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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471606/-clinical-approach-to-abdominal-pain-as-functional-origin
#1
REVIEW
Han Seung Ryu, Suck Chei Choi
Abdominal pain is a common symptom that patients refer to a hospital. Organic causes should be differentiated in patients with abdominal pain and treatment should be administered in accordance with the causes. A meticulous history taking and physical examination are highly useful in making a diagnosis, and blood tests, imaging modalities, and endoscopy are useful for confirming diagnosis. However, in many cases, patients have functional disorders with no obvious abnormal findings obtained even if many diagnostic tests are performed...
February 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471561/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#2
Jake P Mann, Luca Valenti, Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne, Valerio Nobili
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children who present with particular risk factors including obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and/or a predisposing genetic background. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD in children is a worrying phenomenon because this disease is closely associated with the development of both cirrhosis and cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood. To date, the etiopathogenesis of primary NAFLD in children is unknown...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471442/estimation-of-adaptive-ventilation-success-and-failure-using-polysomnogram-and-outpatient-therapy-biomarkers
#3
Stacey Gunn, Sreelatha Naik, Matt Travis Bianchi, Robert Joseph Thomas
Study Objectives: Adaptive servo ventilation (ASV) devices provide anti-cyclic pressure support for treatment of central/complex sleep apnea, including in heart failure patients. Variability in responses in the clinic and negative clinical trials motivated assessment of standard and novel signal biomarkers for ASV efficacy. Methods: Multiple clinical databases were queried to assess potential signal biomarkers of ASV effectiveness, including 1) Attended laboratory adaptive ventilation titrations: 108, of which 66 had mainstream ETCO2 measurements...
February 17, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471417/a-study-of-circulating-micrornas-identifies-a-new-potential-biomarker-panel-to-distinguish-aggressive-prostate-cancer
#4
Batoul Farran, Gregory Dyson, Douglas Craig, Alan Dombkowski, Jennifer L Beebe-Dimmer, Isaac J Powell, Izabela Podgorski, Lance Heilbrun, Susan Bolton, Cathryn H Bock
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men worldwide. Currently available diagnostic and prognostic tools for this disease, such as PSA, suffer from lack of specificity and sensitivity, resulting in over- and misdiagnosis. Hence, there is an urgent need for clinically relevant biomarkers capable of distinguishing between aggressive and non-aggressive forms of prostate cancer to aid in stratification, management and therapeutic decisions. To address this unmet need, we investigated the patterns of expression of a panel of 68 plasma-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in a cohort of African American (AA) and European American (EA) prostate cancer patients (n=114)...
February 17, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471142/hair-analysis-when-external-contamination-is-in-question-a-review-of-practical-approach-for-the-interpretation-of-results
#5
Lolita Tsanaclis, Maristela Andraus, John Wicks
Despite having been extensively discussed over the last decade, the differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination still continues to be one of the limitations of hair testing for drugs. For this reason, we consider it worthwhile to re-state some basic principles in this short review. Various studies investigating a diversity of wash protocols, most using artificially contaminated hair with cocaine, have been valuable in evaluating wash efficacy and in understanding the incorporation of drugs in hair...
February 7, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471115/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-is-a-sensitive-tool-for-differential-diagnosis-of-myelodysplastic-syndromes-in-bone-marrow-trephines
#6
Andreas Bräuninger, Wolfgang Blau, Kristin Kunze, Ann-Kathrin Desch, Alexander Brobeil, Mehmet Kemal Tur, Benjamin Etschmann, Ulrich Günther, Dieter Körholz, Georg Schliesser, Andreas Käbisch, Michael Kiehl, Mathias Rummel, Stefan Gattenlöhner
Myelodysplastic syndromes are hematological neoplasias in which immunohistological examination of bone-marrow trephines is important for a definite diagnosis. Unequivocal distinction from reactive bone-marrow changes is, however, sometimes difficult. As neoplastic clones in myelodysplastic syndrome carry mutations in recurrent genes, mutation detection by targeted next-generation sequencing may be a useful support for differential diagnosis. To elucidate the accuracy of this approach in the clinical diagnostic setting, we analyzed single and consecutive bone-marrow trephines processed for immunohistological examination from 145 patients by targeted next-generation sequencing of 12 genes recurrently mutated in myelodysplastic syndromes...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470951/serum-level-of-long-noncoding-rna-h19-as-a-diagnostic-biomarker-of-multiple-myeloma
#7
Yafang Pan, Hongmei Chen, Xianjuan Shen, Xudong Wang, Shaoqing Ju, Meihong Lu, Hui Cong
Circulating long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 has been reported to be a biomarker for cancer monitoring. The purpose of this study was to determine whether serum lncRNA could serve as a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) and evaluate its value of clinical application. In our study, the expression of lncRNA H19 was up-regulated in 80 patients with MM and MM cell lines by RT-PCR analysis. Clinicopathological analysis showed the expression level of H19 could assist clinical staging, and the severity of the disease could be roughly determined according to the amount of H19 expressed in the patient serum...
February 19, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470930/diagnostic-utility-of-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-versus-culture-in-endophthalmitis-and-uveitis
#8
Harpal Singh Sandhu, Amir Hajrasouliha, Henry J Kaplan, Wei Wang
PURPOSE: To compare genetic testing for microbes in infectious endophthalmitis or uveitis to culture. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center case series that enrolled patients with clinically suspected endophthalmitis or uveitis of unknown etiology. Aqueous humor or vitreous was collected and sent for routine cultures and genetic testing. RESULTS: In total, 46 patients were enrolled. Genetic testing was positive in 32/46 (70%) cases and culture 6/46 cases (13%)...
February 22, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470861/mini-cog-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-and-other-dementias-within-a-primary-care-setting
#9
REVIEW
Dallas P Seitz, Calvin Ch Chan, Hailey T Newton, Sudeep S Gill, Nathan Herrmann, Nadja Smailagic, Vasilis Nikolaou, Bruce A Fage
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia are becoming increasingly common with the aging of most populations. The majority of individuals with dementia will first present for care and assessment in primary care settings. There is a need for brief dementia screening instruments that can accurately diagnose dementia in primary care settings. The Mini-Cog is a brief, cognitive screening test that is frequently used to evaluate cognition in older adults in various settings...
February 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470763/a-rapid-on-site-assay-for-the-detection-of-influenza-a-by-capillary-convective-pcr
#10
Zhihao Zhuo, Jin Wang, Wendi Chen, Xiaosong Su, Mengyuan Chen, Mujin Fang, Shuizhen He, Shiyin Zhang, Shengxiang Ge, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia
BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality from influenza A (Flu A) have increased in recent years. Timely diagnosis and management are critical for disease control. Therefore, the development of a rapid, accurate, and portable analytical method for on-site analysis is imperative. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to develop a rapid, on-site, automated assay for the detection of Flu A and to evaluate the assay. METHODS: A handheld instrument (TD-01) based on capillary convective polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for rapid on-site detection of Flu A...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470710/risk-stratification-genomic-data-and-the-law
#11
REVIEW
Alison Hall, Thomas Finnegan, Susmita Chowdhury, Tom Dent, Mark Kroese, Hilary Burton
Risk prediction models have a key role in stratified disease prevention, and the incorporation of genomic data into these models promises more effective personalisation. Although the clinical utility of incorporating genomic data into risk prediction tools is increasingly compelling, at least for some applications and disease types, the legal and regulatory implications have not been examined and have been overshadowed by discussions about clinical and scientific utility and feasibility. We held a workshop to explore relevant legal and regulatory perspectives from four EU Member States: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470527/value-of-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-laparoscopy-for-patients-with-blunt-abdominal-trauma-a-10-year-medical-center-experience
#12
Heng-Fu Lin, Ying-Da Chen, Shyr-Chyr Chen
Laparoscopy has been used for the diagnosis and treatment for hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. This study evaluated whether diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy can be used as effectively in select patients with blunt abdominal trauma. All hemodynamically stable patients undergoing operations for blunt abdominal trauma over a 10-year period (2006-2015) at a tertiary medical center were included. Patients undergoing laparotomy were categorized as group A. Patients who underwent laparoscopy were categorized as group B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470351/severe-unresolved-cholestasis-due-to-unknown-aetiology-leading-to-early-allograft-failure-within-the-first-3-months-of-liver-transplantation
#13
Roberta Angelico, Undine A Gerlach, Bridget K Gunson, Desley Neil, Hynek Mergental, John Isaac, Paolo Muiesan, Darius Mirza, M Thamara Pr Perera
BACKGROUND: Causes of severe cholestasis following liver transplantation(LT) are multi-factorial; whilst the aetiology is predictable in some, others culminate in graft/patient loss without a definitive cause identified. Severe cholestasis is usually associated with overlapped histological findings of rejection and biliary features, and diagnostic interpretation may pose a challenge. METHODS: This is 10-year retrospective analysis of patients with unexplained severe cholestasis resulting in death/graft loss within 90-days of LT...
February 20, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470341/clinical-updates-in-women-s-health-care-summary-arthritis
#14
Debendra Pattanaik
Arthritis is a commonly encountered problem in daily clinical practice, and with an aging population it will be as prevalent as any other chronic illness, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Obstetrician-gynecologists often encounter patients with arthritic symptoms in their practices. They may find it challenging to identify the underlying cause of arthritis and provide recommendations, as well as provide obstetric care to patients with known arthritis. The monograph will discuss common forms of arthritis, diagnostic testing and appropriate management, and referral of patients who need specialized care...
March 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470322/pediatric-gastroesophageal-reflux-clinical-practice-guidelines-joint-recommendations-of-the-north-american-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-and-the-european-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition
#15
Rachel Rosen, Yvan Vandenplas, Maartje Singendonk, Michael Cabana, Carlo DiLorenzo, Frederic Gottrand, Sandeep Gupta, Miranda Langendam, Annamaria Staiano, Nikhil Thapar, Neelesh Tipnis, Merit Tabbers
This document serves as an update of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) 2009 clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children and is intended to be applied in daily practice and as a basis for clinical trials. Eight clinical questions addressing diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic topics were formulated...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470227/hospitalized-patients-with-and-without-hemodialysis-have-markedly-different-vancomycin-pharmacokinetics-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-based-analysis
#16
V Goti, A Chaturvedula, M J Fossler, S Mok, J T Jacob
BACKGROUND: Despite being in clinical use for about six decades, vancomycin dosing remains perplexing and complex. METHODS: A population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation approach was used to evaluate the efficiency of the current nomogram-based dosing of vancomycin. Serum vancomycin concentrations were obtained as a part of routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) from two 500-bed academic medical centers. A population pharmacokinetic model was first built using these TDM data...
February 20, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470182/diagnosis-and-management-of-vte-in-pregnancy
#17
Kelley C McLean, Andra H James
Venous thromboembolism is a leading cause of maternal death. Because of the low absolute frequency of events, however, outcome-based clinical data are limited. Consequently, clinicians must additionally rely both on published guidelines and on extrapolation of data from studies focused on nonpregnant individuals. The diagnosis and treatment of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis are complicated by pregnancy, and often require modifications to standard diagnostic and treatment algorithms outside of pregnancy...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470154/unipedal-diagnostic-lymphangiography-followed-by-sequential-ct-examinations-in-patients-with-idiopathic-chyluria-a-retrospective-study
#18
Jian Dong, Jianfeng Xin, Wenbin Shen, Xiaobai Chen, Tingguo Wen, Chunyan Zhang, Rengui Wang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate the clinical value of diagnostic lymphangiography followed by sequential CT examinations in patients with idiopathic chyluria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with idiopathic chyluria underwent unipedal diagnostic lymphangiography and then underwent sequential CT examinations. The examinations were reviewed separately by two radiologists. Abnormal distribution of contrast medium, lymphourinary leakages, and retrograde flow were noted, and the range and distribution of lymphatic vessel lesions were recorded...
February 22, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469943/effects-of-diagnostic-work-up-on-medical-decision-making-for-canine-urinary-tract-infection-an-observational-study-in-danish-small-animal-practices
#19
T M Sørensen, C R Bjørnvad, G Cordoba, P Damborg, L Guardabassi, V Siersma, L Bjerrum, L R Jessen
BACKGROUND: Clinical signs of urinary tract disease in dogs often lead to prescription of antibiotics. Appropriate diagnostic work-up could optimize treatment and reduce the risk of inappropriate use of antibiotics. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To describe and evaluate the impact of diagnostic work-up on decision to treat (DTT) and choice of antibiotic treatment (COT) for dogs presenting with clinical signs of urinary tract disease. ANIMALS: One hundred and fifty-one dogs presenting to 52 Danish veterinary practices...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469791/hyperkeratotic-and-hypertrophic-lichen-nitidus
#20
Jonathan D Ho, Ali Al-Haseni, Michael T Rosenbaum, Lynne J Goldberg
Lichen nitidus typically presents as shiny pin-head sized papules on the trunk and extremities, often affecting children and young adults. In this prototypical form, it rarely presents a diagnostic challenge being characterized by distinctive clinical and histopathologic findings. We describe a rare variant of lichen nitidus, which we term "hyperkeratotic and hypertrophic lichen nitidus."
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
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