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Opium technique

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356522/the-abuse-potential-of-prescription-opioids-in-humans-closing-in-on-the-first-century-of-research
#1
Sharon L Walsh, Shanna Babalonis
While opioids are very effective analgesics for treating acute pain, humans have struggled with opiate addiction for millenia. An opium abuse epidemic in the early 1900's led the US government to develop a systematic research infrastructure and scientific plan to produce new compounds with analgesic properties but without abuse liability. This review describes the techniques that were developed for testing in the human laboratory, including empirically derived outcome measures and required elements for human abuse potential assessment...
June 30, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175693/assessing-the-epidemiological-data-and-management-methods-of-body-packers-admitted-to-a-referral-center-in-iran
#2
Athena Alipour-Faz, Shahin Shadnia, Seyyed Hadi Mirhashemi, Maryam Peyvandi, Mahbobeh Oroei, Omid Shafagh, Hassan Peyvandi, Ali Asghar Peyvandi
The incidence of smuggling and transporting illegal substances by internal concealment, also known as body packing, is on the rise. The clinical approach to such patients has been changed significantly over the past 2 decades. However, despite a recorded increase in body packing in general, there are controversies in the management of these patients. We aimed to gather data regarding the demographic characteristics, treatment, and outcome of body packers, which were that referred to Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26717018/concentration-profiling-of-minerals-in-iliac-crest-bone-tissue-of-opium-addicted-humans-using-inductively-coupled-plasma-and-discriminant-analysis-techniques
#3
Ahmad Mani-Varnosfaderani, Mahbobeh Jamshidi, Ali Yeganeh, Mani Mahmoudi
Opium addiction is one of the main health problems in developing countries and induces serious defects on the human body. In this work, the concentrations of 32 minerals including alkaline, heavy and toxic metals have been determined in the iliac crest bone tissue of 22 opium addicted individuals using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The bone tissues of 30 humans with no physiological and metabolomic diseases were used as the control group. For subsequent analyses, the linear and quadratic discriminant analysis techniques have been used for classification of the data into "addicted" and "non-addicted" groups...
February 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26161314/the-effect-of-adding-sufentanil-to-0-5-hyperbaric-bupivacaine-on-duration-of-brachial-plexus-blockade-in-chronic-opium-abusers-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Omid Azimaraghi, Seyed Mojtaba Marashi, Noushin Khazaei, Sarah Pourhassan, Ali Movafegh
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia induction in patients with current substance abuse can be a challenge for anesthesiologists. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding Sufentanil to Bupivacaine on duration of brachial plexus nerve block. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with (Groups C and D) and without (Groups A and B) a history of opium abuse (60 in each group) scheduled for elective upper extremity procedures were randomly assigned to either receive 30 mL bupivacaine alone (Groups A and C) or in combination with additional 10 µg sufentanil (Groups B and D)...
June 2015: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26080150/heinrich-von-pfalzpaint-pioneer-of-arm-flap-nasal-reconstruction-in-1460-more-than-a-century-before-tagliacozzi
#5
Aina Greig, Andreas Gohritz, Max Geishauser, Wolfgang Mühlbauer
Heinrich von Pfalzpaint (circa 1415-1465) was a Bavarian military surgeon of the Teutonic Order who treated more than 4000 casualties during the siege of Marienberg Fortress (1454-1457). In 1460, he reported "How to create a new nose if it has been chopped off and the dogs have eaten it" in his treatise on wound care Bündt-Ertznei. He used opium-soaked sponges for anesthesia, described the surgical extraction of bullets and cleft lip repair. Pfalzpaint would have been the first author to describe nasal reconstruction in Europe if his treatise had not been lost...
June 2015: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25538776/blood-lead-level-in-opium-dependents-and-its-association-with-anemia-a-cross-sectional-study-from-the-capital-of-iran
#6
Behrooz Hashemi Domeneh, Nader Tavakoli, Najmeh Jafari
BACKGROUND: Opium dependence is one of the most challenging health problems in the developing countries as well as Iran. Among several health problems due to opium dependence, there are limited reports indicating the presence of lead in opium. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood lead level (BLL) in oral and inhalational opium dependents and its association with anemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done among 86 opium dependent patients who were referred to five large detoxification centers in Tehran city and 48 healthy individuals...
October 2014: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24823967/recreational-drug-discovery-natural-products-as-lead-structures-for-the-synthesis-of-smart-drugs
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni Appendino, Alberto Minassi, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Covering: up to December 2013. Over the past decade, there has been a growing transition in recreational drugs from natural materials (marijuana, hashish, opium), natural products (morphine, cocaine), or their simple derivatives (heroin), to synthetic agents more potent than their natural prototypes, which are sometimes less harmful in the short term, or that combine properties from different classes of recreational prototypes. These agents have been named smart drugs, and have become popular both for personal consumption and for collective intoxication at rave parties...
July 2014: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24689805/estimating-the-prevalence-of-illicit-drug-use-among-students-using-the-crosswise-model
#8
Mansour Shamsipour, Masoud Yunesian, Akbar Fotouhi, Ben Jann, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Fariba Asghari, Ali Asghar Akhlaghi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to compare the prevalence of illicit drug use estimated through a technique referred to as the "crosswise model" (CM) with the results from conventional direct questioning (DQ). METHOD: About 1,500 students from Tehran University of Medical Sciences 2009-2010 were first interviewed by DQ and, then three months later, by the CM. RESULT: The CM yielded significantly higher estimates than DQ for lifetime prevalence of use of any illicit drug (CM = 20...
August 2014: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24468363/design-and-implementation-of-an-automated-liquid-phase-microextraction-chip-system-coupled-on-line-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#9
Bin Li, Nickolaj Jacob Petersen, María D Ramos Payán, Steen Honoré Hansen, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
An automated liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) device in a chip format has been developed and coupled directly to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 10-port 2-position switching valve was used to hyphenate the LPME-chip with the HPLC autosampler, and to collect the extracted analytes, which then were delivered to the HPLC column. The LPME-chip-HPLC system was completely automated and controlled by the software of the HPLC instrument. The performance of this system was demonstrated with five alkaloids i...
March 2014: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24329146/exfoliative-cytology-of-oral-mucosa-among-smokers-opium-addicts-and-non-smokers-a-cytomorphometric-study
#10
Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour, Mahbobeh Aghababaie, Toraj Reza Mirshekari, Majid Asadi-Shekaari, Mehrnaz Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Sayed Amir Hossein Gandjalikhan Nassab
BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. METHODS: Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software...
December 2013: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23888738/burns-treatment-in-ancient-times
#11
Marija Pećanac, Zlata Janjić, Aleksandar Komarcević, Milos Pajić, Dusanka Dobanovacki, Sanja Skeledzija Misković
Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries...
May 2013: Medicinski Pregled
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23851123/in-planta-detection-and-monitorization-of-endophytic-colonization-by-a-beauveria-bassiana-strain-using-a-new-developed-nested-and-quantitative-pcr-based-assay-and-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy
#12
B B Landa, C López-Díaz, D Jiménez-Fernández, M Montes-Borrego, F J Muñoz-Ledesma, A Ortiz-Urquiza, E Quesada-Moraga
Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip obtained from larvae of the opium poppy stem gall Iraella luteipes endophytically colonizes opium poppy plants and protect it against this pest. Development of a specific, rapid and sensitive technique that allows accurately determining the process and factors leading to the establishment of this strain in opium poppy plants would be essential to achieve its efficient control in a large field scale. For that purpose in the present study, species-specific primers that can be used in conventional or quantitative PCR protocols were developed for specifically identification and detection of B...
October 2013: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23830440/a-label-free-electrochemical-biosensor-based-on-a-dna-aptamer-against-codeine
#13
Liangliang Huang, Xiaojuan Yang, Cui Qi, Xiaofang Niu, Chunling Zhao, Xiaohui Zhao, Dihua Shangguan, Yunhui Yang
In order to develop a sensor for opium alkaloid codeine detection, DNA aptamers against codeine were generated by SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technique. An aptamer HL7-14, which is a 37-mer sequence with Kd values of 0.91 μM, was optimized by the truncation-mutation assay. The specificity investigation shows that HL7-14 exhibits high specificity to codeine over morphine, and almost cannot bind to other small molecule. With this new selected aptamer, a novel electrochemical label-free codeine aptamer biosensor based on Au-mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Au-MSN) as immobilized substrate has been proposed using [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) as electroactive redox probe...
July 17, 2013: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23672318/comparison-of-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-under-spinal-versus-general-anesthesia-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Akbar Nouralizadeh, Seyed Amir Mohsen Ziaee, Seyed Hossein Hosseini Sharifi, Abbas Basiri, Ali Tabibi, Farzaneh Sharifiaghdas, Hossein Kilani, Babak Gharaei, Fatemeh Roodneshin, Mohammad Hossein Soltani
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of spinal anesthesia compared with general anesthesia in patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score <3 were randomly divided into two groups according to the type of anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia was performed using an injection of 0.25 mg/kg bupivacaine 0.5% in the intrathecal space; no opium (fentanyl) agent was used...
August 2013: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23603301/the-plasma-levels-of-the-cytokines-in-opium-addicts-and-the-effects-of-opium-on-the-cytokines-secretion-by-their-lymphocytes
#15
Saeedeh Nabati, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi, Gholamabbas Shahabinejad, Mohsen Rezaeian, Mehdi Mahmoodi, Derek Kennedy
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of opium addiction on the secretion of IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TGF-β under in vivo and in vitro conditions. The blood samples were collected and PBMCs were cultured in RPMI1640 with and without opium for 48 h. The levels of the cytokines were measured using ELISA technique. The results showed that plasma levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were significantly lower and IL-6 and TGF-β were higher in plasma taken from opium-addicted subjects. The concentrations of all the cytokines in opium-addicted subjects in in vitro condition were significantly lower than the control group...
April 2013: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23332099/utility-of-opium-seed-extract-tests-in-preventing-hypersensitivity-reactions-during-surgery
#16
A Armentia, F Pineda, R Palacios, F-J Martín-Gil, A S Miguel, J J Arenal, J Tejedor, B M Tef
BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis during anaesthesia is fatal in 3-9% of patients and analgesics, including opioids, and is the second most common medicament-related cause, although the prevalence is underestimated. We recently found that patients may generate IgE antibodies to opium seeds. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of specific antibodies to morphine, codeine, rocuronium and oil body and aqueous fractions of Papaver somniferum seeds in the diagnosis and prevention of allergy to opioids...
January 2014: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23161361/the-first-intravenous-anaesthetic-how-well-was-it-managed-and-its-potential-realized
#17
REVIEW
K L Dorrington, W Poole
Our speciality commonly traces its origin to a demonstration of the inhalation of ether by a patient undergoing surgery in Boston in 1846. Less well known is the demonstration of the i.v. injection of opium with alcohol into a dog in Oxford in 1656, leading to anaesthesia followed by full long-term recovery. After gaining i.v. access, a mixture of opium and alcohol was injected, resulting in a brief period of anaesthesia. After a period during which the dog was kept moving to assist recovery, a full recovery was made...
January 2013: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23074492/optimum-methadone-compliance-testing-an-evidence-based-analysis
#18
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this analysis was to determine the diagnostic utility of oral fluid testing collected with the Intercept oral fluid collection device. CLINICAL NEED: TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION Opioids (opiates or narcotics) are a class of drugs derived from the opium poppy plant that typically relieve pain and produce a euphoric feeling. Methadone is a long-acting synthetic opioid used to treat opioid dependence and chronic pain. It prevents symptoms of opioid withdrawal, reduces opioid cravings and blocks the euphoric effects of short-acting opioids such as heroin and morphine...
2006: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22999177/biochemical-genomics-for-gene-discovery-in-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloid-biosynthesis-in-opium-poppy-and-related-species
#19
Thu Thuy T Dang, Akpevwe Onoyovwi, Scott C Farrow, Peter J Facchini
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a large, diverse group of ∼2500 specialized plant metabolites. Many BIAs display potent pharmacological activities, including the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine, the vasodilator papaverine, the cough suppressant and potential anticancer drug noscapine, the antimicrobial agents sanguinarine and berberine, and the muscle relaxant (+)-tubocurarine. Opium poppy remains the sole commercial source for codeine, morphine, and a variety of semisynthetic drugs, including oxycodone and buprenorphine, derived primarily from the biosynthetic pathway intermediate thebaine...
2012: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22676557/patterns-of-pre-treatment-drug-abuse-drug-treatment-history-and-characteristics-of-addicts-in-methadone-maintenance-treatment-in-iran
#20
Hajar Shekarchizadeh, Hamed Ekhtiari, Mohammad R Khami, Jorma I Virtanen
BACKGROUND: Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. METHODS: We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810) in MMT...
2012: Harm Reduction Journal
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