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Dialysis principles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284300/renal-replacement-therapy-in-acute-kidney-injury-controversies-and-consensus
#1
REVIEW
Michael Heung, Lenar Yessayan
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication among critically ill patents, and 5% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients require initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). In recent years, clinical trials have provided evidence-based guidance for some important aspects of RRT management in patients with AKI, such as dialysis dosing and approaches to anticoagulation in patients undergoing continuous RRT. However, there remain many areas of uncertainty, and delivery of RRT in the ICU requires clinical judgment, flexibility, and an understanding of dialysis principles...
April 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202171/residual-renal-function-a-paradigm-shift
#2
Jerome Lowenstein, Jared J Grantham
Residual renal function (RRF) in patients undergoing dialysis treatments is currently viewed as glomerular filtrate that has escaped tubular reabsorption. RRF has been quantified as a clearance of urea or creatinine, or urea + creatinine. A major paradigm shift has followed the recognition that a substantial number of organic anion retention solutes (possible "uremic toxins") are protein-bound and therefore are not readily filtered. These protein-bound aryl compounds are secreted by renal tubular organic anion transporters (OATs)...
March 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153189/components-of-a-successful-peritoneal-dialysis-program
#3
REVIEW
Xueqing Yu, Rajnish Mehrotra, Xiao Yang
Although varying widely among different countries and geographic regions, the development of peritoneal dialysis invariably requires a well-established program. Key ingredients for the successful delivery of this therapy include adequate chronic kidney disease education, governmental or nongovernmental reimbursement, qualified physicians and nurses trained in the principles and practice of peritoneal dialysis, clinical management that incorporates an excellent and well-trained peritoneal dialysis team, a feasible and well-designed program for catheter insertion, a sound patient training and follow-up scheme, and continuous quality improvement...
January 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065700/integrating-supportive-care-principles-into-dialysis-decision-making-a-primer-for-palliative-medicine-providers
#4
Alvin H Moss
Despite advances in predialysis care and dialysis technology, patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease continue to experience multiple comorbidities, a high symptom burden, a shortened life expectancy, and substantial physical, emotional, and spiritual suffering. Patients with acute kidney injury and end-stage renal disease, especially if they are older, often undergo prolonged hospitalizations, greater use of intensive medical treatment, and limited survival. Unfortunately, most nephrologists are not trained to conduct shared decision-making conversations to elicit patients' values, preferences, and goals for treatment and address their patients' multifactorial suffering...
March 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042933/teaching-peritoneal-dialysis-in-australia-an-opportunity-for-improvement
#5
N Boudville, Y Cho, K L Equinox, A E Figueiredo, C M Hawley, K Howard, D W Johnson, M Jose, A Lee, Mal Maley, J Maley, E M Pascoe, G Z Steiner, M Tomlins, D Voss, J Chow
INTRODUCTION: Up to a 10-fold difference in clinical outcomes between Australian peritoneal dialysis (PD) units exists. There is an international focus on the harmonisation of educational practices in PD to determine whether this may lead to improved patient outcomes. AIMS: Evaluate the current teaching practices of nurses and patients in Australian PD units. METHODS: An online survey with questions on nurse and patient training was made available to PD units in Australia...
January 2, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007064/the-society-of-thoracic-surgeons-congenital-heart-surgery-database-public-reporting-initiative
#6
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Jacobs
Three basic principles provide the rationale for the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Congenital Heart Surgery Database (CHSD) public reporting initiative: (1) Variation in congenital and pediatric cardiac surgical outcomes exist. (2) Patients and their families have the right to know the outcomes of the treatments that they will receive. (3). It is our professional responsibility to share this information with them in a format they can understand. The STS CHSD public reporting initiative facilitates the voluntary transparent public reporting of congenital and pediatric cardiac surgical outcomes using the STS CHSD Mortality Risk Model...
January 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951569/optimal-design-of-dialyzers
#7
Michio Mineshima
BACKGROUND: Several types of synthetic dialysis membranes, including polysulfone, polyethersulfone, and polyester polymer alloy membranes, have asymmetrical structures. Dialyzers with these membranes show higher water and solute transport performance because the actual membrane thickness, which is related to the water and solute transfer resistance, is quite small compared with that in membranes with a homogeneous structure. SUMMARY: The performance of a dialyzer depends not only on membrane permeability to water and solutes, but also on flow conditions of the blood and dialysate, which are determined during dialyzer fabrication...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919635/a-critical-assessment-on-kidney-allocation-systems
#8
REVIEW
Richard N Formica
The kidney allocation system that took effect on December 4, 2014 represents a significant improvement over the prior approach. It seeks to improve outcomes by longevity matching - pairing kidneys expected to function the longest with recipients expected to live the longest. It addresses the biological barriers faced by highly sensitized patients in an evidence based fashion and it begins to introduce the concept of medical need into kidney allocation by crediting time from the starting dialysis to a patient's waiting time...
January 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903471/bovine-pericardium-as-new-technical-option-for-in-situ-reconstruction-of-aortic-graft-infection
#9
Brigitta Lutz, Christian Reeps, Gabor Biro, Christoph Knappich, Alexander Zimmermann, Hans-Henning Eckstein
BACKGROUND: Alloplastic aortic graft infection is a devastating complication following aortic surgery. It is associated with excessively high mortality and morbidity caused by anastomotic rupture or septicemia. Many authors consider in situ replacement after complete surgical graft removal as the method of choice. However, there is an ongoing debate about the most suitable material for reconstruction. We present our first experiences with replacing the descending and infrarenal aorta using custom-made bovine pericardium grafts...
November 27, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845727/ligand-fishing-a-remarkable-strategy-for-discovering-bioactive-compounds-from-complex-mixture-of-natural-products
#10
REVIEW
Rongjie Zhuo, Hao Liu, Ningning Liu, Yi Wang
Identification of active compounds from natural products is a critical and challenging task in drug discovery pipelines. Besides commonly used bio-guided screening approaches, affinity selection strategy coupled with liquid chromatography or mass spectrometry, known as ligand fishing, has been gaining increasing interest from researchers. In this review, we summarized this emerging strategy and categorized those methods as off-line or on-line mode according to their features. The separation principles of ligand fishing were introduced based on distinct analytical techniques, including biochromatography, capillary electrophoresis, ultrafiltration, equilibrium dialysis, microdialysis, and magnetic beads...
November 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818920/new-techniques-of-on-line-biological-sample-processing-and-their-application-in-the-field-of-biopharmaceutical-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Jie Peng, Fang Tang, Rui Zhou, Xiang Xie, Sanwang Li, Feifan Xie, Peng Yu, Lingli Mu
Biological sample pretreatment is an important step in biological sample analysis. Due to the diversity of biological matrices, the analysis of target substances in these samples presents significant challenges to sample processing. To meet these emerging demands on biopharmaceutical analysis, this paper summarizes several new techniques of on-line biological sample processing: solid phase extraction, solid phase micro-extraction, column switching, limited intake filler, molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction, tubular column, and micro-dialysis...
November 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778533/quality-of-life-clinical-outcome-personality-and-coping-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#12
Giuseppina D'Onofrio, Mariadelina Simeoni, Paolo Rizza, Mariarita Caroleo, Maria Capria, Giovanni Mazzitello, Tiziana Sacco, Elena Mazzuca, Maria Teresa Panzino, Annamaria Cerantonio, Cristina Segura-Garcia, Michele Andreucci, Pasquale De Fazio, Giorgio Fuiano
RATIONAL: Our aim was to investigate the quality of life (QoL) in 103 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD) in an integrated assessment of clinical, personological, and adaptation parameters, also in a non-urban context. OBJECTIVES: We collected data from all chronic HD patients attending four HD units. Clinical status was assessed by Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines and by Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACCI). Patients completed the following questionnaires: Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)...
October 25, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679720/the-impact-of-haemodialysis-arteriovenous-fistula-on-haemodynamic-parameters-of-the-cardiovascular-system
#13
Carlo Basile, Luigi Vernaglione, Francesco Casucci, Pasquale Libutti, Piero Lisi, Luigi Rossi, Valentina Vigo, Carlo Lomonte
BACKGROUND: Satisfactory vascular access flow (Qa) of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is necessary for haemodialysis (HD) adequacy. The aim of the present study was to further our understanding of haemodynamic modifications of the cardiovascular system of HD patients associated with an AVF. The main objective was to calculate using real data in what way an AVF influences the load of the left ventricle (LLV). METHODS: All HD patients treated in our dialysis unit and bearing an AVF were enrolled into the present observational cross-sectional study...
October 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626295/prediction-of-drug-penetration-in-tuberculosis-lesions
#14
Jansy P Sarathy, Fabio Zuccotto, Ho Hsinpin, Lars Sandberg, Laura E Via, Gwendolyn A Marriner, Thierry Masquelin, Paul Wyatt, Peter Ray, Véronique Dartois
The penetration of antibiotics in necrotic tuberculosis lesions is heterogeneous and drug-specific, but the factors underlying such differential partitioning are unknown. We hypothesized that drug binding to macromolecules in necrotic foci (or caseum) prevents passive drug diffusion through avascular caseum, a critical site of infection. Using a caseum binding assay and MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of tuberculosis drugs, we showed that binding to caseum inversely correlates with passive diffusion into the necrotic core...
August 12, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611901/osmotic-pressure-in-clinical-medicine-with-an-emphasis-on-dialysis
#15
REVIEW
Jochen G Raimann, Antonios H Tzamaloukas, Nathan W Levin, Todd S Ing
Since the beginning of life of the first multicellular organisms, the preservation of a physiologic milieu for every cell in the organism has been a critical requirement. A particular range of osmolality of the body fluids is essential for the maintenance of cell volume. In humans the stability of electrolyte concentrations and their resulting osmolality in the body fluids is the consequence of complex interactions between cell membrane functions, hormonal control, thirst, and controlled kidney excretion of fluid and solutes...
January 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591608/a-nanoparticulate-liquid-binding-phase-based-dgt-device-for-aquatic-arsenic-measurement
#16
Shengwen Liu, Nannan Qin, Jieyao Song, Ya Zhang, Weiping Cai, Haimin Zhang, Guozhong Wang, Huijun Zhao
A nanomaterials-based DGT device constructed with commercial dialysis membrane as diffusive layer and nanoparticulate Fe3O4 aqueous suspension as binding phase is developed and validated for in situ aquatic arsenic measurement. The Fe3O4NPs binding phase is capable of quantitatively accumulated both As(III) and As(V) species. As(III) and As(V) species coexist in the vast majority of environmental water samples. The large difference in diffusion coefficients of As(III) (DAs(III)=3.05×10(-7)cm(2)s(-1)) and As(V) (DAs(V)=1...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528373/spectrum-and-burden-of-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agent%C3%A2-hyporesponsiveness-among-contemporary-hemodialysis%C3%A2-patients
#17
Jiacong Luo, Donna E Jensen, Bradley J Maroni, Steven M Brunelli
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients with erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) hyporesponsiveness have been a topic of active research. However, there have been no studies of ESA hyporesponsiveness among US patients following the dramatic change in anemia management that resulted from the 2011 changes in ESA product labeling and bundling of dialysis remuneration. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: We studied prevalent hemodialysis patients treated at a large dialysis organization in calendar years 2012 to 2013 (N=98,972)...
August 12, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346298/the-association-between-cinacalcet-use-and-missed-in-center-hemodialysis-treatment-rate
#18
Steven M Brunelli, Scott Sibbel, Paul J Dluzniewski, Kerry Cooper, Mark E Bensink, Brian D Bradbury
PURPOSE: Missed in-center hemodialysis treatments (MHT) are a general indicator of health status in hemodialysis patients. This analysis was conducted to estimate the association between cinacalcet use and MHT rate. METHODS: We studied patients receiving hemodialysis and prescription benefits services from a large dialysis organization. Incident cinacalcet users were propensity score matched to controls on 31 demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables. We applied inverse probability (IP) of censoring and crossover weights to account for informative censoring...
June 27, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334132/structured-fusion-lasso-penalized-multi-state-models
#19
Holger Sennhenn-Reulen, Thomas Kneib
Multi-state models generalize survival or duration time analysis to the estimation of transition-specific hazard rate functions for multiple transitions. When each of the transition-specific risk functions is parametrized with several distinct covariate effect coefficients, this leads to a model of potentially high dimension. To decrease the parameter space dimensionality and to work out a clear image of the underlying multi-state model structure, one can either aim at setting some coefficients to zero or to make coefficients for the same covariate but two different transitions equal...
June 23, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100946/setting-up-a-national-dialysis-service-in-india-change-choice-and-principles
#20
EDITORIAL
Vivekanand Jha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Nephrology
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