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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216388/advances-in-mechanisms-and-management-of-chronic-cough-the-ninth-london-international-cough-symposium-2016
#1
REVIEW
Kian Fan Chung
At the Ninth London International Cough Symposium held in June 2016, advances in chronic cough were presented. Chronic cough has been labelled as a cough hypersensitivity syndrome (CHS) with neuroinflammatory mechanisms likely to be the underlying mechanisms. The concept is that there is a stage of peripheral sensitisation induced by inflammatory factors setting up the scene for a central component that can be visualised by functional magnetic resonance imaging. There has also been progress in assessing CHS patients in the clinic in terms of measuring cough, with an increasing interest in assessing different types of cough associated with respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis and pulmonary fibrosis...
February 16, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212992/nivolumab-induced-interstitial-lung-disease-analysis-of-two-phase-ii-studies-patients-with-recurrent-or-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Terufumi Kato, Noriyuki Masuda, Yoichi Nakanishi, Masashi Takahashi, Toyoaki Hida, Hiroshi Sakai, Shinji Atagi, Shiro Fujita, Hiroshi Tanaka, Koji Takeda, Miyako Satouchi, Yoshinobu Namba, Tomohide Tamura
OBJECTIVES: Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD) is often associated with high mortality; however it is difficult to predict and manage. we examined the clinical findings and imaging characteristics of nivolumab induced ILD reported in the two phase II studies patients with recurrent or advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the clinical findings and imaging characteristics of all cases of ILD reported in two phase II trials of nivolumab, an anti-programmed death-1 antibody, in Japanese patients with recurrent or advanced non-small-cell lung cancer...
February 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212153/new-therapies-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-exacerbations-of-bronchiectasis
#3
Hani Abo-Leyah, James D Chalmers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exacerbations of bronchiectasis have a major impact on quality of life, healthcare costs, and long-term risk of complications. Preventing exacerbations is one of the major goals of treatment. Bronchiectasis is increasingly recognized and the impact of bronchiectasis exacerbations on daily clinical practice is also increasing. RECENT FINDINGS: Preventing bronchiectasis exacerbations are dependent on appropriate risk assessment, identifying the patients at highest risk to rationally target preventive therapies...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210295/global-impact-of-bronchiectasis-and-cystic-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Margarida Redondo, Holly Keyt, Raja Dhar, James D Chalmers
EDUCATIONAL AIMS: To recognise the clinical and radiological presentation of the spectrum of diseases associated with bronchiectasis.To understand variation in the aetiology, microbiology and burden of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis across different global healthcare systems. : Bronchiectasis is the term used to refer to dilatation of the bronchi that is usually permanent and is associated with a clinical syndrome of cough, sputum production and recurrent respiratory infections...
September 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209722/long-term-outcome-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-il2rg-jak3-scid-a-cohort-report
#5
Intan Juliana Abd Hamid, Mary A Slatter, Fiona McKendrick, Mark S Pearce, Andrew R Gennery
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) cures the T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte and Natural Killer (NK) cell differentiation defect in IL2RG/JAK3 SCID. We evaluated long-term clinical features, longitudinal immunoreconstitution, donor chimerism and quality of life (QoL) of IL2RG/JAK3 SCID patients >2 years post-HSCT at our center. Clinical data were collated and patients/families answered PedsQL Generic Core Scale v4.0 questionnaires. We performed longitudinal analyses of CD3+, CD4+ naïve T-lymphocyte, CD19+ and NK cell numbers from pre-transplant until 15 years post-transplant...
February 16, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197882/radiological-findings-of-unilateral-tuberculous-lung-destruction
#6
REVIEW
Diego Varona Porres, Oscar Persiva, Esther Pallisa, Jordi Andreu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this report is to identify the radiological findings of unilateral tuberculous lung destruction (UTLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with (UTLD) were reviewed from 1999 to 2014. Only patients with radiological evidence of absence of pulmonary parenchyma preserved were included. Clinical and demographic data were obtained and radiological studies (chest radiograph and CT) were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The left lung was more commonly involved (85%)...
February 14, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191607/retrospective-study-of-the-clinical-characteristics-and-risk-factors-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-associated-interstitial-lung-disease
#7
Yongfeng Zhang, Hongbin Li, Nawei Wu, Xin Dong, Yi Zheng
This study aims to explore the clinical characteristics and risk factors of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). This is a retrospective study of 550 patients with RA. All patients underwent chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning. (1) Two hundred thirty-seven out of five hundred fifty (43.1%) patients with RA were diagnose with ILD. 13.5% ILD occurred before RA onset, 69.6% ILD occurred within 10 years of RA onset, and 16.9% ILD occurred more than 10 years after RA onset...
February 12, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187061/bronchopulmonary-disease-caused-by-flagellated-protozoa-infection-in-15-chinese-children
#8
Jinrong Liu, Shaogang Li, Huimin Li, Yimu Fan, Haiming Yang, Hui Xu, Yuelin Shen, Shunying Zhao
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary disease caused by flagellated protozoa infection (BPFP) is thought to be rare in children but may be an emerging or underestimated disease, especially in developing countries. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively reviewed records of 15 patients who presented with a cough, wheezing, or bronchopulmonary disease of unknown causes at admission and were finally diagnosed with BPFP from January 2014 to January 2015 were enrolled. Protozoa were observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by light microscopy...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185617/mycobacterium-kansasii
#9
James C Johnston, Leslie Chiang, Kevin Elwood
The incidence of Mycobacterium kansasii varies widely over time and by region, but this organism remains one of the most clinically relevant isolated species of nontuberculous mycobacteria. In contrast to other common nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. kansasii is infrequently isolated from natural water sources or soil. The major reservoir appears to be tap water. Infection is likely acquired through the aerosol route, with low infectivity in regions of endemicity. Human-to-human transmission is thought not to occur...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182132/predicting-high-risk-of-exacerbations-in-bronchiectasis-the-e-faced-score
#10
M A Martinez-Garcia, R A Athanazio, R Girón, L Máiz-Carro, D de la Rosa, C Olveira, J de Gracia, M Vendrell, C Prados-Sánchez, G Gramblicka, M Corso Pereira, F L Lundgren, M Fernandes De Figueiredo, F Arancibia, S Z Rached
BACKGROUND: Although the FACED score has demonstrated a great prognostic capacity in bronchiectasis, it does not include the number or severity of exacerbations as a separate variable, which is important in the natural history of these patients. OBJECTIVE: Construction and external validation of a new index, the E-FACED, to evaluate the predictive capacity of exacerbations and mortality. METHODS: The new score was constructed on the basis of the complete cohort for the construction of the original FACED score, while the external validation was undertaken with six cohorts from three countries (Brazil, Argentina, and Chile)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170403/longitudinal-assessment-of-sputum-microbiome-by-sequencing-of-the-16s-rrna-gene-in-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-patients
#11
Michael J Cox, Elena M Turek, Catherine Hennessy, Ghazala K Mirza, Phillip L James, Meg Coleman, Andrew Jones, Robert Wilson, Diana Bilton, William O C Cookson, Miriam F Moffatt, Michael R Loebinger
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is accompanied by chronic bronchial infection that may drive disease progression. However, the evidence base for antibiotic therapy is limited. DNA based methods offer better identification and quantification of microbial constituents of sputum than standard clinical culture and may help inform patient management strategies. Our study objective was to determine the longitudinal variability of the non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis microbiome in sputum with respect to clinical variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168184/airway-clearance-techniques-in-children-and-adolescents-with-chronic-suppurative-lung-disease-and-bronchiectasis
#12
REVIEW
Annemarie L Lee, Brenda M Button, Esta-Lee Tannenbaum
Common symptoms of chronic suppurative lung disease or bronchiectasis in children and adolescents are chronic cough with sputum production, retention of excess secretions in dilated airways, and a history of recurrent infections. Clinical management includes the prescription of airway-clearance techniques (ACTs) to facilitate mucociliary clearance, optimize sputum expectoration, relieve symptoms, and improve well-being. A wide range of ACTs are available for selection, and these strategies may be applied in isolation or in combination...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162158/-expression-of-serum-interleukin-13-and-significance-of-gene-polymorphism-on-the-patients-with-bronchiectasis-in-acute-exacerbation-period
#13
W X Yue, Y S Chen, B S Xie, R H Li, N L Xu, M Lin
Objective: To explore the expression of serum interleukin-13 (IL-13) and significance of its gene polymorphism on the patients with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis in acute exacerbation period. Methods: Forty-three patients with bronchiectasis in acute exacerbation period admitted into the respiratory ward of Fujian Provincial Hospital from December, 2014 to March, 2016 were included as bronchiectasis group. Thirty-three healthy controls from normal people of health examination were included as control group during the corresponding period...
January 24, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160560/exosome-secretome-and-mediated-signaling-in-breast-cancer-patients-with-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#14
Julie V Philley, Anbarasu Kannan, David E Griffith, Megan S Devine, Jeana L Benwill, Richard J Wallace Jr, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Foram Thakkar, Varsha Taskar, James G Fox, Ammar Alqaid, Hernaina Bains, Sudeep Gupta, Santanu Dasgupta
Bronchiectasis Nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTMnb) infection is an emerging health problem in breast cancer (BCa) patients. We measured sera exosome proteome in BCa-NTMnb subjects and controls by Mass Spectroscopy. Extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) was detected exclusively in the circulating exosomes of 82% of the BCa-NTMnb cases. Co-culture of ECM1+ exosomes with normal human mammary epithelial cells induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition accompanied by increased Vimentin/CDH1 expression ratio and Glutamate production...
February 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150579/clinical-significance-of-the-radiological-severity-score-in-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-patients
#15
K Furuuchi, A Ito, T Hashimoto, S Kumagai, T Ishida
<h2>SETTING:</h2><p>Practical methods for assessing the radiographic findings of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD) have not been established.</p><h2>OBJECTIVE:</h2><p>To identify a correlation between the radiological score and semi-quantitative culture results of respiratory samples, and to assess the prognostic impact of this radiological score in MAC-LD patients.</p><h2>DESIGN:</h2><p>We retrospectively studied 218 MAC-LD patients...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149579/endobronchial-tuberculosis-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Talha Shahzad, Muhammad Irfan
Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is a tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence. Patients may present with symptoms secondary to disease itself or from the complication of disease like endobronchial obstruction. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Computed tomography (CT) and bronchoscopy along with microbiological investigations are the most useful diagnostic tools for the confirmation as well as for the evaluation of the tracheobronchial stenosis...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138763/-haemoptysis-intensive-care-management-of-pulmonary-hemorrhage
#17
J H Ficker, W M Brückl, J Suc, A Geise
There is a wide spectrum of severities in patients with pulmonary bleeding with a range from mild haemoptysis to severe bleeding with an acute risk of asphyxiation. For the management of acute pulmonary haemorrhage, it is essential to identify the underlying cause in order to initiate a target-oriented or causal therapy. The most common causes of localized pulmonary bleeding are lung cancer as well as infections, anticoagulant therapy or bronchiectasis. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage is mostly due to pulmonary vasculitis or connective tissue disease, but may also occur in pulmonary metastasis, congestive heart failure, coagulation disorders and from many other causes...
January 30, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134694/pulmonary-opacities-and-bronchiectasis-avid-on-68ga-psma-pet
#18
Kirsten Bouchelouche, Mikkel Holm Vendelbo
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed in prostate cancer, and the expression increases with tumor aggressiveness, metastatic disease, and recurrence. Despite its name, PSMA is also expressed in neovasculature of other tumors including lung cancer. Here, we demonstrate a case of increased PSMA expression on Ga-PSMA PET/CT in benign lung opacities and bronchiectasis in a prostate cancer patient. Thus, increased PSMA activity in the lungs may be due to both benign and malignant diseases and warrants further evaluation...
January 27, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129813/diagnosis-of-cystic-fibrosis-in-nonscreened-populations
#19
Patrick R Sosnay, Terry B White, Philip M Farrell, Clement L Ren, Nico Derichs, Michelle S Howenstine, Jerry A Nick, Kris De Boeck
OBJECTIVE: Although the majority of cases of cystic fibrosis (CF) are now diagnosed through newborn screening, there is still a need to standardize the diagnostic criteria for those diagnosed outside of the neonatal period. This is because newborn screening started relatively recently, it is not performed everywhere, and even for individuals who were screened, there is the possibility of a false negative. To limit irreversible organ pathology, a timely diagnosis of CF and institution of CF therapies can greatly benefit these patients...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127232/computed-tomography-findings-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-simiae-infection
#20
Ayeh Baghizadeh, Payam Mehrian, Poopak Farnia
Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary infections can be quite similar to tuberculosis, both clinically and radiologically. However, the treatment protocol is not similar. Mycobacterium simiae is a rare cause of NTM pulmonary infection. Herein, we aimed to evaluate and compare the computed tomography (CT) scan findings of M. simiae infection in lungs. For this reason, thirty-four patients (n = 34) with M. simiae lung infection were retrospectively evaluated. Diagnosis was confirmed by American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines and CT scans were reviewed in both lung and mediastinal windows...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
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