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Colon cancer epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936129/characteristics-of-differently-located-colorectal-cancers-support-proximal-and-distal-classification-a-population-based-study-of-57-847-patients
#1
Jiao Yang, Xiang Lin Du, Shu Ting Li, Bi Yuan Wang, Yin Ying Wu, Zhe Ling Chen, Meng Lv, Yan Wei Shen, Xin Wang, Dan Feng Dong, Dan Li, Fan Wang, En Xiao Li, Min Yi, Jin Yang
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that colorectal cancer be regarded as several subgroups defined according to tumor location rather than as a single entity. The current study aimed to identify the most useful method for grouping colorectal cancer by tumor location according to both baseline and survival characteristics. METHODS: Cases of pathologically confirmed colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2000 to 2012 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database and categorized into three groups: right colon cancer (RCC), left colon cancer (LCC), and rectal cancer (ReC)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919155/-possible-health-risks-from-asbestos-in-drinking-water
#2
Agostino Di Ciaula, Valerio Gennaro
The recent finding of asbestos fibres in drinking water (up to 700.000 fibres/litres) in Tuscany (Central Italy) leads to concerns about health risks in exposed communities. Exposure to asbestos has been linked with cancer at several levels of the gastrointestinal tract, and it has been documented, in an animal model, a direct cytotoxic effect of asbestos fibres on the ileum. It has been recently described a possible link between asbestos and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and asbestos fibres have been detected in humans in histological samples from colon cancer and in gallbladder bile...
November 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915991/control-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer-by-synthetic-vitamin-d-receptor-ligands
#3
Ichiro Takada, Makoto Makishima
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are associated with an increased risk of cancer, autoimmune disease, inflammation, infection, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease, as well as bone and mineral disorders. The vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a receptor for the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], and mediates vitamin D regulation of specific target gene expression. The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, which is produced by intestinal bacteria, is another natural VDR ligand...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909900/obesity-and-colorectal-cancer
#4
Carmen Jochem, Michael Leitzmann
There is strong evidence that modifiable lifestyle factors such as obesity play a key role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic data have consistently reported a positive association between obesity and colorectal cancer. The relative risk associated with general obesity (as assessed by BMI) is higher in men than in women and for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum. Abdominal obesity (as assessed by waist circumference (WC) or waist-to-hip ratio) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in both sexes, with stronger associations for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908614/a-critical-discussion-on-diet-genomic-mutations-and-repair-mechanisms-in-colon-carcinogenesis
#5
Juliana Yumi Sakita, Bianca Gasparotto, Sergio Britto Garcia, Sergio Akira Uyemura, Vinicius Kannen
Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies and its etiology closely tied to dietary habits. Recent epidemiological data shows that colon cancer incidence is shifting to a much younger population. In this regard, some dietary components from a regular human meal might have various DNA-damaging compounds. Given that not every person endure cancer, the colonic malignancy develops throughout decades, and persistent DNA damage promotes cancer when induced at the proper intensity, a critical discussion of possible novel mechanisms by which carcinogens promote these tumors is urgently needed...
November 28, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895640/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-immunomodulators-in-colorectal-cancer-new-potential-role-in-adjuvant-therapies
#6
REVIEW
Stefania Miccadei, Roberta Masella, Anna Maria Mileo, Sandra Gessani
Diet composition may affect the onset and progression of chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer, whose pathogenesis relies on inflammatory processes. Growing evidence indicates that diet and its components critically contribute to human health, affecting the immune system, secretion of adipokines, and metabolic pathways. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Antineoplastic drugs are widely used for CRC treatment, but drug resistance and/or off-target toxicity limit their efficacy...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891617/signet-ring-cell-carcinoma-of-resectable-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-has-rare-surgical-value
#7
Jianfei Fu, Lunpo Wu, Mengjie Jiang, Yinuo Tan, Dan Li, Fei Chen, Ting Jiang, Jinlin Du
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a uniquely separated subgroup in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The aims are to investigate the value of resection in patients with resectable metastatic signet ring cell colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with mCRC who underwent resection in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database during 1998-2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Kaplan-Meier and COX models were used to analyze the differences in the survival...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888861/inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-digestive-disease-week-2016-advances-in-epidemiology-follow-up-treatment-monitoring-optimisation-and-individual-tailoring-and-colon-cancer-prevention
#8
Santiago García-López
In Digestive Disease Week 2016, interesting data were presented on the eventual role of certain foods in inflammatory bowel disease, although the value of these data is relative. Also of interest were epidemiological studies, of which several analysed the natural history of the disease. Some presentations dealt with the search for individual predictive factors, a pressing need in clinical practice. Unfortunately, some of the findings presented were of dubious value. A study suggesting that a simple parameter as increased blood monocytes could be a clear predictive factor of poor outcome could perhaps be highlighted (the results were striking but had multiple limitations)...
September 2016: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885078/the-international-nuclear-workers-study-inworks-a-collaborative-epidemiological-study-to-improve-knowledge-about-health-effects-of-protracted-low-dose-exposure
#9
Dominique Laurier, David B Richardson, Elisabeth Cardis, Robert D Daniels, Michael Gillies, Jackie O'Hagan, Ghassan B Hamra, Richard Haylock, Klervi Leuraud, Monika Moissonnier, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Ausrele Kesminiene
INWORKS is a multinational cohort study, gathering 308 297 workers in the nuclear industry in France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, with detailed individual monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation. Over a mean duration of follow-up of 27 y, the number of observed deaths was 66 632, including 17 957 deaths due to solid cancers, 1791 deaths due to haematological cancers and 27 848 deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. Mean individual cumulative external dose over the period 1945-2005 was 25 mSv...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881709/relationship-between-metformin-use-and-recurrence-and-survival-in-patients-with-resected-stage-iii-colon-cancer-receiving-adjuvant-chemotherapy-results-from-north-central-cancer-treatment-group-n0147-alliance
#10
Preet Paul Singh, Qian Shi, Nathan R Foster, Axel Grothey, Suresh G Nair, Emily Chan, Anthony F Shields, Richard M Goldberg, Sharlene Gill, Morton S Kahlenberg, Frank A Sinicrope, Daniel J Sargent, Steven R Alberts
BACKGROUND: Preclinical and epidemiological data suggest that metformin might have antineoplastic properties against colon cancer (CC). However, the effect of metformin use on patient survival in stage III CC after curative resection is unknown. The survival outcomes were comparable regardless of the duration of metformin use. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Before randomization to FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin) with or without cetuximab, 1,958 patients with stage III CC enrolled in the N0147 study completed a questionnaire with information on diabetes mellitus (DM) and metformin use...
November 23, 2016: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866828/high-fat-western-diet-induced-obesity-contributes-to-increased-tumor-growth-in-mouse-models-of-human-colon-cancer
#11
Ann Marie O'Neill, Christine M Burrington, Erin A Gillaspie, Darin T Lynch, Melissa J Horsman, Michael W Greene
Strong epidemiologic evidence links colon cancer to obesity. The increasing worldwide incidence of colon cancer has been linked to the spread of the Western lifestyle, and in particular consumption of a high-fat Western diet. In this study, our objectives were to establish mouse models to examine the effects of high-fat Western diet-induced obesity on the growth of human colon cancer tumor xenografts, and to examine potential mechanisms driving obesity-linked human colon cancer tumor growth. We hypothesize that mice rendered insulin resistant due to consumption of a high-fat Western diet will show increased and accelerated tumor growth...
October 20, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859423/from-obesity-to-cancer-a-review-on-proposed-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Zoya Tahergorabi, Majid Khazaei, Mitra Moodi, Elham Chamani
Nowadays, obesity is considered as a serious and growing global health problem. It is documented that the overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a series of noncommunicable diseases, and in recent years, the obesity-cancer link has received much attention. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased risk of several cancer types, including colon, breast, endometrium, liver, kidney, esophagus, gastric, pancreatic, gallbladder, and leukemia, and can also lead to poorer treatment...
November 9, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859268/heterogeneity-of-colorectal-cancer-risk-by-tumour-characteristics-large-prospective-study-of-uk-women
#13
Andrea Burón Pust, Rupert Alison, Roger Blanks, Kirstin Pirie, Kezia Gaitskell, Isobel Barnes, Toral Gathani, Gillian Reeves, Valerie Beral, Jane Green
Associations between behavioural and other personal factors and colorectal cancer risk have been reported to vary by tumour characteristics, but evidence is inconsistent. In a large UK-based prospective study we examined associations of 14 postulated risk factors with colorectal cancer risk overall, and across 3 anatomical sites and 4 morphological subtypes. Among 1.3 million women, 18,518 incident colorectal cancers were identified during 13.8 (SD 3.4) years follow-up via record linkage to national cancer registry data...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848961/diet-microorganisms-and-their-metabolites-and-colon-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Stephen J D O'Keefe
Colorectal cancer is one of the so-called westernized diseases and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. On the basis of global epidemiological and scientific studies, evidence suggests that the risk of colorectal cancer is increased by processed and unprocessed meat consumption but suppressed by fibre, and that food composition affects colonic health and cancer risk via its effects on colonic microbial metabolism. The gut microbiota can ferment complex dietary residues that are resistant to digestion by enteric enzymes...
November 16, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832799/estimation-of-second-cancer-risk-after-radiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer-comparison-of-3d-conformal-radiotherapy-and-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-using-different-high-dose-fractionation-schemes
#15
Daniel R Zwahlen, Laura I Bischoff, Günther Gruber, Marcin Sumila, Uwe Schneider
PURPOSE: To investigate second cancer risk (SCR) comparing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with different high dose fractionation schemes. METHODS: VMAT and 3DCRT virtual treatment plans for 25 patients previously treated with radiotherapy for rectal cancer were evaluated retrospectively. Doses prescribed were 25 × 1.8 Gy and 5 × 5 Gy, respectively. SCR was estimated using a carcinogenesis model and epidemiological data for carcinoma and sarcoma induction...
November 10, 2016: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823732/cancer-chemoprevention-by-dietary-phytochemicals-epidemiological-evidence
#16
REVIEW
Raúl Baena Ruiz, Pedro Salinas Hernández
BACKGROUND: In recent years, natural compounds called "phytochemicals", which are present in fruits, vegetables, and plants, have received special attention due to their potential to interfere with tumour formation and development. Many of these phytochemicals are being used in chemoprevention strategies. However, the scientific evidence regarding the modification of cancer risk continues to be debated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific evidence and the most relevant epidemiological studies regarding the consumption or use of phytochemicals and their effects on the incidence of cancer...
December 2016: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811909/fusobacterium-nucleatum-in-colorectal-carcinoma-tissue-according-to-tumor-location
#17
Kosuke Mima, Yin Cao, Andrew T Chan, Zhi Rong Qian, Jonathan A Nowak, Yohei Masugi, Yan Shi, Mingyang Song, Annacarolina da Silva, Mancang Gu, Wanwan Li, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Keisuke Kosumi, Akiko Hanyuda, Li Liu, Aleksandar D Kostic, Marios Giannakis, Susan Bullman, Caitlin A Brennan, Danny A Milner, Hideo Baba, Levi A Garraway, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Wendy S Garrett, Curtis Huttenhower, Matthew Meyerson, Edward L Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests a possible role of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal carcinogenesis, especially in right-sided proximal colorectum. Considering a change in bowel contents and microbiome from proximal to distal colorectal segments, we hypothesized that the proportion of colorectal carcinoma enriched with F. nucleatum might gradually increase along the bowel subsites from rectum to cecum. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 1,102 colon and rectal carcinomas in molecular pathological epidemiology databases of the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study...
November 3, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803671/cross-talk-between-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-and-the-vitamin-d-system-in-prevention-of-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Abhishek Aggarwal, Enikö Kállay
There is epidemiological evidence for the cancer preventive effect of dietary calcium (Ca(2+)) and vitamin D. This effect is strongest in colorectal cancer (CRC). The active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), bound to its receptor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the expression of hundreds of different genes in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. While Ca(2+) acts through multiple mechanisms and pathways, some of its effects are mediated by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). The joint action of Ca(2+) and 1,25D3 is due to the fact that both regulate some of the main processes involved in the development of various cancers, such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and inflammation...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785421/lynch-syndrome-and-exposure-to-aristolochic-acid-in-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-its-clinical-impact
#19
REVIEW
Pierre Colin, Thomas Seisen, Romain Mathieu, Sharohkh F Shariat, Morgan Rouprêt
The purpose of the current review was to describe the clinical risk for Lynch syndrome (LS) after exposure to aristolochic acid (AA) in cases of upper urinary-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed using the Medline database (National Library of Medicine, PubMed) using the following keywords: epidemiology, risk factor, AA, Balkan nephropathy (BNe), LS, hereditary cancer, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), mismatch repair genes, urothelial carcinomas, upper urinary tract, renal pelvis, ureter, Amsterdam criteria, genetic counselling, mismatch repair genes, genetic instability, microsatellite, and Bethesda guidelines...
October 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781251/-analysis-of-screening-for-colorectal-cancer-high-risk-groups-in-harbin-china-2012-2015
#20
Dawei Song, Rui Huang, Tianyi Ma, Yinggang Chen, Jiaying Li, Xishan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the result of colorectal cancer screening for high-risk groups in Harbin, China from 2012 to 2015. METHODS: According to the Project of National Colorectal Cancer Screening in Urban Area, epidemiological investigation and cancer risk evaluation established by National Cancer Center were performed among 40-69 years old residents in Harbin. Questionnaires were issued to assess high-risk groups for clinical screening, including colonoscope examination...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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