#1
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August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720188/the-importance-of-the-study-of-cognitive-performance-enhancement-for-u-s-national-security
#2
Richard G Malish
The American military is embarking on the 'Third Offset'-a strategy designed to produce seismic shifts in the future of warfare. Central to the approach is the conjoining of humans, technology, and machines to deliver a decisive advantage on the battlefield. Because technology will spread rapidly and globally, tactical overmatch will occur when American operators possess a competitive edge in cognition. Investigation of cognitive enhancing therapeutics is not widely articulated as an adjunct to the Third Offset, yet failure to study promising agents could represent a strategic vulnerability...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720185/statin-therapy-in-low-risk-air-force-aviators-with-isolated-hypercholesterolemia
#3
Anthony P Tvaryanas, Heather J Mahaney, Valarie M Schroeder, Genny M Maupin
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the use of statin therapy in U.S. Air Force (USAF) aviators with isolated hypercholesterolemia in terms of compliance with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and effectiveness in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. METHODS: This was a mixed design, 8-yr retrospective study that included 8185 participants with isolated hypercholesterolemia, of which 1458 (17.81%) were prescribed statin monotherapy...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720184/human-performance-time-model-of-spacecraft-control-panel-operation-in-simulated-microgravity
#4
Shi Cao, Yijing Zhang, Yunhuan Guo, Shanguang Chen
BACKGROUND: Human performance modeling plays an important role in the design and management of human spaceflight missions. Previous studies reported that manual control task time increased in microgravity conditions. The current study aimed to find a modeling method that can quantify and predict the task time of spacecraft control panel operation in the simulated microgravity condition. METHODS: We proposed the application of a predetermined elemental task method together with an information processing time model to quantify both physical motion time and cognitive time...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720181/computerized-tests-of-team-performance-and-crew-coordination-suitable-for-military-aviation-settings
#5
Ben D Lawson, Thomas W Britt, Amanda M Kelley, Jeremy R Athy, Shauna M Legan
INTRODUCTION: The coordination of team effort on shared tasks is an area of inquiry. A number of tests of team performance in challenging environments have been developed without comparison or standardization. This article provides a systematic review of the most accessible and usable low-to-medium fidelity computerized tests of team performance and determines which are most applicable to military- and aviation-relevant research, such as studies of group command, control, communication, and crew coordination...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719372/basics-of-compounding-3d-printing-pharmacy-applications-part-3-compounding-formulation-considerations-and-the-future
#6
Loyd V Allen
3D printing is a standard tool in the automotive, aerospace, and consumer goods in industry and is gaining traction in pharmaceutical manufacturing, which has introduced a new element into dosage form development. This article, which represents part 3 of a 3-part article on the topic of 3D printing, discusses the compounding, formulation considerations, and the future of 3D printing.
July 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715329/phased-array-imaging-of-complex-geometry-composite-components
#7
Alex J Brath, Francesco Simonetti, Francesco Simonetti
Progress in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the availability of new composite materials are driving major advances in the design of aerospace engine components which now have highly complex geometries optimized to maximize system performance. However, shape complexity poses significant challenges to traditional non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods whose sensitivity and selectivity rapidly decrease as surface curvature increases. Additionally, new aerospace materials typically exhibit an intricate microstructure that further complicates the inspection...
July 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714119/high-performance-polymers-sandwiched-with-chemical-vapor-deposited-hexagonal-boron-nitrides-as-scalable-high-temperature-dielectric-materials
#8
Amin Azizi, Matthew R Gadinski, Qi Li, Mohammed Abu AlSaud, Jianjun Wang, Yi Wang, Bo Wang, Feihua Liu, Long-Qing Chen, Nasim Alem, Qing Wang
Polymer dielectrics are the preferred materials of choice for power electronics and pulsed power applications. However, their relatively low operating temperatures significantly limit their uses in harsh-environment energy storage devices, e.g., automobile and aerospace power systems. Herein, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films are prepared from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and readily transferred onto polyetherimide (PEI) films. Greatly improved performance in terms of discharged energy density and charge-discharge efficiency is achieved in the PEI sandwiched with CVD-grown h-BN films at elevated temperatures when compared to neat PEI films and other high-temperature polymer and nanocomposite dielectrics...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696464/density-tunable-lightweight-polymer-composites-with-dual-functional-ability-of-efficient-emi-shielding-and-heat-dissipation
#9
Seung Hwan Lee, Seunggun Yu, Faisal Shahzad, Woo Nyon Kim, Cheolmin Park, Soon Man Hong, Chong Min Koo
Lightweight dual-functional materials with high EMI shielding performance and thermal conductivity are of great importance in modern cutting-edge applications, such as mobile electronics, automotive, aerospace, and military. Unfortunately, a clear material solution has not emerged yet. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and effective way to fabricate lightweight metal-based polymer composites with dual-functional ability of excellent EMI shielding effectiveness and thermal conductivity using expandable polymer bead-templated Cu hollow beads...
July 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696358/traceability-of-on-machine-tool-measurement-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Unai Mutilba, Eneko Gomez-Acedo, Gorka Kortaberria, Aitor Olarra, Jose A Yagüe-Fabra
Nowadays, errors during the manufacturing process of high value components are not acceptable in driving industries such as energy and transportation. Sectors such as aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, nuclear power, large science facilities or wind power need complex and accurate components that demand close measurements and fast feedback into their manufacturing processes. New measuring technologies are already available in machine tools, including integrated touch probes and fast interface capabilities...
July 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688664/a-novel-flight-surgeon-training-model-at-a-joint-military-and-civilian-surgical-residency-program
#11
Erik S DeSoucy, Scott A Zakaluzny, Joseph M Galante
BACKGROUND: Graduating military preliminary interns are often required to fill flight surgeon billets. General surgery preliminary interns get experience evaluating surgical and trauma patients, but receive very little training in primary care and flight medicine. At a joint military and civilian training program, we developed a supplemental curriculum to help transition our interns into flight medicine. METHODS: From 2013 to 2016, we developed a lecture series focused on aerospace medicine, primary care, and specialty topics including dermatology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, pediatrics, psychiatry, and women's health...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685566/thermochromic-artificial-nacre-based-on-montmorillonite
#12
Jingsong Peng, Yiren Cheng, Antoni P Tomsia, Lei Jiang, Qunfeng Cheng
Nacre-inspired nanocomposites have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years because of their special mechanical properties and universality of the underlying principles of materials engineering. The ability to respond to external stimuli will augment the high toughness and high strength of artificial nacre-like composites and open new technological horizons for these materials. Herein, we fabricated robust artificial nacre based on montmorillonite (MMT) that combines robustness with reversible thermochromism...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682610/a-new-coarse-grained-model-and-its-implementation-in-simulations-of-graphene-assemblies
#13
Jun-Jun Shang, Qing-Sheng Yang, Xia Liu
Graphene is a one-atom thick layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal pattern, which makes it the strongest material in the world. The Tersoff potential is a suitable potential for simulating the mechanical behavior of the complex covalently bonded system of graphene. In this paper, we describe a new coarse-grained (CG) potential, TersoffCG, which is based on the function form of the Tersoff potential. The TersoffCG applies to a CG model of graphene that uses the same hexagonal pattern as the atomistic model...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667338/accurate-strain-sensing-based-on-super-mode-interference-in-strongly-coupled-multi-core-optical-fibres
#14
Joel Villatoro, Oskar Arrizabalaga, Gaizka Durana, Idurre Sáez de Ocáriz, Enrique Antonio-Lopez, Joseba Zubia, Axel Schülzgen, Rodrigo Amezcua-Correa
We report on the use of a multi-core fibre (MCF) comprising strongly-coupled cores for accurate strain sensing. Our MCF is designed to mode match a standard single mode optical fibre. This allows us to fabricate simple MCF interferometers whose interrogation is carried out with light sources, detectors and fibre components readily available from the optical communications tool box. Our MCF interferometers were used for sensing strain. The sensor calibration was carried out in a high-fidelity aerospace test laboratory...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665320/dimension-reduced-analog-digital-mixed-measurement-method-of-inductive-proximity-sensor
#15
Yi-Xin Guo, Zhi-Biao Shao, Hui-Bin Tao, Kai-Liang Xu, Ting Li
Inductive proximity sensors (IPSs) present a unique no-contact advantage. They are widely preferred for displacement measurement in various industrial fields (e.g., aviation and aerospace), and they are improved continuously. When the inductance and resistance components of the IPS sensing core are separated, the influence of temperature drift on measurement can be eliminated. The complexity of online computation of component separation can be reduced using a two-dimensional look-up table method. However, this method exhibits disadvantages, such as large capacity of the look-up table, dependency on precision measurement of sensing core parameter, and nonlinear distribution of measurement resolution...
June 30, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661230/circle-co2-reabsorbing-breathing-systems-human-applications
#16
Patrick Magee
Artificial breathing systems to help humans survive extreme environments are used over a range of ambient pressures, using various gases of different volumetric concentrations. These activities include anaesthesia and intensive care activity, high-altitude mountaineering, firefighting, aerospace extravehicular space activity and underwater diving operations. A circle breathing system is one in which the exhaled carbon dioxide is absorbed by an alkali substance and the remaining unused gases are recirculated, usually for the sake of economy and environment...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659624/alcohol-recognition-by-flexible-transparent-and-highly-sensitive-graphene-based-thin-film-sensors
#17
Xuezhu Xu, Jian Zhou, Yangyang Xin, Gilles Lubineau, Qian Ma, Long Jiang
Chemical sensors detect a variety of chemicals across numerous fields, such as automobile, aerospace, safety, indoor air quality, environmental control, food, industrial production and medicine. We successfully assemble an alcohol-sensing device comprising a thin-film sensor made of graphene nanosheets (GNs) and bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BCNs). We show that the GN/BCN sensor has a high selectivity to ethanol by distinguishing liquid-phase or vapor-phase ethanol (C2H6O) from water (H2O) intelligently with accurate transformation into electrical signals in devices...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657904/systems-analysis-of-carbon-nanotubes-opportunities-and-challenges-for-space-applications
#18
Jamshid A Samareh, Emilie J Siochi
Recent availability of carbon nanotubes in quantities and formats amenable to producing macroscale components invites consideration of these materials in space applications where their attractive properties can enable the realization of bold concepts for affordable space exploration. The challenge is to identify relevant systems and quantify the benefits at the systems level. Before significant investment or adoption of carbon nanotubes for large aerospace systems can be justified, there must be a plausible path to attain the perceived systems level benefits...
June 28, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649459/the-study-on-force-surface-integrity-tool-life-and-chip-on-laser-assisted-machining-of-inconel-718-using-nd-yag-laser-source
#19
K Venkatesan
Inconel 718, a high-temperature alloy, is a promising material for high-performance aerospace gas turbine engines components. However, the machining of the alloy is difficult owing to immense shear strength, rapid work hardening rate during turning, and less thermal conductivity. Hence, like ceramics and composites, the machining of this alloy is considered as difficult-to-turn materials. Laser assisted turning method has become a promising solution in recent years to lessen cutting stress when materials that are considered difficult-to-turn, such as Inconel 718 is employed...
July 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647855/short-term-annoyance-from-nocturnal-aircraft-noise-exposure-results-of-the-norah-and-strain-sleep-studies
#20
Julia Quehl, Uwe Müller, Franco Mendolia
PURPOSE: The German Aerospace Center (DLR) investigated in the NORAH sleep study the association between a distinct change in nocturnal aircraft noise exposure due to the introduction of a night curfew (11:00 p.m.-5:00 a.m.) at Frankfurt Airport and short-term annoyance reactions of residents in the surrounding community. Exposure-response curves were calculated by random effects logistic regression to evaluate the aircraft noise-related parameters (1) number of overflights and (2) energy equivalent noise level LASeq for the prediction of short-term annoyance...
June 24, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
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