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Early onset psychosis

Alexander Sumich, Anthony Harris, Thomas Whitford, Daniel Hermens, Nadja Heym, John Anderson, Claire Bloxsom, Fraenze Kibowski, Veena Kumari
OBJECTIVE: Right frontal function, as indicated by the N200 component of the event-related potential during target detection, has previously been associated with excitement (excitement, impulsivity, hostility, uncooperativeness) in men with a long-term diagnosis of schizophrenia. The current study investigated excitement in relation to N200 in men who had recently experienced their first episode of psychosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty men who had recently suffered their first psychotic episode underwent a clinical interview and auditory oddball task...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Til Wykes, Eileen Joyce, Tjasa Velikonja, Andrew Watson, Gregory Aarons, Max Birchwood, Matteo Cella, Sue Dopson, David Fowler, Kathy Greenwood, Sonia Johnson, Paul McCrone, Jesus Perez, Andrew Pickles, Clare Reeder, Diana Rose, Swaran Singh, Dominic Stringer, Matthew Taylor, Rumina Taylor, Rachel Upthegrove
BACKGROUND: Cognitive problems in people with schizophrenia predict poor functional recovery even with the best possible rehabilitation opportunities and optimal medication. A psychological treatment known as cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) aims to improve cognition in neuropsychiatric disorders, with the ultimate goal of improving functional recovery. Studies suggest that intervening early in the course of the disorder will have the most benefit, so this study will be based in early intervention services, which treat individuals in the first few years following the onset of the disorder...
March 15, 2018: Trials
Stefania Schiavone, Luigia Trabace
Recent evidence highlighted a pathogenetic link between redox dysregulation and the early stages of psychosis. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have pointed toward an association between oxidative stress, both at central and peripheral levels, and first psychotic episode. Moreover, basal low antioxidant capacity has been shown to directly correlate with cognitive impairment in the early onset of psychosis. In this context, the possibility to use antioxidant compounds in first psychotic episode, especially as supplementation to antipsychotic therapy, has become the focus of numerous investigations on rodents with the aim to translate data on the possible effects of antioxidant therapies to large populations of patients, with a diagnosis of the first psychotic episode...
March 14, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Cristian Mena, Alfonso Gonzalez-Valderrama, Barbara Iruretagoyena, Juan Undurraga, Nicolas A Crossley
BACKGROUND: Failure to respond to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia is a common clinical scenario with significant morbidity. Recent studies have highlighted that many patients present treatment-resistance from disease onset. We here present an analysis of clozapine prescription patterns, used as a real-world proxy marker for treatment-resistance, in a cohort of 1195 patients with schizophrenia from a Latin-American cohort, to explore the timing of emergence of treatment resistance and possible subgroup differences...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Brian Villumsen Broberg, Iris E Sommer, Michael Eriksen Benros, Birte Yding Glenthøj, Christiane Gasse, Ole Köhler-Forsberg
Glucocorticoids can have psychosis as a potential side effect, but have also been suggested to yield protective effects due to anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, knowledge is sparse on the association between glucocorticoid treatment and development of psychosis, which we aimed to study in this first large-scale longitudinal study. Among all individuals born in Denmark 1995-2003 (n=597,257), we compared individuals who had redeemed ≥1 prescription for glucocorticoids to an active comparator group and a non-exposed group concerning subsequent development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders until 2013...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Xiaobo Peng, Chunyan Wang, Lili Bai, Jianguang Dong, Xiaoxia Lu, Yanqing Liu, Zewu Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical manifestation and therapeutic method in patients with acute mushroom poisoning. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. The clinical data of 48 patients with acute mushroom poisoning admitted to Department of Poisoning Treatment of the 307th Hospital of PLA from January 2016 to May 2017 were analyzed. The clinical data including gender, age, clinical symptoms, onset season, initial symptoms, incubation time, the length of hospital stay, treatment, and prognosis...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Masayoshi Kurachi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Takashi Uehara, Michio Suzuki
Background: A recent review reported that the median proportion of patients recovering from schizophrenia was 13.5% and that this did not change over time. Various factors including the duration of untreated psychosis, cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and morphological changes in the brain influence the functional outcome of schizophrenia. The authors herein reviewed morphological changes in the brain of schizophrenia patients, effects of early intervention, and a direction of developing novel therapeutics to achieve significant improvement of the functional outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Juliana Onwumere, Sandra Sirykaite, Joerg Schulz, Emma Man, Gareth James, Roya Afsharzadegan, Sanna Khan, Raythe Harvey, Jonathan Souray, David Raune
BACKGROUND: The first onset of psychosis can exert a significant negative impact on the functioning and positive wellbeing of family carers. Carer reports of "burnout" have recently been recorded in early psychosis carers, though the literature is scarce detailing our understanding of how burnout relates to the primary experience of caregiving. The current study investigated reports of burnout and its relationship with beliefs about caregiving and wellbeing in a large group of early psychosis carers who were routinely assessed within an early intervention team...
February 12, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Albert E Kim, Peter Kang, Robert C Bucelli, Cole J Ferguson, Robert E Schmidt, Arun S Varadhachary, Gregory S Day
INTRODUCTION: Indications for autoantibody testing in patients with rapid-onset cognitive impairment have expanded in step with the growing number of disease-associated autoantibodies and clinical syndromes. Although increased access to autoantibody testing has broadened our understanding of the spectrum of autoimmune encephalitis (AE), it has also produced new challenges associated with deciphering the contributions of disease-associated autoantibodies in patients with atypical clinical features and/or multiple autoantibodies...
March 2018: Neurologist
Leopoldo J Cabassa, Sarah Piscitelli, Morgan Haselden, Rufina J Lee, Susan M Essock, Lisa B Dixon
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand the pathways to care from the onset of a first episode of psychosis to entry into a specialized early intervention service (EIS) for individuals with nonaffective psychosis. METHODS: A sample of 20 individuals who participated in an EIS and ten of their family members were enrolled. Semistructured qualitative interviews were used to characterize participants' lives during the onset of psychosis and explore their help-seeking events from the onset of psychosis to entry into the EIS...
March 1, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
TianHong Zhang, LiHua Xu, HuiRu Cui, YingYing Tang, YanYan Wei, XiaoChen Tang, XiaoHua Liu, XinMei Cao, ChunBo Li, JiJun Wang
There is a strong correlation between neurocognition and social cognition. However, none of these studies have examined the key role of time consumption during social cognition tasks. Participants included 84 individuals with clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR), 95 healthy controls (HC), and 66 case controls (schizophrenia patients, SZ), who were assessed through the Reading-Mind-in-Eyes Tasks (RMET) with computerized recording of the response time (RT). Neurocognitive tests were also performed for the HC and CHR groups...
February 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Veronika Mészáros, Dóra Perczel-Forintos
INTRODUCTION: Different types of childhood trauma have been repeatedly shown to contribute to psychotic symptoms. Gender differences in schizophrenia are well known. Some studies argue that trauma history means a significantly higher risk of psychosis for women than men. However, there is evidence of early adverse life events to be associated with higher stress-sensitivity in men. Little is known about the connection of specific type of trauma and specific psychotic symptoms as well as the course of illness with explicit regard to gender differences...
February 13, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Souhel Najjar, Johann Steiner, Amanda Najjar, Karl Bechter
Growing data point to the overlap between psychosis and pathological processes associated with immunological dysregulation as well as inflammation. Notably, the recent discovery of antibodies against synaptic and neuronal cell membrane proteins such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor provides more direct evidence of the etiological connection between autoimmunity and subsequent hazard of psychosis. Here, we advocate the use of term "autoimmune psychosis," as this term suggests that autoimmune disorders can masquerade as drug-resistant primary psychosis, and this subtype of psychosis has anatomical and immunological footprints in the brain, despite the frequent absence of structural abnormalities on conventional brain MRI...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Lindsay M Smith, Juliana Onwumere, Thomas Craig, Elizabeth Kuipers
AIM: Looking after someone in the early stages of psychosis can have a negative impact on caregivers, but there is little clarity about which interventions, if any, caregivers should be offered. This study investigated sleep disturbances in early psychosis caregivers and the relationship between their sleep quality and distress. METHOD: In all, 79 caregivers of patients with a recent first episode of psychosis completed self-report measures including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the RAND 36-item Health Survey 1...
February 8, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Sophia E R Bogaty, Rico S C Lee, Ian B Hickie, Daniel F Hermens
OBJECTIVE: Adult psychosis patients (i.e. over the age of 25 years) who are also lifetime cannabis users (CANN±) appear to exhibit superior cognition compared to never-using patients (CANN-). The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the cognitive differences between CANN- and patients who currently use cannabis (CANN+) (i.e. during the CANN± patients' cannabis-using stage). Specifically, focusing on young patients under the age of 25 years, the typical stage of both psychosis- and cannabis-onset...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ajeet Sidana
To highlight the association between amisulpride and onset of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in patient suffering with psychosis not otherwise specified (NOS), who has already been treated with amisulpride for many years. A 40-year-old female suffering with psychosis NOS since 19 years presented with recurrence of positive symptoms in the form of delusion of persecution, ideas of grandiosity since last 3 months. She was treated with amisulpride up to 400 mg/day and developed involuntary oro-buccal-lingual movement within 2 months of amisulpride therapy...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Josephine Mollon, Anthony S David, Stanley Zammit, Glyn Lewis, Abraham Reichenberg
Importance: Most patients with psychotic disorders experience severe cognitive impairment, but the onset and course of this impairment remain unclear. Moreover, the course of cognitive functions in other psychiatric conditions remains largely unexamined. Objective: To chart the course of general and specific cognitive functions in individuals with psychotic disorders, psychotic experiences, and depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a prospective cohort study comprising all live births between April 1, 1991, and December 31, 1992, in Avon, England...
January 31, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Gregory E Simon, Christine Stewart, Bobbi Jo Yarborough, Frances Lynch, Karen J Coleman, Arne Beck, Belinda H Operskalski, Robert B Penfold, Enid M Hunkeler
Importance: Individuals with psychotic disorders have increased mortality, and recent research suggests a marked increase shortly after diagnosis. Objective: To use population-based data to examine overall and cause-specific mortality after first diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used records from 5 integrated health systems that serve more than 8 million members in 5 states. Members aged 16 through 30 years who received a first lifetime diagnosis of a psychotic disorder from September 30, 2009, through September 30, 2015, and 2 comparison groups matched for age, sex, health system, and year of diagnosis were selected from all members making an outpatient visit (general outpatient group) and from all receiving a first diagnosis of unipolar depression (unipolar depression group)...
January 31, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Dominic Oliver, Cathy Davies, Georgia Crossland, Steffiany Lim, George Gifford, Philip McGuire, Paolo Fusar-Poli
Reduction of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is the key strategy of early interventions for improving the outcomes of first-episode psychosis. Although several controlled interventional studies have been conducted with the aim of reducing DUP, the results are highly inconsistent and conflicting. The current study systematically searches Web of Science and Ovid for English original articles investigating interventions adopted to reduce DUP, compared to a control intervention, up to April 6, 2017. Sixteen controlled interventional studies were retrieved, including 1964 patients in the intervention arm and 1358 in the control arm...
January 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Johnny Downs, Harry Dean, Suzannah Lechler, Nicola Sears, Rashmi Patel, Hitesh Shetty, Matthew Hotopf, Tamsin Ford, Marinos Kyriakopoulos, Covadonga M Diaz-Caneja, Celso Arango, James H MacCabe, Richard D Hayes, Laura Pina-Camacho
The prevalence of negative symptoms (NS) at first episode of early-onset psychosis (EOP), and their effect on psychosis prognosis is unclear. In a sample of 638 children with EOP (aged 10-17 y, 51% male), we assessed (1) the prevalence of NS at first presentation to mental health services and (2) whether NS predicted eventual development of multiple treatment failure (MTF) prior to the age of 18 (defined by initiation of a third trial of novel antipsychotic due to prior insufficient response, intolerable adverse-effects or non-adherence)...
January 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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