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Bronchiectasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733314/effects-of-an-airway-clearance-device-on-inflammation-bacteriology-and-mucus-transport-in-bronchiectasis
#1
Joana Tambascio, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, Roberto Martinez, José Antônio Baddini-Martinez, Peter John Barnes, Ada Clarice Gastaldi
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is characterized by abnormal and permanent dilation of the bronchi, caused by the perpetuation of inflammation and impairment of mucociliary clearance. Physiotherapy techniques can help to decrease the retention of respiratory secretions. The flutter valve combines high-frequency oscillation and positive expiratory pressure to facilitate the removal of secretions. We evaluated the effects of the flutter valve on sputum inflammation, microbiology, and transport of respiratory secretions in patients with bronchiectasis...
August 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731410/infectious-and-noninfectious-pulmonary-complications-in-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders
#2
REVIEW
R Yazdani, H Abolhassani, M Asgardoon, M Shaghaghi, M Modaresi, G Azizi, A Aghamohammadi
Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are caused by 1 or more defects of the immune system. Patients are more likely to experience recurrent and/or severe infections and tend to develop a wide range of complications. Respiratory diseases are the main and initial manifestation in most cases and the most common complication. Pulmonary complications cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with PIDs. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent or at least slow the development of respiratory complications...
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730253/fatal-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-after-chemical-occupational-exposure
#3
Milena Adina Man, Sorin Claudiu Man, Nicoleta Ştefania Motoc, Carmen Monica Pop, Antigona Carmen Trofor
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP; extrinsic allergic alveolitis) is a rare non-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated inflammatory lung disease caused by inhalation exposure (occupational, recreational or ordinary home exposure). A 36-year-old female patient, without significant medical history, is referred to an outpatient pulmonology clinic for dry cough, shortness of breath, fever, fatigue and weight loss. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed, and significant lung fibrosis (especially centrilobular and interlobular in bilateral "thick lines"), traction bronchiectasis and alveolitis in both superior lobes are described...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729230/x-linked-agammaglobulinaemia-outcomes-in-the-modern-era
#4
REVIEW
Ben Shillitoe, Andrew Gennery
Colonel Ogden Bruton reported X-Linked Agammaglobulinaemia in 1952 and treated the child with replacement immunoglobulin therapy. Over 60years later, the treatment for XLA has largely remained unchanged. Replacement immunoglobulin lacks the isotypes IgA and IgM, leading to concerns that patients continue to experience recurrent sinopulmonary tract infections and be at increased risk of bronchiectasis. There is potential hope of earlier diagnosis with newborn screening, and a potential cure for these patients, in the form of gene therapy...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728932/the-complex-restrictive-pulmonary-function-pattern-clinical-and-radiological-analysis-of-a-common-but-previously-undescribed-restrictive-pattern
#5
Ryan D Clay, Vivek N Iyer, Dereddi Raja Reddy, Brittany Siontis, Paul D Scanlon
BACKGROUND: Most patients with restriction have a PFT pattern in which TLC, FVC and FEV1 are reduced to a similar degree. We call this pattern 'simple' restriction (SR). In contrast, we commonly observe a pattern in which FVC percent predicted (pp) is disproportionately reduced relative to TLCpp. We term this pattern 'complex restriction' (CR) and attempted to characterize its clinical, radiologic and physiologic features. METHODS: We reviewed PFTs of patients tested between November 2009 and June 2013 who had restriction (TLC<LLN)...
July 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728274/-a-retrospective-study-of-10-cases-of-post-transplant-bronchiolitis-obliterans
#6
J J Chai, T Liu, B Q Cai, H D Zhu
Objective: To analyze the clinical features of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: This retrospective study included patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT from January 1998 to December 2016. The clinical features, radiological manifestations and treatment of clinically proven BOS were reviewed. Results: Of 681 patients who experienced HSCT, 10(1.47%) met the diagnostic criteria. The duration of BOS onset after transplantation was 5-48 months, averaging (18±15) months...
July 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718249/frequency-of-undiagnosed-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#7
Raza Ullah, Shahid Salam, Tahir Ghaffar, Rahim Muhammad, Imran Khan
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD) is considered as risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) along with other risk factors. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Pulmonology and Cardiology wards/OPD's of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar. Patients more than 35 years of age, diagnosed with CAD of either gender were included...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717556/thorax-computed-tomography-findings-in-patients-with-erectile-dysfunction
#8
Mustafa Resorlu, Muhammet Arslan, Ozan Karatag, Gurhan Adam
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus, smoking, dyslipidemia, and obesity play an important role in the etiology of erectile dysfunction, particularly in cases with vascular insufficiency. These risk factors also target the lungs due to their systemic effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with penile vascular insufficiency determined at Doppler ultrasonography and undergoing thoracic computerized tomography for various reasons were included in this study. A history of acute thoracic trauma, pneumonic consolidation, or pelvic surgery and trauma were regarded as exclusion criteria...
2017: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710581/validation-of-a-model-for-predicting-smear-positive-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-initial-acid-fast-bacilli-smear-negative-sputum
#9
Jun -Jun Yeh
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for final smear-positive (SP) active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) in patients with initial negative acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smears (iSN-SP-aPTB) based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). METHOD AND MATERIALS: Eighty (126, 21) patients of iSN-SP-aPTB and 402 (459, 876) patients of non-initial positive acid fast bacilli (non-iSP) pulmonary disease without iSN-SP-aPTB were included in a derivation (validation, prospective) cohort...
July 14, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707978/immunomodulatory-cell-therapy-to-target-cystic-fibrosis-inflammation
#10
Oula Khoury, Christopher Barrios, Victor Ortega, Anthony Atala, Sean V Murphy
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with exaggerated and prolonged inflammation in the lungs, which contributes to lung injury, airway mucus obstruction, bronchiectasis and loss of lung function. This hyper-inflammatory phenotype appears to be caused by an imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory regulatory pathways, with heightened pro-inflammatory stimuli, a decreased counter-regulatory response, and reduced effectiveness of immune cell function and inflammatory resolution. Thus, therapies that can target this inflammatory environment would have a major impact in preventing the progression of lung disease...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707107/the-objective-assessment-of-cough-frequency-in-bronchiectasis
#11
Arietta Spinou, Kai K Lee, Aish Sinha, Caroline Elston, Michael R Loebinger, Robert Wilson, Kian Fan Chung, Nadia Yousaf, Ian D Pavord, Sergio Matos, Rachel Garrod, Surinder S Birring
INTRODUCTION: Cough in bronchiectasis is associated with significant impairment in health status. This study aimed to quantify cough frequency objectively with a cough monitor and investigate its relationship with health status. A secondary aim was to identify clinical predictors of cough frequency. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with bronchiectasis were compared with thirty-five healthy controls. Objective 24-h cough, health status (cough-specific: Leicester Cough Questionnaire LCQ and bronchiectasis specific: Bronchiectasis Health Questionnaire BHQ), cough severity and lung function were measured...
July 13, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705307/a-new-method-for-enhanced-expectoration-of-sputum-by-vibratory-stimulation-of-the-cervical-trachea
#12
Mitsuhiro Kamimura, Nobuhisa Kameyama, Chie Homma, Tatsuya Ibe, Shinjiro Takeoka, Atsuto Mouri, Yoichiro Hamamoto
BACKGROUND: Expectoration of sputum can be difficult for patients with respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, or bronchiectasis because of the effects of decreased pulmonary function, respiratory muscle fatigue, altered sputum properties, and impaired ciliary function. We developed a new method for the vibratory stimulation of the cervical trachea and this study aimed to compare it with the Acapella (a current oscillation device) method...
July 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703105/bronchial-artery-embolization-in-hemoptysis-a-systematic-review
#13
Ananya Panda, Ashu Seith Bhalla, Ankur Goyal
We systematically reviewed the role of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) in hemoptysis. Literature search was done for studies on BAE published between 1976 and 2016. Twenty-two studies published in English, with sample size of at least 50 patients, reporting indications, technique, efficacy, and follow-up were included in the final analysis. Common indications for BAE included tuberculosis (TB), post-tubercular sequelae, bronchiectasis, and aspergillomas. Most common embolizing agent used was polyvinyl alcohol (size, 300-600 μm) with increasing use of glue in recent years...
July 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702340/characteristics-of-mycobacterium-avium-complex-mac-pulmonary-disease-in-previously-treated-lung-cancer-patients
#14
Erin Meier, Kelly Pennington, Alice Gallo de Moraes, Patricio Escalante
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is responsible for a large portion of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections worldwide. Host factors such as active malignancy, immunosuppression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis increase the risk of MAC infection. However, the relationship between previously treated lung cancer with subsequent development of MAC pulmonary disease and treatment outcomes have not been previously studied. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all patients with lung cancer and MAC pulmonary disease documented in medical records at Mayo Clinic between January 2005 and October 2016...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695805/clinical-analysis-of-77-patients-with-allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis-in-peking-union-medical-college-hospital
#15
Mingqiang Zhang, Jinming Gao
Objective To summarize the clinical features of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis(ABPA)to facilitate its early diagnosis and treatment. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 77 patients who had been admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1996 to July 2015 with ABPA. Results The average age of these 77 patients(38 men and 39 women)was(41.8±18.3)years. The co-morbidities included bronchial asthma(n=74,96%)and pulmonary cystic fibrosis(n=3,4%). The main symptoms and signs of ABPA were chronic cough(100%),sputum production(97%),wheeze(86%),sputum plugs(25%),blood-stained sputum(18%),hemoptysis(9%),chest pain(9%),fever(47%),weight loss(30%),and night sweat(12%)...
June 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693466/the-provision-of-generalist-and-specialist-palliative-care-for-patients-with-non-malignant-respiratory-disease-in-the-north-and-republic-of-ireland-a-qualitative-study
#16
Clare Mc Veigh, Joanne Reid, Philip Larkin, Sam Porter, Peter Hudson
BACKGROUND: Previous research and key guidelines have suggested potential models of palliative care for patients with COPD and interstitial lung disease. However, these recommendations are often not effectively implemented in clinical practice and are void of guidance regarding palliative care for patients with bronchiectasis, another form of non-malignant respiratory disease. The aim of this research was to explore generalist and specialist palliative care service provision for people with non-malignant respiratory disease in the North and Republic of Ireland...
July 11, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687910/ct-findings-associated-with-survival-in-chronic-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis
#17
Jonathan H Chung, Steven M Montner, Ayodeji Adegunsoye, Justin M Oldham, Aliya N Husain, Rekha Vij, Imre Noth, Mary E Strek
OBJECTIVES: To identify CT findings in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (cHP) associated with survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two thoracic radiologists assessed CT scans for specific imaging findings and patterns in 132 subjects with cHP. Survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: The majority of subjects had an inconsistent with usual interstitial pneumonitis pattern on CT (55.3%,73/132). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) diagnosis on CT was less common in those with fibrosis (66...
July 7, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684545/macrolides-protect-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-via-inhibition-of-inflammasomes
#18
Li-Chao Fan, Jie-Lu Lin, Jia-Wei Yang, Bei Mao, Hai-Wen Lu, Bao-Xue Ge, Augustine M K Choi, Jinfu Xu
Background Macrolides antibiotics have been used effectively in many chronic diseases, especially with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of macrolides in these diseases remain poorly understood. Methods We established a mouse model of chronic lung infection using P. aeruginosa agar-beads, with azithromycin treatment or placebo. Lung injury, bacterial clearance and inflammasome-related proteins were measured. In vitro, the inflammasomes activation induced by flagellin or ATP were assessed in LPS-primed macrophages with or without macrolides treatment...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681941/the-respiratory-threat-posed-by-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#19
REVIEW
Ana Rodrigo-Troyano, Oriol Sibila
Respiratory infections are a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. In recent years, an increased incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) has been described. Microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Acinetobacter baumannii have been identified as causative pathogens of different respiratory tract infections. Several studies have detected MDR-GNB in patients with community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Furthermore, MDR-GNB have also been isolated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis having acute or chronic bronchial infection...
July 6, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675890/acute-radiological-abnormalities-after-bronchial-thermoplasty-a-prospective-cohort-trial
#20
Julia N S d'Hooghe, Inge A H van den Berk, Jouke T Annema, Peter I Bonta
BACKGROUND: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a novel treatment for severe asthma based on radiofrequency energy delivery to the larger airways. Although impressive radiological abnormalities have been reported, the incidence, pattern, and behavior over time of acute radiological abnormalities following BT are not well established. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence pattern and behavior over time of acute radiological abnormalities following BT. METHODS: This is a prospective, observational imaging study of severe asthma patients participating in the TASMA trial...
July 5, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
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