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differentiation beta cells

Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Andrea Villar-Lorenzo, Alejandro E Ardiles, Ana I Arroba, Enrique Hernández-Jiménez, Virginia Pardo, Eduardo López-Collazo, Ignacio A Jiménez, Isabel L Bazzochi, Águeda González-Rodríguez, Ángela M Valverde
A series of 31 pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from the root barks of Celastrus vulcanicola and Maytenus jelskii were tested for cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exhibited significant inhibition of LPS-induced NO release at 50 and 25μM concentrations, respectively, and decreased mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At the molecular level, C18 neither inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) nor nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB)...
October 14, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Rodrigo Fabrizzio Inácio, Renata Gacielle Zanon, Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Henrique Marques de Souza, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Liana Verinaud, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Astrocytes are multifunctional glial cells that actively participate in synaptic plasticity in health and disease. Little is known about molecular interactions between neurons and glial cells that result in synaptic stability or elimination. In this sense, the main histocompatibility complex of class I (MHC I) has been shown to play a role in the synaptic plasticity process during development and after lesion of the CNS. MHC I levels in neurons appear to be influenced by astrocyte secreted molecules, which may generate endoplasmic reticulum stress...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Lalit Agrawal, Swati Gupta, Shashank K Mishra, Garima Pandey, Susheel Kumar, Puneet S Chauhan, Debasis Chakrabarty, Chandra S Nautiyal
Along with many adaptive strategies, dynamic changes in protein abundance seem to be the common strategy to cope up with abiotic stresses which can be best explored through proteomics. Understanding of drought response is the key to decipher regulatory mechanism of better adaptation. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) proteome represents a phenomenal source of proteins that govern traits of agronomic importance, such as drought tolerance. In this study, a comparison of root cytoplasmic proteome was done for a drought tolerant rice (Heena) cultivar in PEG induced drought conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Koichi Ichikawa, Yoichi Ohta, Kenji Mamoto, Shigekazu Mizokawa, Yukihide Minoda, Yuuki Imai, Kunio Takaoka, Hiroaki Nakamura
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) strongly induce the recruitment and differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into mature osteoblasts, but also directly and indirectly stimulate differentiation of osteoclast progenitor cells and acceleration of mature osteoclasts function leading excessive bone resorption. Bisphosphonates, such as zoledronate (ZOL), inhibit osteoclasts function and osteoclasts mediated bone resorption. The short or middle term effect of BMPs and bisphosphonates on bone formation were previously reported, but there was no study that argue about the long term effect of bisphosphonates on BMP-induced bone anabolism...
October 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Roi Isaac, Ido Goldstein, Noa Furth, Neta Zilber, Sarina Streim, Sigalit Boura-Halfon, Eytan Elhanany, Varda Rotter, Moshe Oren, Yehiel Zick
Earlier reported small interfering RNA (siRNA) high-throughput screens, identified seven-transmembrane superfamily member 3 (TM7SF3) as a novel inhibitor of pancreatic β-cell death. Here we show that TM7SF3 maintains protein homeostasis and promotes cell survival through attenuation of ER stress. Overexpression of TM7SF3 inhibits caspase 3/7 activation. In contrast, siRNA-mediated silencing of TM7SF3 accelerates ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). This involves inhibitory phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α activity and increased expression of activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3), ATF4 and C/EBP homologous protein, followed by induction of apoptosis...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Po-Chun Chang, Yi-Chi Chao, Meng-Hsuan Hsiao, Hao-Syun Chou, Yi-Han Jheng, Xin-Hong Yu, Ning Lee, Connie Yang, Dean-Mo Liu
BACKGROUND: Developing a drug carrier with favorable handling characteristics that can respond to environmental changes following inflammation, such as pH changes, may be beneficial for treating periodontitis. This study aimed to investigate the preclinical feasibility of using naringin, a naturally derived polymethoxylated flavonoid compound with anti-inflammatory properties, to inhibit periodontitis induction via a thermo-gelling and pH-responsive injectable hydrogel. METHODS: The hydrogel was made of amphipathic carboxymethyl-hexanoyl chitosan (CHC), beta glycerol-phosphate (β-GP), and glycerol, and the thermo-gelling and pH-responsive characteristics of the hydrogel as well as the cell viability after treatment with the hydrogel containing naringin were evaluated in vitro...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Yanming Li, Qian Zhang, Zhenglin Du, ZhiChao Lu, Shuge Liu, Lu Zhang, Nan Ding, Binghao Bao, Yadong Yang, Qian Xiong, Hai Wang, Zhaojun Zhang, Hongzhu Qu, Haibo Jia, Xiangdong Fang
Previous studies on erythropoiesis revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in erythroid differentiation. Given the abundance of identified miRNAs and the limited understanding of erythroid miRNAs, additional examination is required. Here, two sets of erythroid differentiation miRNome data were analysed to screen for novel erythroid-inhibiting miRNAs. MIR200A was selected based on its pattern of downregulated expression in the miRNome datasets during induction of erythroid differentiation. Overexpression of MIR200A in K562 and TF-1 cells confirmed its inhibitory role in erythroid differentiation...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Felix L Struebing, Richard K Lee, Robert W Williams, Eldon E Geisert
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the output neuron of the eye, transmitting visual information from the retina through the optic nerve to the brain. The importance of RGCs for vision is demonstrated in blinding diseases where RGCs are lost, such as in glaucoma or after optic nerve injury. In the present study, we hypothesize that normal RGC function is transcriptionally regulated. To test our hypothesis, we examine large retinal expression microarray datasets from recombinant inbred mouse strains in GeneNetwork and define transcriptional networks of RGCs and their subtypes...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
R Krishnan Kutty, William Samuel, Kaifa Boyce, Aswini Cherukuri, Todd Duncan, Cynthia Jaworski, Chandrasekharam N Nagineni, T Michael Redmond
PURPOSE: Proinflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) secreted by infiltrating lymphocytes or macrophages may play a role in triggering RPE dysfunction associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Binding of these proinflammatory cytokines to their specific receptors residing on the RPE cell surface can activate signaling pathways that, in turn, may dysregulate cellular gene expression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β have an adverse effect on the expression of genes essential for RPE function, employing the RPE cell line ARPE-19 as a model system...
2016: Molecular Vision
Manishekhar Kumar, Jeannine M Coburn, David L Kaplan, Biman B Mandal
Macrophages, the key players in immunoregulation, are actively involved in tissue remodelling and vascularization. Recent advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine illustrate the importance of 'immuno-informed' biomaterials to regulate the microenvironment of biomedical implants. In the current study, silk-based 3D hydrogels were utilized to regulate cytokine delivery for macrophage, a type of immune cell, differentiation and polarization. Three different hydrogel variants, silk-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (SP), silk-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (SH) and silk-sonicated (SS) hydrogels were studied...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Isabel López-García, Domokos Gerő, Bartosz Szczesny, Petra Szoleczky, Gabor Olah, Katalin Módis, Kangling Zhang, Gao Jungling, Ping Wu, Lawrence C Sowers, Doug DeWitt, Donald S Prough, Csaba Szabo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesized that an in vitro, stretch-based model of neural injury may be useful to identify compounds that decrease the cellular damage in neurotrauma. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We screened three neural cell lines (B35, RN33B, SH-SY5Y) subjected to two differentiation methods and selected all-trans-retinoic acid-differentiated B35 rat neuroblastoma cells subjected to rapid stretch injury, coupled with a subthreshold concentration of H2 O2 , for the screen...
October 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Chi-Young Yun, Hwajung Choi, Young-Jae You, Jin-Young Yang, Jin-A Baek, Eui-Sic Cho
Dentin is the major part of tooth and formed by odontoblasts. Under the influence of the inner enamel epithelium, odontoblasts differentiate from ectomesenchymal cells of the dental papilla and secrete pre-dentin which then undergo mineralization into dentin. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is essential for dentinogenesis; however, the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To understand the role of TGF-β/BMP signaling in odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation, we generated mice with conditional ablation of Smad4, a key intracellular mediator of TGF-β/BMP signaling, using Osr2 or OC-Cre mice...
September 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Po-Shuen Lin, Hsiao-Hua Chang, Chien-Yang Yeh, Mei-Chi Chang, Chiu-Po Chan, Han-Yueh Kuo, Hsin-Cheng Liu, Wan-Chuen Liao, Po-Yuan Jeng, Sin-Yuet Yeung, Jiiang-Huei Jeng
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: In order to clarify the role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in pulp repair/regeneration responses, we investigated the differential signaling pathways responsible for the effects of TGF-β1 on collagen turnover, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) production in human dental pulp cells. METHODS: Pulp cells were exposed to TGF-β1 with/without pretreatment and coincubation by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(o-aminophenyl mercapto)butadiene (U0126; a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase [MEK]/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] inhibitor) and 4-(5-benzol[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-4-pyrldin-2-yl-1H- imidazol-2-yl)-benzamide hydrate (SB431542; an activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad signaling inhibitor)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Jeong-Seok Kim, Young-Hee Lee, Yong-Uoo Chang, Ho-Keun Yi
Excessive exercise induces an inflammatory response caused by oxidative stress, which delays recovery of damaged muscle fibers. The reduction of inflammatory response is important for skeletal muscle homeostasis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is an anti-inflammatory molecule, but the role of PPARγ in skeletal muscle as anti-inflammatory activity is not clear. Thus, this study examined the anti-inflammatory role of PPARγ against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exercised on a treadmill to induce oxidative stress...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Chenghua Du, Pan Pan, Yan Jiang, Qiuli Zhang, Jinsuo Bao, Chang Liu
BACKGROUND: Glioma is one of the most common primary malignancies in the brain or spine. The transcription factor (TF) CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB) is important for maintaining the tumor initiating capacity and invasion ability. To investigate the regulation mechanism of CEBPB in glioma, microarray data GSE47352 was analyzed. METHODS: GSE47352 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including three samples of SNB19 human glioma cells transduced with non-target control small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral vectors for 72 h (normal glioma cells) and three samples of SNB19 human glioma cells transduced with CEBPB shRNA lentiviral vectors for 72 h (CEBPB-silenced glioma cells)...
October 6, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Han-Gyu Choi, Seunga Choi, Yong Woo Back, Hye-Soo Park, Hyun Shik Bae, Chul Hee Choi, Hwa-Jung Kim
Macrophages constitute the first line of defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are critical in linking innate and adaptive immunity. Therefore, the identification and characterization of mycobacterial proteins that modulate macrophage function are essential for understanding tuberculosis pathogenesis. In this study, we identified the novel macrophage-activating protein, Rv2882c, from M. tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins. Recombinant Rv2882c protein activated macrophages to secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and express co-stimulatory and major histocompatibility complex molecules via Toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88, and Toll/IL-1 receptor-domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta...
2016: PloS One
Oliver Kaut, Ina Schmitt, Jörg Tost, Florence Busato, Yi Liu, Per Hofmann, Stephanie H Witt, Marcella Rietschel, Holger Fröhlich, Ullrich Wüllner
Numerous studies have elucidated the genetics of Parkinson's disease; however, the aetiology of the majority of sporadic cases has not yet been resolved. We hypothesized that epigenetic variations could be associated with PD and evaluated the DNA methylation pattern in PD patients compared to brothers or twins without PD. The methylation of DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 62 discordant siblings including 24 monozygotic twins was characterized with Illumina DNA Methylation 450K bead arrays and subsequently validated in two independent cohorts: 221 PD vs...
October 6, 2016: Neurogenetics
Lin Xiao, Andrew C Dudley
In the heart and other organs, endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has emerged as an important developmental process that involves coordinated migration, differentiation, and proliferation of the endothelium. In multiple disease states including cancer angiogenesis and cardiovascular disease, the processes that regulate EndMT are recapitulated, albeit in an uncoordinated and dysregulated manner. Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) super-family are well known to impart cellular plasticity during EndMT by the timely activation (or repression) of transcription factors and miRNAs in addition to epigenetic regulation of gene expression...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Pavlina A Andreeva-Gateva, Petya Konsulova, Maria Orbetzova, Radka Georgieva-Nikolova, Radka Tafradjiiska-Hadjiolova, Violina Angelova, Yulian Voynikov, Irina Nikolova, Iscra Simova
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to reveal different subgroups of patients with at least moderate risk of developing diabetes in the next 10 years, based on clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We performed a one-center cross-sectional study of adult patients (n=109, median age 45 years) with Findrisc score of above 11 out of 26 maximum. We included in the cluster analysis anthropometrics, lipid and carbohydrate parameters obtained in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin, C-peptide, creatinine, C-reactive protein, liver enzymes, beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance (HOMA calculations)...
October 4, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
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