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Early onset psychosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102978/pretreatment-cardiometabolic-status-in-youth-with-early-onset-psychosis-baseline-results-from-the-tea-trial
#1
Karsten G Jensen, Christoph U Correll, Ditte Rudå, Dea G Klauber, Marie Stentebjerg-Olesen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen, Anders Fink-Jensen, Anne Katrine Pagsberg
OBJECTIVE: To describe pretreatment cardiometabolic constitution in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP). METHODS: Baseline cardiometabolic assessment was performed in youths aged 12-17 years with FEP entering the Tolerability and Efficacy of Antipsychotics (TEA) trial and matched healthy controls. Patients were included between June 10, 2010, and January 29, 2014. ICD-10 was used as the diagnostic classification system. Cardiometabolic risk markers were compared between patients versus controls and antipsychotic-naive versus antipsychotic-exposed patients...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096883/reconsidering-clinical-staging-model-a-case-of-genetic-high-risk-for-schizophrenia
#2
Tae Young Lee, Minah Kim, Sung Nyun Kim, Jun Soo Kwon
The clinical staging model is considered a useful and practical method not only in dealing with the early stage of psychosis overcoming the debate about diagnostic boundaries but also in emerging mood disorder. However, its one limitation is that it cannot discriminate the heterogeneity of individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis, but lumps them all together. Even a healthy offspring of schizophrenia can eventually show clinical symptoms and progress to schizophrenia under the influence of genetic vulnerability and environmental stress even after the peak age of onset of schizophrenia...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096881/design-and-methodology-of-the-korean-early-psychosis-cohort-study
#3
Sung-Wan Kim, Bong Ju Lee, Jung Jin Kim, Je-Chun Yu, Kyu Young Lee, Seung-Hee Won, Seung-Hwan Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Shi Hyun Kang, Young-Chul Chung
The present study details the rationale and methodology of the Korean Early Psychosis Cohort Study (KEPS), which is a clinical cohort investigation of first episode psychosis patients from a Korean population. The KEPS is a prospective naturalistic observational cohort study that follows the participants for at least 2 years. This study includes patients between 18 and 45 years of age who fulfill the criteria for one of schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders according to the diagnostic criteria of DSM-5...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095883/moderated-online-social-therapy-for-carers-of-young-people-recovering-from-first-episode-psychosis-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
John Gleeson, Reeva Lederman, Helen Herrman, Peter Koval, Dina Eleftheriadis, Sarah Bendall, Sue M Cotton, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez
BACKGROUND: First-episode psychosis most often has its onset during late adolescence. In caring for the young person, families endure high levels of stress and depression. Meanwhile, the social networks of families often erode. Our group has previously shown that family cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) leads to significantly improved perceived stress compared with specialist first-episode treatment as usual; however, there are well-known barriers to the dissemination of effective family interventions...
January 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076647/sex-specific-cognitive-abnormalities-in-early-onset-psychosis
#5
Miguel Ruiz-Veguilla, Josefa Moreno-Granados, Maria D Salcedo-Marin, Maria L Barrigon, Maria J Blanco-Morales, Evelio Igunza, Anselmo Cañabate, Maria D Garcia, Teresa Guijarro, Francisco Diaz-Atienza, Maite Ferrin
Objectives: Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls...
January 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059932/a-developmental-perspective-on-social-cognition-difficulties-in-youth-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#6
Sarah Hope Lincoln, Emily M Norkett, Katherine H Frost, Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich, Eugene J D'Angelo
After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate the evolution of social cognitive abilities as a developmental process• Assess the evidence regarding social cognition difficulties in youth at clinical high risk for psychosisIndividuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis exhibit a broad range of difficulties, including impaired social cognition, which may represent a target for early identification and intervention. Several studies have examined various domains of social cognition in CHR individuals...
January 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053131/a-severity-based-clinical-staging-model-for-the-psychosis-prodrome-longitudinal-findings-from-the-new-york-recognition-and-prevention-program
#7
Ricardo E Carrión, Christoph U Correll, Andrea M Auther, Barbara A Cornblatt
Clinical staging improved the possibility of intervening during the psychosis prodrome to limit progression of illness. The current study aimed to validate a novel 4-stage severity-based model with a focus on clinical change over time and risk for conversion to psychosis. One hundred seventy-one individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis were followed prospectively (3 ± 1.6 y) as part of the Recognition and Prevention (RAP) program and divided into 4 diagnostic stages according to absence/presence and severity of attenuated positive symptoms...
January 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052777/from-neurological-soft-signs-to-functional-outcome-in-young-individuals-in-treatment-with-secondary-services-for-non-psychotic-disorders-a-path-analysis
#8
A Minichino, M Francesconi, R E Carrión, R Delle Chiaie, A Bevilacqua, M Parisi, S Rullo, F S Bersani, M Biondi, K Cadenhead
BACKGROUND: Functional decline among patients with mental illness is not unique to individuals with psychotic disorders. Despite this, research on early predictors of functional outcome mainly focused on individuals thought to have an 'at risk mental state' (ARMS) for psychosis. There is evidence suggesting that certain early vulnerability markers, such as neurological soft signs (NSS), may explain variability in functional outcomes independent of the level of psychosis risk and the traditional diagnostic classification...
January 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049079/prediction-of-motivational-impairment-12-month-follow-up-of-the-randomized-controlled-trial-on-extended-early-intervention-for-first-episode-psychosis
#9
W C Chang, V W Y Kwong, G H K Chan, O T T Jim, E S K Lau, C L M Hui, S K W Chan, E H M Lee, E Y H Chen
BACKGROUND: Amotivation is prevalent in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and is a major determinant of functional outcome. Prediction of amotivation in the early stage of psychosis, however, is under-studied. We aimed to prospectively examine predictors of amotivation in FEP patients in a randomized-controlled trial comparing a 1-year extension of early intervention (Extended EI, 3-year EI) with step-down psychiatric care (SC, 2-year EI). METHODS: One hundred sixty Chinese patents were recruited from a specialized EI program for FEP in Hong Kong after they have completed this 2-year EI service, randomly allocated to Extended EI or SC, and followed up for 12 months...
December 29, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047652/su-f-sps-07-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-findings-in-early-phase-psychosis
#10
A Wright, R Ma, T Hummer, M Francis, N Mehdiyoun, U Dydak, A Breier
PURPOSE: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by disordered thoughts, abnormal social behaviors, flat affect, and auditory or visual hallucinations. The current study aims to investigate alterations in brain metabolism in patients near the onset of psychosis (early-phase psychosis, EPP), to characterize abnormalities during the early stages of schizophrenia. To this end, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to measure metabolite levels and subsequently monitor the effect of treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045349/first-presentation-with-psychotic-symptoms-in-a-population-based-sample
#11
Gregory E Simon, Karen J Coleman, Bobbi Jo H Yarborough, Belinda Operskalski, Christine Stewart, Enid M Hunkeler, Frances Lynch, David Carrell, Arne Beck
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence supports the effectiveness of comprehensive early intervention at first onset of psychotic symptoms. Implementation of early intervention programs will require population-based data on overall incidence of psychotic symptoms and on care settings of first presentation. METHODS: In five large health care systems, electronic health records data were used to identify all first occurrences of psychosis diagnoses among persons ages 15-59 between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013 (N=37,843)...
January 3, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041918/prediction-of-functional-outcome-in-young-patients-with-a-recent-onset-psychiatric-disorder-beyond-the-traditional-diagnostic-classification-system
#12
Amedeo Minichino, Marta Francesconi, Ricardo E Carrión, Arturo Bevilacqua, Maurizio Parisi, Santo Rullo, Agata Ando', Massimo Biondi, Roberto Delle Chiaie, Kristin Cadenhead
A critical research goal is to identify modifiable risk factors leading to functional disabilities in young psychiatric patients. The authors developed a multidimensional trans-diagnostic predictive model of functional outcome in patients with the recent-onset of a psychiatric illness. Baseline clinical, psychosis-risk status, cognitive, neurological-soft-signs measures, and dopamine-related-gene polymorphisms (DRD1-rs4532, COMT-rs165599, and DRD4-rs1800955) were collected in 138 young non-psychotic outpatients...
December 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003912/reduced-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-and-glutamate-glutamine-levels-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-but-not-in-those-at-ultrahigh-risk
#13
Junjie Wang, Yingying Tang, Tianhong Zhang, Huiru Cui, Lihua Xu, Botao Zeng, Yu Li, Gaiying Li, Chunbo Li, Hui Liu, Zheng Lu, Jianye Zhang, Jijun Wang
Altered γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu) levels, and an imbalance between GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions have been involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear how these abnormalities impact the onset and course of psychosis. In the present study, 21 drug-naïve subjects at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR), 16 drug-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), and 23 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. In vivo GABA and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003288/protocol-for-a-multicentre-study-to-assess-feasibility-acceptability-effectiveness-and-direct-costs-of-triumph-treatment-and-recovery-in-psychosis-integrated-care-pathway-for-psychosis
#14
Shanaya Rathod, Christie Garner, Alison Griffiths, Borislav D Dimitrov, Katherine Newman-Taylor, Chris Woodfine, Lars Hansen, Paul Tabraham, Karen Ward, Carolyn Asher, Peter Phiri, Farooq Naeem, Pippa North, Tariq Munshi, David Kingdon
INTRODUCTION: Duration of untreated psychosis (time between the onset of symptoms and start of treatment) is considered the strongest predictor of symptom severity and outcome. Integrated care pathways that prescribe timeframes around access and interventions can potentially improve quality of care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multicentre mixed methods study to assess feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness and analysis of direct costs of an integrated care pathway for psychosis...
December 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995059/working-memory-circuit-as-a-function-of-increasing-age-in-healthy-adolescence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#15
Julia Andre, Marco Picchioni, Ruibin Zhang, Timothea Toulopoulou
Working memory ability matures through puberty and early adulthood. Deficits in working memory are linked to the risk of onset of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, and there is a significant temporal overlap between the peak of first episode psychosis risk and working memory maturation. In order to characterize the normal working memory functional maturation process through this critical phase of cognitive development we conducted a systematic review and coordinate based meta-analyses of all the available primary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (n = 382) that mapped WM function in healthy adolescents (10-17 years) and young adults (18-30 years)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951481/relatives-expressed-emotion-distress-and-attributions-in-clinical-high-risk-and-recent-onset-of-psychosis
#16
Tecelli Domínguez-Martínez, Cristina Medina-Pradas, Thomas R Kwapil, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
It has been well-demonstrated that Expressed Emotion (EE) in caregivers of schizophrenia patients is related to their illness attributions, but little is known about relatives' cognitive and emotional appraisals at early stages of psychosis. This study examined differences on the relationships of EE with distress and illness attributions in 78 relatives of At-Risk Mental States (ARMS) and First-Episode of Psychosis (FEP) patients, and which of those variables better predicted EE. Criticism and Emotional Over-Involvement (EOI) were associated with distress and with several illness attributions in both groups...
January 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906088/folie-%C3%A3-deux-and-its-interaction-with-early-life-stress-a-case-report
#17
Alessandra Vargas Alves Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes, Talita Strano, Gilberto Pascolat, Gustavo Manoel Schier Doria, Mauricio Nasser Ehlke
BACKGROUND: Folie à deux is a very rare psychiatric syndrome in which a psychotic symptom is transmitted from one individual to another. We present a case of folie à deux occurring during childhood, which is not an usual presentation of this syndrome. In this case, the disorder is correlated with child abuse and neglect, which possibly had a role in the development of the symptoms in our case. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of folie à deux between an "induced" 9-year-old black Brazilian boy and the "inducer", his grandmother...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893018/effect-of-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-young-people-at-ultrahigh-risk-for-psychotic-disorders-the-neurapro-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Patrick D McGorry, Barnaby Nelson, Connie Markulev, Hok Pan Yuen, Miriam R Schäfer, Nilufar Mossaheb, Monika Schlögelhofer, Stephan Smesny, Ian B Hickie, Gregor Emanuel Berger, Eric Y H Chen, Lieuwe de Haan, Dorien H Nieman, Merete Nordentoft, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Swapna Verma, Andrew Thompson, Alison Ruth Yung, G Paul Amminger
Importance: A promising treatment to prevent onset and improve outcomes in patients at ultrahigh risk for psychosis is dietary supplementation with long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Objective: To determine whether treatment with ω-3 PUFAs in combination with a high-quality psychosocial intervention (cognitive behavioral case management [CBCM]) is more effective than placebo plus CBCM. Design, Setting, and Participants: NEURAPRO, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, was conducted from March 1, 2010, to September 30, 2014, in 10 specialized early psychosis treatment services in Australia, Asia, and Europe...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892953/thalamic-mir-338-3p-mediates-auditory-thalamocortical-disruption-and-its-late-onset-in-models-of-22q11-2-microdeletion
#19
Sungkun Chun, Fei Du, Joby J Westmoreland, Seung Baek Han, Yong-Dong Wang, Donnie Eddins, Ildar T Bayazitov, Prakash Devaraju, Jing Yu, Marcia M Mellado Lagarde, Kara Anderson, Stanislav S Zakharenko
Although 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with early-life behavioral abnormalities, affected individuals are also at high risk for the development of schizophrenia symptoms, including psychosis, later in life. Auditory thalamocortical (TC) projections recently emerged as a neural circuit that is specifically disrupted in mouse models of 22q11DS (hereafter referred to as 22q11DS mice), in which haploinsufficiency of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing-factor-encoding gene Dgcr8 results in the elevation of the dopamine receptor Drd2 in the auditory thalamus, an abnormal sensitivity of thalamocortical projections to antipsychotics, and an abnormal acoustic-startle response...
January 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889384/reduced-superoxide-dismutase-1-sod1-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-early-psychosis-in-association-with-clinical-features
#20
Jennifer M Coughlin, Lindsay N Hayes, Teppei Tanaka, Meifang Xiao, Robert H Yolken, Paul Worley, F Markus Leweke, Akira Sawa
Oxidative stress is implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of psychosis from studies of animal models and of tissues obtained from patients. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is an antioxidant responsible for reducing free radicals. SOD1 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reportedly correlate with those in brain. We hypothesized that patients in early-stages of psychotic disease may have altered SOD1 in CSF compared to healthy controls. We previously reported in a pilot study that SOD1 levels in CSF of patients with recent onset schizophrenia (SZ) were lower compared to healthy controls...
November 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
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