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Colon cancer epidemiology

Ruoxu Dou, Reiko Nishihara, Yin Cao, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Kosuke Mima, Atsuhiro Masuda, Yohei Masugi, Yan Shi, Mancang Gu, Wanwan Li, Annacarolina da Silva, Katsuhiko Nosho, Xuehong Zhang, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Edward L Giovannucci, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Zhi Rong Qian, Shuji Ogino
Experimental evidence suggests that the let-7 family of noncoding RNAs suppresses adaptive immune responses, contributing to immune evasion by the tumor. We hypothesized that the amount of let-7a and let-7b expression in colorectal carcinoma might be associated with limited T-lymphocyte infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment and worse clinical outcome. Utilizing the molecular pathological epidemiology resources of 795 rectal and colon cancers in two U.S.-nationwide prospective cohort studies, we measured tumor-associated let-7a and let-7b expression levels by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and CD3(+), CD8(+), CD45RO (PTPRC)(+), and FOXP3(+) cell densities by tumor tissue microarray immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted image analysis...
October 13, 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
Jian Gong, Carolyn M Hutter, Polly A Newcomb, Cornelia M Ulrich, Stephanie A Bien, Peter T Campbell, John A Baron, Sonja I Berndt, Stephane Bezieau, Hermann Brenner, Graham Casey, Andrew T Chan, Jenny Chang-Claude, Mengmeng Du, David Duggan, Jane C Figueiredo, Steven Gallinger, Edward L Giovannucci, Robert W Haile, Tabitha A Harrison, Richard B Hayes, Michael Hoffmeister, John L Hopper, Thomas J Hudson, Jihyoun Jeon, Mark A Jenkins, Jonathan Kocarnik, Sébastien Küry, Loic Le Marchand, Yi Lin, Noralane M Lindor, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino, John D Potter, Anja Rudolph, Robert E Schoen, Petra Schrotz-King, Daniela Seminara, Martha L Slattery, Stephen N Thibodeau, Mark Thornquist, Reka Toth, Robert Wallace, Emily White, Shuo Jiao, Mathieu Lemire, Li Hsu, Ulrike Peters
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO)...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Nader Bagheri, Fatemeh Azadegan-Dehkordi, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Majid Asadi-Samani, Hedaytollah Shirzad
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) usually colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than 50% of the human population, causing an infection that may appear in early childhood and can persist for life. H. pylori is suggested as the main cause of peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis. It is also associated with gastric cancer. Its severity and symptoms depend on environmental factors, host susceptibility and bacterial components, which allow H. pylori to switch between commensalism and pathogenicity. H. pylori is genetically highly variable, and the variability which affects H...
September 22, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Rebecca M Dodson, Richard P McQuellon, Harveshp D Mogal, Katharine E Duckworth, Gregory B Russell, Konstantinos I Votanopoulos, Perry Shen, Edward A Levine
BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery (CS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for peritoneal metastases can alleviate symptoms and prolong survival at the expense of morbidity and quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to monitor QoL and outcomes before and after HIPEC. METHODS: A prospective QoL trial of patients who underwent HIPEC for peritoneal metastases from 2000 to 2015 was conducted. The patients completed the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy + Colon Subscale (FACT-C), the Brief Pain Inventory, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status at baseline, then 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after HIPEC...
September 8, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Caitlin C Murphy, Robert S Sandler, Hanna K Sanoff, Y Claire Yang, Jennifer L Lund, John A Baron
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the U.S. is increasing among adults younger than age 50 years, but incidence has decreased among older populations after population-based screening was recommended in the late 1980s. Blacks have higher incidence than whites. These patterns have prompted suggestions to lower the screening age for average-risk populations or in blacks. At the same time, there has been controversy over whether reductions in CRC incidence can be attributed to screening...
September 5, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Adil Ayub, Om Parkash, Norberto Santana-Rodríguez, Wissam Raad, Faiz Y Bhora
BACKGROUND: Appendiceal cancer is extremely rare with excellent survival after curative resection. There is a concern for the development of additional cancers in survivors of appendiceal cancer. However, existing data is limited to small anecdotal reports on appendiceal carcinoid only. We aim to investigate the risk of subsequent malignancies in patients with appendiceal carcinoma and correlate the risk according to patient and clinical characteristics. METHODS: We identified 3788 patients with appendiceal cancer from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between 1992 and 2011...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Ben Huang, Yang Feng, Mengdong Ni, Chen Chen, Guoxiang Cai
BACKGROUND: We aim to compare the prognosis between patients with stage IIA and stage IIIA colon cancer. METHODS: We analysed patients with stage IIA or stage IIIA colon cancer based on data from the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Survival data were generated as Kaplan-Meier curves and were compared by log-rank tests. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the risk factors. RESULTS: In total, 43 379 patients (38 784 stage IIA and 4595 stage IIIA) were included from the SEER database...
August 31, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Xu Guan, Wei Chen, Shuai Li, Zheng Jiang, Zheng Liu, Zhixun Zhao, Song Wang, Ming Yang, Xishan Wang
Despite the adequacy of nodal evaluation was gradually improved for colon cancer (CC), rare attention has been paid for the effect of patient and tumor heterogeneity on nodal evaluation. We identified 109902 CC patients in stage I-III from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) database during 2004-2013. The lymph nodes evaluations were separately assessed in different patient- and tumor-related features, including gender, age, T stage, histology, tumor differentiation, tumor size and tumor location...
August 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Brandon Garcia, Carlos Guzman, Christopher Johnson, Nicholas J Hellenthal, Daphne Monie, Jose Raul Monzon
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest increased lymph node excision in patients with colon cancer portends improved survival. Guidelines recommend excising 12 or more lymph nodes during colectomy. There is an inverse correlation between the positive lymph node ratio and survival in patients of these patients. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether colon cancer patients have adequate lymph node excision and whether positive lymph node ratio can be used as a guiding factor for their treatment plan...
September 2016: Surgical Oncology
Wojciech Krajewski, Mateusz Dzięgała, Anna Kołodziej, Janusz Dembowski, Romuald Zdrojowy
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D controls calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Additionally, it has been proven that vitamin D is an important modulator of cellular differentiation and proliferation in a number of normal and malignant cells. Vitamin D can regulate proliferation, apoptosis, and cell adhesion at the tumor cell level. It also modifies tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis and also decreases oxidative DNA damage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Medline and Web of Science databases were searched without time limit on October 2015 using the terms 'vitamin D' in conjunction with 'kidney cancer', 'bladder cancer', 'prostate cancer', and 'testis cancer'...
2016: Central European Journal of Urology
Ben Huang, Yang Feng, Shao-Bo Mo, San-Jun Cai, Li-Yong Huang
AIM: To hypothesize that in patients with colon cancer showing heavy intestinal wall invasion without distant metastasis (T4bN0-2M0), small tumor size would correlate with more aggressive tumor behaviors and therefore poorer cancer-specific survival (CSS). METHODS: We analyzed T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. A preliminary analysis of T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center is also presented...
August 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Yin Cao, Edward L Giovannucci
OBJECTIVE: To summarize epidemiologic evidence of alcohol as a risk factor for many types of cancers and discuss available resources to help patients reduce alcohol intake. DATA SOURCES: Published epidemiologic literature and resources available for alcohol reduction. CONCLUSION: Heavy alcohol intake has been linked to increased risk of several cancers, including cancer of the colon, rectum, female breast, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, liver, and esophagus; whereas light-to-moderate drinking (up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men) is not appreciably associated with cancer risk and may be beneficial for cardiovascular disease...
August 2016: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Eun Ah Song, Hyeyoung Kim
The human diet contains low amounts of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and high amounts of ω-6 PUFAs, which has been reported to contribute to the incidence of cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ω-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of colon, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers. The ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), shows anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis of some human cancer cells without toxicity against normal cells. DHA induces oxidative stress and oxidative DNA adduct formation by depleting intracellular glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the mitochondrial function of cancer cells...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xu Guan, Wei Chen, Zheng Liu, Zheng Jiang, Hanqing Hu, Zhixun Zhao, Song Wang, Yinggang Chen, Guiyu Wang, Xishan Wang
Despite the adequacy of nodal evaluation was gradually improved for colon cancer, the disparity in nodal examination for right colon cancer (RCC) and left colon cancer (LCC) still begs the question of whether 12 nodes is an appropriate threshold for both RCC and LCC. From Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) database, we identified 53897 RCC patients and 11822 LCC patients. Compared with LCC patients, RCC patients examined more lymph nodes (18.7 vs 16.3), and more likely to examine ≥12 nodes (P<0...
August 2, 2016: Oncotarget
Martha Cecilia Téllez-Bañuelos, Jesse Haramati, Karina Franco-Topete, Jorge Peregrina-Sandoval, Ramon Franco-Topete, Galina P Zaitseva
Endosulfan (ENDO) is a widely used organochlorine (OC) pesticide and persistent organo-pollutant. Epidemiological studies have shown that high levels of OC exposure were related to colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate histological changes in the colon, as well as in in situ expression of β-catenin and P-selectin, and serum levels of select pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice administered ENDO; there is a relationship between increased serum IL-6 and P-selectin levels in CRC patients and aberrant β-catenin signaling is important in initiation/maintenance of most CRCs...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Frank T Kolligs
Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Main risk factors include advanced age, family history, male sex, and lifestyle factors. Screening can reduce incidence and death from colorectal cancer. Therefore, prevention and early detection are crucial in order to detect and remove pre-neoplastic adenomas and to detect cancers at early stages. Colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and fecal occult blood tests are established tools for screening. Newer fecal immunochemical tests reveal higher sensitivities for advanced adenoma and cancer than guaiac-based hemoccult tests...
June 2016: Visc Med
Ben Huang, Yang Feng, Liang Zhu, Tianhong Xu, Liyong Huang, Guoxiang Cai
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that in patients with colon cancer showing heavy intestinal wall invasion without lymph node metastasis (stage II), small tumor size would correlate with more aggressive tumor behaviors and thus poorer cancer-specific survival (CSS). METHODS: We analyzed Caucasian patients with stage II colon cancer based on data from the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to identify differences...
September 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Xin Wang, Hui-Hui Yang, Yan Liu, Quan Zhou, Zi-Hua Chen
A number of epidemiological studies have explored the association between lycopene or lycopene-rich food intake and the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results of these studies have not been consistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to quantitatively assess the association between lycopene consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis, and the summary relative risk (RR) for highest versus lowest category indicated no significant association between lycopene consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer [RR = 0...
October 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Eman A Akam, Elisa Tomat
The implication of iron in the pathophysiology of colorectal cancer is documented at both the biochemical and epidemiological levels. Iron chelators are therefore useful molecular tools for the study and potential treatment of this type of cancer characterized by high incidence and mortality rates. We report a novel prochelation strategy that utilizes a disulfide redox switch to connect a thiosemicarbazone iron-binding unit with carbohydrate moieties targeting the increased expression of glucose transporters in colorectal cancer cells...
August 17, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Rene Warschkow, Michael C Sulz, Lukas Marti, Ignazio Tarantino, Bruno M Schmied, Thomas Cerny, Ulrich Güller
BACKGROUND: The distinction between right-sided and left-sided colon cancer has recently received considerable attention due to differences regarding underlying genetic mutations. There is an ongoing debate if right- versus left-sided tumor location itself represents an independent prognostic factor. We aimed to investigate this question by using propensity score matching. METHODS: Patients with resected, stage I - III colon cancer were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (2004-2012)...
2016: BMC Cancer
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