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Diabetes mellitus/type 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822177/-berberine-regulates-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-related-with-insulin-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Cheng Li, Jin-Zhi He, Xue-Dong Zhou, Xin Xu
Insulin resistance (IR) is defined as a series of clinical manifestations for diminished effectiveness of insulin in lowering blood sugar levels caused by decreased sensitivity to insulin of liver, muscle and adipose tissue. IR is the major contributor to the etiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Berberine, a traditional Chinese herb extract, has been shown to be safe and effective in lowering blood sugar, alleviating insulin resistance and moderating type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821636/twenty-four-hour-rhythmicity-of-circulating-metabolites-effect-of-body-mass-and-type-2-diabetes
#2
Cheryl M Isherwood, Daan R Van der Veen, Jonathan D Johnston, Debra J Skene
Metabolic profiling of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has previously been limited to single-time-point samples, ignoring time-of-day variation. Here, we tested our hypothesis that body mass and T2DM affect daily rhythmicity and concentrations of circulating metabolites across a 24-h day in 3 age-matched, male groups-lean, overweight/obese (OW/OB), and OW/OB with T2DM-in controlled laboratory conditions, which were not confounded by large meals. By using targeted liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics, we quantified 130 plasma metabolites every 2 h over 24 h, and we show that average metabolite concentrations were significantly altered by increased body mass (90 of 130) and T2DM (56 of 130)...
August 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821456/hyperglycemia-is-associated-with-increased-bone-mineral-density-and-decreased-trabecular-bone-score-in-elderly-japanese-men-the-fujiwara-kyo-osteoporosis-risk-in-men-formen-study
#3
Masayuki Iki, Yuki Fujita, Katsuyasu Kouda, Akiko Yura, Takahiro Tachiki, Junko Tamaki, Renaud Winzenrieth, Yuho Sato, Jong-Seong Moon, Nozomi Okamoto, Norio Kurumatani
PURPOSE: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased fracture risk despite having higher areal bone mineral density (aBMD). This study aimed to clarify the association between glycemic and insulin resistance status and bone microarchitecture, and whether pentosidine and bone turnover markers play any roles in the association. METHODS: A total of 2012 community-dwelling men aged ≥65years completed baseline measurements of spine aBMD, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), osteocalcin, type I procollagen N-terminal propeptide, type I collagen C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoenzyme 5b, pentosidine, height and weight and an interview regarding past disease history...
August 15, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820912/impact-of-novel-palmitoylated-prolactin-releasing-peptide-analogs-on-metabolic-changes-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#4
Veronika Pražienková, Martina Holubová, Helena Pelantová, Martina Bugáňová, Zdenko Pirník, Barbora Mikulášková, Andrea Popelová, Miroslava Blechová, Martin Haluzík, Blanka Železná, Marek Kuzma, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská
Analogs of anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), have a potential as new anti-obesity drugs. In our previous study, palmitic acid attached to the N-terminus of PrRP enabled its central anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration. In this study, two linkers, γ-glutamic acid at Lys11 and a short, modified polyethylene glycol at the N-terminal Ser and/or Lys11, were applied for the palmitoylation of PrRP31 to improve its bioavailability. These analogs had a high affinity and activation ability to the PrRP receptor GPR10 and the neuropeptide FF2 receptor, as well as short-term anorexigenic effect similar to PrRP palmitoylated at the N-terminus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820612/the-potential-of-signal-peptide-peptidase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-hepatitis-c
#5
Kohji Moriishi
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver steatosis, cirrhosis, metabolic syndrome with inflammation, and eventually leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV core protein is a well-known capsid protein and pathogenic factor related to lipid accumulation, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and carcinogenesis. Cleavage of the C-terminal transmembrane region by signal peptide peptidase (SPP) is required for maturation of the core protein. Areas covered: Herein, this review details the general aspects of the structure, lifecycle, pathogenesis, and maturation of the HCV core protein, the function of SPP, and clinically available direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820007/a-12-week-pilot-study-of-acceptance-of-a-computer-based-chronic-disease-self-monitoring-system-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-or-hypertension
#6
Mian Yan, Calvin Or
This study tested a structural model examining the effects of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, health consciousness, and application-specific self-efficacy on the acceptance (i.e. behavioral intention and actual usage) of a computer-based chronic disease self-monitoring system among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension. The model was tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling, with 119 observations that were obtained by pooling data across three time points over a 12-week period...
August 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819987/maximum-home-blood-pressure-is-a-useful-indicator-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-kamogawa-hbp-study
#7
Chikako Oyabu, Emi Ushigome, Shinobu Matsumoto, Toru Tanaka, Goji Hasegawa, Naoto Nakamura, Masayoshi Ohnishi, Sei Tsunoda, Hidetaka Ushigome, Isao Yokota, Muhei Tanaka, Mai Asano, Masahiro Yamazaki, Michiaki Fukui
OBJECTIVE: Maximum home systolic blood pressure has been shown to predict target organ damage. We aimed to clarify the association between maximum home systolic blood pressure and urine albumin to creatinine ratio, an indicator of early-phase diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In 1040 patients, we assessed the relationship of mean or maximum home systolic blood pressure and urine albumin to creatinine ratio, and compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of mean or maximum home systolic blood pressure for diabetic nephropathy (urine albumin to creatinine ratio ⩾30 mg/g Cr)...
August 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818638/association-of-the-hemoglobin-a1c-variability-and-the-incidence-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-arterial-hypertension
#8
Jun Gu, Yu-Qi Fan, Jun-Feng Zhang, Chang-Qian Wang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the association between variability in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and incidence of symptomatic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and arterial hypertension. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on eligible patients with T2DM and hypertension and without clinical signs or symptoms of heart failure in our hospital medical record database...
August 14, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817863/prevention-detection-and-management-of-diabetes-in-south-dakota
#9
Amy L Hogue, Mark K Huntington
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in prevalence nationwide and in South Dakota, with an especially high prevalence in its American Indian population. Screening is not recommended for type 1 DM, but is for type 2 DM and pre-diabetes in certain populations. Fasting glucose, two-hour glucose tolerance test, or hemoglobin A1c are appropriate screening options. Treatment can include diabetic self-management education programs and medications. In addition to glycemic control, other cardiovascular risk factors must be reduced in these patients and specific testing and consultations should be performed to detect complications such as nephropathy or retinopathy...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817829/altered-expression-profile-of-circular-rnas-in-the-serum-of-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy-revealed-by-microarray
#10
Yonghao Gu, Genjie Ke, Lin Wang, Enliang Zhou, Kai Zhu, Yingying Wei
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness among working age adults. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a kind of noncoding RNAs that are involved in the development of some diseases. Here, we aimed to determine the possible role of circRNAs in the pathogenesis of DR by determining the expression profile of circRNAs in the serum of DR patients. METHODS: Nineteen subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus with proliferative DR (T2DR), 15 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus without DR (T2DM), and 21 age-matched nondiabetic control subjects were included in the study...
August 18, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817788/the-joint-effect-of-the-endothelin-receptor-b-gene-ednrb-polymorphism-rs10507875-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-3-gene-nos3-polymorphism-rs869109213-in-slovenian-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-diabetic-retinopathy
#11
Dejan Bregar, Ines Cilenšek, Sara Mankoč, Ana Reschner, Danijel Petrovič, Mojca Globočnik Petrovič
Increasing evidence suggests that endothelin and nitric oxide synthase genes and their products exert biological effects on the vasculature via the nitric oxide or endothelin pathway. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of rs10507875 and rs869109213 (alone or in interaction) with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphism rs10507875 of the endothelin receptor B gene (EDNRB) and variable number tandem repeats rs869109213 of the nitric oxide synthase 3 gene (NOS3) in 270 Slovenian patients with DR and T2DM and 256 controls with T2DM without clinical signs of DR...
August 17, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817342/hypoglycemia-risk-related-to-double-dose-is-markedly-reduced-with-basal-insulin-peglispro-versus-insulin-glargine-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-randomized-trial-imagine-8
#12
Cynthia Harris, Thomas Forst, Tim Heise, Leona Plum-Mörschel, Elaine Watkins, Qianyi Zhang, Ludi Fan, Parag Garhyan, Niels Porksen
BACKGROUND: Basal insulin peglispro (BIL) has a peripheral-to-hepatic distribution of action that resembles endogenous insulin and a prolonged duration of action with a flat pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile at steady state, characteristics that tend to reduce hypoglycemia risk compared to insulin glargine (GL). The primary objective was to demonstrate that clinically significant hypoglycemia (blood glucose ≤54 mg/dL [3.0 mmol/L] or symptoms of severe hypoglycemia) occurred less frequently within 84 h after a double dose (DD) of BIL than a DD of GL...
August 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817227/patterns-of-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-initiating-second-line-therapy-after-metformin-monotherapy-retrospective-data-for-10-256-individuals-from-the-united-kingdom-and-germany
#13
Kamlesh Khunti, Thomas R Godec, Jesús Medina, Laura Garcia-Alvarez, Josh Hiller, Marilia B Gomes, Javier Cid-Ruzafa, Bernard Charbonnel, Peter Fenici, Niklas Hammar, Kiyoshi Hashigami, Mikhail Kosiborod, Antonio Nicolucci, Marina V Shestakova, Linong Ji, Stuart Pocock
AIM: To investigate determinants of change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at 6 months after initiating uninterrupted second-line glucose-lowering therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cohort study utilized retrospective data from 10 256 patients with T2DM who initiated second-line glucose-lowering therapy (switch from or add-on to metformin) between 2011 and 2014 in Germany and the UK. Effects of pre-specified patient characteristics on 6-month HbA1c changes were assessed using analysis of covariance...
August 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816692/questionnaires-in-patients-with-unilateral-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#14
Gyu Ho Hwang, Jae Woo Joo, In Sik Song, Yoon Chan Rah, June Choi
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) in patients with unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 101 patients with unilateral SSNHL (44 women, 57 men), who were admitted and treated at our institution between December 2012 and June 2014, were included in the study. All patients completed the questionnaires for DHI and THI during their admission and were treated with bed rest and oral methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg, which was eventually tapered)...
August 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816613/smoking-habits-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-women
#15
Lina Radzeviciene, Rytas Ostrauskas
The purpose of this case-control study was to evaluate the relationship between smoking and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adult females. A total of 168 women in Kaunas, Lithuania with newly diagnosed T2DM during the year 2001 and 336 controls who were women without diabetes were recruited. Participants were asked about their duration of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation. Odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) for T2DM were calculated using conditional logistic regression...
August 17, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816537/evaluating-the-prescription-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-or-receptor-blockers-in-patients-with-diabetes-in-jordan
#16
Fadia Mayyas, Wa'ed Bataineh, Anan Jarab
OBJECTIVE: The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are guideline-recommended agents to prevent development and progression of nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases in diabetic Mellitus (DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prescription of ACEIs/ARBs in DM patients with guideline indications. METHOD: electronic data files for diabetes patients were retrospectively reviewed at a primary care setting northern Jordan...
August 17, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816409/genistein-represses-pepck-c-expression-in-an-insulin-independent-manner-in-hepg2-cells-and-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice
#17
Barilin Dkhar, Kitboklang Khongsti, Daiahun Thabah, Donkupar Syiem, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Bidyadhar Das
Genistein has been reported to exert beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved therein have not been clearly elucidated. To address this question, the effect of the genistein on the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and glucose production in HepG2 cells and in alloxan-induced diabetic mice was investigated. HepG2 cells were exposed to diferrent concentration of genistein in presence or absence of modulators, and the expression of cytosolic PEPCK (PEPCK-C) and the signalling pathways was studied...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816105/thiazolidinedione-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-past-present-and-future
#18
Melissa A Davidson, Donald R Mattison, Laurent Azoulay, Daniel Krewski
Thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have proven effective in improving insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism. Though well tolerated by some patients, their mechanism of action as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) results in the activation of several pathways in addition to those responsible for glycemic control and lipid homeostasis. These pathways, which include those related to inflammation, bone formation, and cell proliferation, may lead to adverse health outcomes...
August 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815569/glucose-dependent-leukocyte-activation-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#19
Natasja Koks, Marijke A de Vries, Erwin Birnie, Arash Alipour, Manuel Castro Cabezas
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte activation is an obligatory factor in the development of atherosclerosis. The postprandial situation has been associated to increased leukocyte activation in several disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and familial combined hyperlipidemia. Our study aim was to evaluate the effect of post-OGTT hyperglycemia on leukocyte activation in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for heterozygous FH and healthy volunteers were asked to undergo an oral glucose tolerance test...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815568/gliptin-therapy-reduces-hepatic-and-myocardial-fat-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-gliptins-and-cardiometabolic-risk
#20
Lana Kosi-Trebotic, Jürgen Harreiter, Marek Chmelik, Anita Thomas, Ivica Just-Kukurova, Siegfried Trattnig, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
AIMS: Increased hepatic and cardiac fat are common in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated with greater risk of liver fibrosis and cardiovascular (CV) events. Sex-specific differences of Dipeptidyl peptidase-four (DPP-4) inhibitor effects on hepatic (HCL) and myocardial fat content (MYCL) have not been evaluated yet. METHODS: 41 T2DM patients received a gliptin add-on therapy when not reaching HbA1c goals under metformin monotherapy. They underwent cardiac and liver magnetic resonance tomography and spectroscopy before and 6 months after therapy initiation...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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