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T Schnurrer-Luke-Vrbanic, V Avancini-Dobrovic, I Sosa, O Cvijanovic, D Bobinac
Shockwave therapy has found its place in the medical treatment of various diseases of the locomotor system such as acute fracture, nonunion, chronic tendinitis and pseudarthrosis. Focused shock waves enable maximum energy in the therapeutic zone, and depth of penetration can be adjusted. Radial shockwave therapy primarily affects superficial tissues, so its application in medicine is doubtful. Our study aimed to assess long bone fracture healing in regard to soft tissues. For this investigation, 84 female Wistar rats were divided into a focused shockwave group (n=36), a radial shockwave group (n=36) and a control group (n=12)...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Evgeny Shkolnik, Greta Burneikaite, Gabrielius Jakutis, Mikhail Scherbak, Gitana Zuoziene, Birute Petrauskiene, Ekaterina Trush, Yury Vasyuk, Aleksandras Laucevicius, Jelena Celutkiene
BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in managing coronary artery disease and continuous research on alternative techniques to enhance myocardial perfusion and reduce symptoms, coronary artery disease is still one of the leading causes of adult disability worldwide. Cardiac shock-wave therapy (CSWT) has shown promising results in the amelioration of myocardial ischemia in experimental studies; however, clinical results are limited to single-center, mostly uncontrolled and underpowered trials...
June 16, 2018: Coronary Artery Disease
Adel Albaba, Stéphane Lambert, Thierry Faug
The present paper investigates the mean impact force exerted by a granular mass flowing down an incline and impacting a rigid wall of semi-infinite height. First, this granular flow-wall interaction problem is modeled by numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM). These DEM simulations allow computing the depth-averaged quantities-thickness, velocity, and density-of the incoming flow and the resulting mean force on the rigid wall. Second, that problem is described by a simple analytic solution based on a depth-averaged approach for a traveling compressible shock wave, whose volume is assumed to shrink into a singular surface, and which coexists with a dead zone...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
D Veysset, U Gutiérrez-Hernández, L Dresselhaus-Cooper, F De Colle, S Kooi, K A Nelson, P A Quinto-Su, T Pezeril
In this study a single laser pulse spatially shaped into a ring is focused into a thin water layer, creating an annular cavitation bubble and cylindrical shock waves: an outer shock that diverges away from the excitation laser ring and an inner shock that focuses towards the center. A few nanoseconds after the converging shock reaches the focus and diverges away from the center, a single bubble nucleates at the center. The inner diverging shock then reaches the surface of the annular laser-induced bubble and reflects at the boundary, initiating nucleation of a tertiary bubble cloud...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Hiroki Ito, Omar Aboumarzouk, Faris Abushamma, Francis Keeley
PURPOSE: We performed a systematic review of the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of calyceal diverticulum (CD). METHODS: The search strategy was conducted according to the Cochrane reviews guidelines for systematic reviews and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. RESULTS: In total 1189 titles and abstracts were reviewed, of which 101 were selected for manuscript evaluation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Endourology
Maciej Skotak, Eren Alay, James Q Zheng, Virginia Halls, Namas Chandra
We exposed a headform instrumented with 10 pressure sensors mounted flush with the surface to a shock wave with three nominal intensities: 70, 140 and 210 kPa. The headform was mounted on a Hybrid III neck, in a rigid configuration to eliminate motion and associated pressure variations. We evaluated the effect of the test location by placing the headform inside, at the end and outside of the shock tube. The shock wave intensity gradually decreases the further it travels in the shock tube and the end effect degrades shock wave characteristics, which makes comparison of the results obtained at three locations a difficult task...
2018: PloS One
Ben Cooper, Paul Bachoo
BACKGROUND: Leg ulcers are chronic wounds of the lower leg, caused by poor blood flow, that can take a long time to heal. The pooling of blood in the veins can damage the skin and surrounding tissues, causing an ulcer to form. Venous leg ulcers are associated with impaired quality of life, reduced mobility, pain, stress and loss of dignity. The standard treatment for venous leg ulcers is compression bandages or stockings. Shock wave therapy may aid the healing of these wounds through the promotion of angiogenesis (the formation and development of blood vessels) and reduction of inflammation, though this process is poorly understood at present...
June 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Babak Vahdatpour, Hadi Forouzan, Fatemeh Momeni, Mehdi Ahmadi, Parisa Taheri
Background: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave treatment (ESWT) on pain and ankle-hindfoot scale of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score of patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT). Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, 43 patients with chronic AT were selected and randomly allocated in two groups to receive a basic treatment with ESWT or sham SWT (radial and focused shock waves, four sessions once a week for 4 weeks)...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Mandeep S Dhillon, Balvinder Rana, Inayat Panda, Sandeep Patel, Prasoon Kumar
Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the talus can be a cause of significant disability and is a difficult problem to treat. The most common cause is a fracture of the talus. We have done a systematic review of the literature with the following aims: (1) identify and summarize the available evidence in literature for the treatment of talar AVN, (2) define the usefulness of radiological Hawkins sign and magnetic resonance imaging in early diagnosis, and (3) provide patient management guidelines. We searched MEDLINE and PUBMED using keywords and MESH terminology...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Matthew Kuriakose, Kakulavarapu V Rama Rao, Daniel Younger, Namas Chandra
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a "signature wound" in soldiers during training and in combat and has also become a major cause of morbidity in civilians due to increased insurgency. This work examines the role of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption as a result of both primary biomechanical and secondary biochemical injury mechanisms in bTBI. Extravasation of sodium fluorescein (NaF) and Evans blue (EB) tracers were used to demonstrate that compromise of the BBB occurs immediately following shock loading, increases in intensity up to 4 hours and returns back to normal in 24 hours...
June 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Errandonea, Simon MacLeod, Javier Ruiz-Fuertes, L Burakovsky, Malcolm McMahon, Craig Wilson, Jordi Ibañez, Dominik Daisenberger, Catalin Popescu
The phase diagram of zinc (Zn) has been explored up to 140 GPa and 6000 K, by combining optical observations, x-ray diffraction, and ab-initio calculations. In the pressure range covered by this study, Zn is found to retain a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal symmetry up to the melting temperature. The known decrease of the axial ratio (c/a) of the hcp phase of Zn under compression is observed in x-ray diffraction experiments from 300 K up to the melting temperature. The pressure at which c/a reaches √3 (≈10 GPa) is not affected by temperature...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
P Niegemann, M Fikri, I Wlokas, M Röder, C Schulz
Autoignition of fuel/air mixtures is a determining process in internal combustion engines. Ignition can start either homogeneously in the gas phase after compression or in the vicinity of hot surfaces. While ignition properties of commercial fuels are conventionally described by a single quantity (octane number), it is known that some fuels have a varying propensity to the two processes. We present a new experimental concept that generates well-controlled temperature inhomogeneities in the shock-heated gases of a high-pressure shock tube...
May 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Dongwen Zhan, Zhufei Li, Jianting Yang, Yujian Zhu, Jiming Yang
A two-dimensional contraction channel with a theoretically designed concave-oblique-convex wall profile is proposed to obtain a smooth planar-to-planar shock transition with shock intensity amplification that can easily overcome the limitations of a conventional shock tube. The concave segment of the wall profile, which is carefully determined based on shock dynamics theory, transforms the shock shape from an initial plane into a cylindrical arc. Then the level of shock enhancement is mainly contributed by the cylindrical shock convergence within the following oblique segment, after which the cylindrical shock is again "bent" back into a planar shape through the third section of the shock dynamically designed convex segment...
May 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Damian C Swift, Andrea L Kritcher, James A Hawreliak, Amy Lazicki, Andrew MacPhee, Benjamin Bachmann, Tilo Döppner, Joseph Nilsen, Gilbert W Collins, Siegfried Glenzer, Stephen D Rothman, Dominik Kraus, Roger W Falcone
The canonical high pressure equation of state measurement is to induce a shock wave in the sample material and measure two mechanical properties of the shocked material or shock wave. For accurate measurements, the experiment is normally designed to generate a planar shock which is as steady as possible in space and time, and a single state is measured. A converging shock strengthens as it propagates, so a range of shock pressures is induced in a single experiment. However, equation of state measurements must then account for spatial and temporal gradients...
May 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yoshikazu Sato, Kosuke Ucida, Musashi Tobe, Kazunori Haga, Ichiya Honma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 3, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Babak Vahdatpour, Arghavan Mokhtarian, Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat, Farnaz Dehghan, Nafiseh Nasr, Mahsa Mazaheri
Background: Chronic recalcitrant plantar fasciitis is a disabling condition. We presumed if shock wave could increase the permeability of skin and facilitate penetration of topical corticosteroid through the skin; the combinational therapeutic effect would be stronger than using shock wave alone. The study purpose was to utilize the synergistic effect of shock wave and topical corticosteroid in treatment of plantar fasciitis. Materials and Methods: Patients in both groups ( n = 40) received four sessions of shock wave with the same protocol at weekly intervals...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Lenka Barreto, Jae Hung Jung, Ameera Abdelrahim, Munir Ahmed, Guy P C Dawkins, Marcin Kazmierski
BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is a condition where crystalline mineral deposits (stones) form within the urinary tract. Urinary stones can be located in any part of the urinary tract. Affected children may present with abdominal pain, blood in the urine or signs of infection. Radiological evaluation is used to confirm the diagnosis, to assess the size of the stone, its location, and the degree of possible urinary obstruction. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different medical and surgical interventions in the treatment of urinary tract stones of the kidney or ureter in children...
June 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kazuo Inui, Atsushi Masamune, Yoshinori Igarashi, Hirotaka Ohara, Susumu Tazuma, Masanori Sugiyama, Yutaka Suzuki, Hironao Miyoshi, Satoshi Yamamoto, Yosifumi Takeyama, Eriko Nakano, Kensuke Takuma, Junichi Sakagami, Kazuki Hayashi, Atsuko Kogure, Tetsuya Ito, Tsuyoshi Mukai, Iruru Maetani, Masatsugu Nagahama, Masahiro Serikawa, Toshiharu Ueki, Ken Furuya, Hiroyuki Isayama, Ichiro Moriyama, Masaya Shigeno, Kazuhiro Mizukami, Atsushi Nanashima, Shuhei Oana, Atsushi Ikehata, Noriko Watanabe, Yoshiki Hirooka, Keiichiro Ogoshi, Yoji Sasaki, Yoshinori Iwata, Yasushi Kudo, Ataru Nakayama, Masafumi Nakamura
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess prevailing treatment of pancreatolithiasis in Japan. METHODS: We surveyed clinical data from 1834 patients (1479 men and 355 women) at 125 hospitals. RESULTS: Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed alone in 103 patients (5.6%), ESWL plus an endoscopic procedure in 446 (24.3%), endoscopic treatment alone in 261 (14.2%), and surgery in 167 (9.1%). Other treatments were given to 358 (19...
May 30, 2018: Pancreas
Wen-Chi Chen, San-Yuan Wu, Po-Chi Liao, Tzu-Yang Chou, Huey-Yi Chen, Jen-Huai Chiang, Yuan-Chih Su, Kee-Ming Man, Ming-Yen Tsai, Yung-Hsiang Chen
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), a common medicinal plant in traditional Chinese medicine, has been tested effectively to prevent urolithiasis in animals; nevertheless, the clinical application for urolithiasis remains unclear. We thus investigated the clinical effect of Danshen by analyzing the database from the Taiwan National Institute of Health. The cohort "Danshen-users" was prescribed Chinese herb medicine Danshen after the initial diagnosis of calculus. The control group (non-Danshen-users) was not given Danshen after the initial diagnosis of calculus...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Sebastian Peukert, Pavel Yatsenko, Mustapha Fikri, Christof Schulz
The shock-tube technique has been used to investigate the H-abstraction reaction H + Si(OCH3 )4 → H2 + Si(OCH2 )(OCH3 )3 behind reflected shock waves. C2 H5 I was used as a thermal in situ source for H atoms. The experiments covered a temperature range of 1111-1238 K, and pressures of 1.3-1.4 bar. H atom concentrations were monitored with atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS). Fits to the temporal H atom concentration profiles based on a developed chemical kinetics reaction mechanism were used for determining bimolecular rate constants...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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