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differentiation beta cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025069/wnk-lysine-deficient-protein-kinase-1-regulates-human-endometrial-stromal-cell-decidualization-proliferation-and-migration-in-part-through-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-7
#1
Nyssa R Adams, Yasmin M Vasquez, Qianxing Mo, William Gibbons, Ertug Kovanci, Francesco J DeMayo
The differentiation of endometrial stromal cells into decidual cells, termed decidualization, is an integral step in the establishment of pregnancy. The mitogen-activated protein kinase homolog, WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1 (WNK1), is activated downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) during decidualization. Primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) were subjected to siRNA knockdown of WNK1 followed by in vitro decidualization. This abrogated expression of the decidual marker genes, IGFBP1 and PRL, and prevented adoption of decidual cell morphology...
August 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024451/activation-of%C3%A2-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-increases-proliferation-but-does-not-influence-neuronal-differentiation-of-a-human-neural-stem-cell-line
#2
Anne Dindler, Morten Blaabjerg, Morad Kamand, Helle Bogetofte, Morten Meyer
The multiple functions of glutamate include regulation of neural development and stem cells. While the importance of the ionotropic glutamate receptors is well established, less is known about the role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). In this study, we examined the effects of pharmacological activation and inhibition of mGluR2/3 on proliferation, differentiation and viability of a human neural stem cell line. Immunofluorescence staining revealed the presence of mGluR2/3 receptors on both proliferating and differentiating stem cells, including cells differentiated into β-tubulin III-positive immature neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes...
October 11, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021388/in-vivo-beta-and-gamma-subthreshold-oscillations-in-rat-mitral-cells-origin-and-gating-by-respiratory-dynamics
#3
Nicolas Fourcaud-Trocmé, Virginie Briffaud, Marc Thévenet, Nathalie Buonviso, Corine Amat
In mammals, olfactory bulb (OB) dynamics are paced by slow and fast oscillatory rhythms at multiple levels: local field potential, spike discharge, and/or membrane potential oscillations. Interactions between these levels have been well studied for the slow rhythm linked to animal respiration. However, less is known regarding rhythms in the fast beta (10-35Hz) and gamma (35-100Hz) frequency ranges, particularly at the membrane potential level. Using a combination of intracellular and extracellular recordings in the OB of freely breathing rats, we show that beta and gamma subthreshold oscillations (STO) coexist intracellularly and are related to extracellular LFP oscillations in the same frequency range...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020885/identification-of-pa28%C3%AE-as-a-potential-novel-biomarker-in-human-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
Jin-Yan Chen, Li Xu, Wei-Min Fang, Jun-Yong Han, Kun Wang, Kun-Shou Zhu
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common and serious malignancies in China. However, the exact mechanisms of tumor formation and progression are unclear. As late diagnosis and poor therapeutic efficacy result in lower survival rates, identifying biomarkers for early detection, prognostic evaluation, and recurrence monitoring of ESCC is necessary. Here we analyzed 10 protein expression profiles of ESCC core tissues and paired normal esophageal epithelial tissues using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993759/the-four-way-stop-sign-viruses-12-lipoxygenase-islets-and-natural-killer-cells-in-type-1-diabetes-progression
#5
Michele L Semeraro, Lindsey M Glenn, Margaret A Morris
Natural killer (NK) cells represent an important effector arm against viral infection, and mounting evidence suggests that viral infection plays a role in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in at least a portion of patients. NK cells recognize their target cells through a delicate balance of inhibitory and stimulatory receptors on their surface. If unbalanced, NK cells have great potential to wreak havoc in the pancreas due to the beta cell expression of the as-yet-defined NKp46 ligand through interactions with the activating NKp46 receptor found on the surface of most NK cells...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993399/myc-cooperates-with-beta-catenin-to-drive-gene-expression-in-the-nephron-progenitor-cells
#6
Xinchao Pan, Courtney M Karner, Thomas J Carroll
For organs to achieve their proper size, the processes of stem cell renewal and differentiation must be tightly regulated. We previously showed that in the developing kidney, Wnt9b regulates distinct beta-catenin-dependent transcriptional programs in the renewing and differentiating populations of the nephron progenitor cells. How beta-catenin stimulated these two distinct programs was unclear. Here, we show that beta-catenin cooperates with the transcription factor Myc to activate the progenitor renewal program...
October 9, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990887/il-1%C3%AE-polymorphism-in-copd-patients-in-turkish-population
#7
Onur Baykara, Nuriye Banu Tömekçe Taşkıran, Şadan Soyyiğit, Nur Buyru
Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory condition characterized by persistent airflow limitation and is associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways and the lung to noxious particles or gases. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine expressed by many cells such as macrophages, neutrophils and monocytes and functions in cellular activities such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis...
June 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988892/the-il-1%C3%AE-signalling-pathway-and-its-role-in-regulating-pro-inflammatory-and-pro-labour-mediators-in-human-primary-myometrial-cells
#8
Martha Lappas
Interleukin (IL)-1β plays a central role in the processes of human labour and delivery. The adaptor proteins involved in the IL-1β signalling pathway in human myometrium are not known. This study sought to determine the role of the adaptor proteins myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) and transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in IL-1β-induced formation of pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators in human myometrium...
October 6, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984038/beta-cell-replacement-strategies-for-diabetes
#9
Timothy J Kieffer, Knut Woltjen, Kenji Osafune, Daisuke Yabe, Nobuya Inagaki
Diabetes is characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose as a result of insufficient production of insulin from loss or dysfunction of pancreatic islet beta cells. Here we review several approaches to replace beta cells that were recently discussed at a symposium held in Kyoto, Japan. Transplant of donor human islets can effectively treat diabetes and eliminate the need for insulin injections, supporting research aimed at identifying abundant supplies of cells. Studies demonstrating the feasibility of producing mouse islets in rats support the concept of generating pigs with human pancreas that can serve as donors of human islets, although scientific and ethical challenges remain...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983690/subcellular-localization-and-characterization-of-estrogenic-pathway-regulators-and-mediators-in-atlantic-salmon-spermatozoal-cells
#10
Kristian R von Schalburg, Brent E Gowen, Jong S Leong, Eric B Rondeau, William S Davidson, Ben F Koop
Much progress has been made regarding our understanding of aromatase regulation, estrogen synthesis partitioning and communication between the germinal and somatic compartments of the differentiating gonad. We now know that most of the enzymatic and signaling apparatus required for steroidogenesis is endogenously expressed within germ cells. However, less is known about the expression and localization of steroidogenic components within mature spermatozoa. We have assembled a sperm library presenting 197,015 putative transcripts...
October 5, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980060/phase-i-study-of-a-chloroquine-gemcitabine-combination-in-patients-with-metastatic-or-unresectable-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Panagiotis Samaras, Marina Tusup, Thi Dan Linh Nguyen-Kim, Burkhardt Seifert, Helga Bachmann, Roger von Moos, Alexander Knuth, Steve Pascolo
PURPOSE: Following a previously published pre-clinical validation, this phase I study evaluated the safety, maximum tolerated dose, anti-tumour activity and immune status of a gemcitabine-chloroquine combination as a first- or late-line treatment in patients with metastatic or unresectable pancreatic cancer. METHODS: In this 3 + 3 dose escalation study, patients received a single weekly standard dose of intravenous gemcitabine, followed by single weekly oral intake of 100, 200 or 300 mg of chloroquine...
October 4, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977937/overexpression-of-mir-135b-5p-promotes-unfavorable-clinical-characteristics-and-poor-prognosis-via-the-repression-of-sfrp4-in-pancreatic-cancer
#12
Xu Han, Hexige Saiyin, Junjie Zhao, Yuan Fang, Yefei Rong, Chenye Shi, Wenhui Lou, Tiantao Kuang
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive and malignant neoplasm. The aberrant expression of miR-135b-5p and secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) has been revealed to be involved in various cancers. However, the clinical significance of miR-135b-5p and that of its potential target SFRP4 in PDAC remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that miR-135b-5p was markedly upregulated in pancreatic cancer tissue compared with corresponding adjacent normal tissue, whereas SFRP4 was significantly downregulated...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974717/acinar-cells-in-the-neonatal-pancreas-grow-by-self-duplication-and-not-by-neogenesis-from-duct-cells
#13
Isabelle Houbracken, Luc Bouwens
Pancreatic acinar cells secrete digestive enzymes necessary for nutrient digestion in the intestine. They are considered the initiating cell type of pancreatic cancer and are endowed with differentiation plasticity that has been harnessed to regenerate endocrine beta cells. However, there is still uncertainty about the mechanisms of acinar cell formation during the dynamic period of early postnatal development. To unravel cellular contributions in the exocrine acinar development we studied two reporter mouse strains to trace the fate of acinar and duct cells during the first 4 weeks of life...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973351/ah-receptor-activation-potentiates-neutrophil-chemoattractant-c-x-c-motif-ligand-5-expression-in-keratinocytes-and-skin
#14
Kayla J Smith, Jacob A Boyer, Gulsum E Muku, Iain A Murray, Krishne Gowda, Dhimant Desai, Shantu G Amin, Adam B Glick, Gary H Perdew
Chemokines are components of the skin microenvironment, which enable immune cell chemotaxis. Traditionally, transcription factors involved in inflammatory signaling (e.g. NFκB) are important mediators of chemokine expression. To what extent xenobiotics and their associated receptors control chemokine expression is poorly understood. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor known to mediate physiological responses in the skin through the regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, epidermal differentiation, and immunity...
August 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973302/pseudoexfoliation-and-alzheimer-s-associated-clu-risk-variant-rs2279590-lies-within-an-enhancer-element-and-regulates-clu-ephx2-and-ptk2b-gene-expression
#15
Biswajit Padhy, Bushra Hayat, Gargi Gouranga Nanda, Pranjya Paramita Mohanty, Debasmita Pankaj Alone
Genetic variants at PTK2B-CLU locus pose as high risk factors for many age-related disorders. However, the role of these variants in disease progression is less characterized. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional significance of a clusterin intronic SNP, rs2279590 that has been associated with pseudoexfoliation (PEX), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and diabetes. We have previously shown that the alleles at rs2279590 differentially regulate clusterin (CLU) gene expression in lens capsule tissues...
August 26, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972822/inhibition-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-shed-enhances-endothelial-differentiation
#16
J G Xu, T Gong, Y Y Wang, T Zou, B C Heng, Y Q Yang, C F Zhang
Low efficiency of deriving endothelial cells (ECs) from adult stem cells hampers their utilization in tissue engineering studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether suppression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling could enhance the differentiation efficiency of dental pulp-derived stem cells into ECs. We initially used vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) to stimulate 2 dental pulp-derived stem cells (dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth [SHED]) and compared their differentiation capacity into ECs...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971796/mir-21-functions-oppositely-in-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-precursor-cells-via-regulating-akt-and-gsk-3%C3%AE
#17
X Gao, X Li, C Qian, F Li, Y Zhang, L Dang, X Xiao, F Liu, H Li, X Zhang
MicroRNA involves in regulating behavior of neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs), thus it offers the potential to treat central nervous system disease. However, the effect of miR-21 on NSPCs remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-21 reduced proliferation and promoted neural differentiation in NSPCs via regulating the activation of AKT and GSK-3β signaling pathways in vitro. During differentiation of NSPCs, the expression of miR-21 was increased in a time-dependent manner by qRT-PCR. Synthesized pre-miR-21 or anti-miR-21 was transfected into NSPCs, thereby efficiently overexpressing or knocking down miR-21...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970821/hpv8-e6-interferes-with-syntenin-2-expression-through-deregulation-of-differentiation-methylation-and-phosphatidylinositide-kinase-dependent-mechanisms
#18
Benjamin Marx, Daliborka Miller-Lazic, John Doorbar, Slawomir Majewski, Kay Hofmann, Martin Hufbauer, Baki Akgül
The E6 oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) of genus alpha contain a short peptide sequence at the carboxy-terminus, the PDZ binding domain, with which they interact with the corresponding PDZ domain of cellular proteins. Interestingly, E6 proteins from papillomaviruses of genus beta (betaPV) do not encode a comparable PDZ binding domain. Irrespective of this fact, we previously showed that the E6 protein of HPV8 (betaPV type) could circumvent this deficit by targeting the PDZ protein Syntenin-2 through transcriptional repression (Lazic et al...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969971/biomimetic-electrical-stimulation-induces-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-differentiate-into-cardiomyocyte-like-cells-via-tgf-beta-1-in-vitro
#19
REVIEW
Xueling He, Liang Li, Min Tang, Ye Zeng, Huiming Li, Xiaoqin Yu
Electrical conductance is one of the factors of the microenvironment of cardiomyocytes, and electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to modulate the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) toward a cardiomyogenic fate. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) stimulates the cardiomyogenic marker expression in BMSCs. Herein, we promoted the differentiation of BMSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells using ES to confirm if TGF-β1 mediates this event in vitro. ES increased protein levels of TGF-β1 in BMSCs, and this effect was better than that observed with 5-azacytidine (5-Aza)...
September 29, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969867/anti-inflammatory-m2-macrophage-media-reduce-transmission-of-oligomeric-amyloid-beta-in-differentiated-sh-sy5y-cells
#20
Valerie Sackmann, Anna Ansell, Christopher Sackmann, Harald Lund, Robert A Harris, Martin Hallbeck, Camilla Nilsberth
Neuroinflammation plays an influential role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain largely unknown. Microglia are thought to be responsible for the majority of these effects and can be characterized into resting (M0), proinflammatory (M1), or anti-inflammatory (M2) functional phenotypes. We investigated the effects of conditioned macrophage media, as an analogue to microglia, on the transfer of oligomeric amyloid beta (oAβ) between differentiated SH-SY5Y cells...
September 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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