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differentiation beta cells

Giuseppina Pepe, Arianna Di Napoli, Claudia Cippitelli, Stefania Scarpino, Emanuela Pilozzi, Luigi Ruco
Cytokine production is essential for follicular dendritic cell (FDC) maintenance and organization of germinal centres. In follicular lymphoma, FDCs are often disarrayed and may lack antigens indicative of terminal differentiation. We investigated the in situ distribution of cells producing lymphotoxin-beta (LTB), lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) transcripts in human reactive lymph nodes and in follicular lymphomas with follicular or diffuse growth pattern. LTB was the cytokine most abundantly produced in germinal centres...
April 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
Margareth Sidarta, Dongdong Li, Lars Hederstedt, Ewa Bukowska-Faniband
SpoVD and PBP4b are structurally very similar high molecular weight, class B, penicillin-binding proteins produced early during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis SpoVD is known to be essential for endospore cortex synthesis and thereby production of heat-resistant spores. The role of PBP4b is still enigmatic. Both proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the mother cell. PBP4b remains in the cytoplasmic membrane of the mother cell whereas SpoVD accumulates in the forespore outer membrane. By the use of SpoVD/PBP4b chimeras with swapped protein domains we show that the N-terminal part of SpoVD, containing the single transmembrane region, determines forespore targeting of the protein...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Jinyou Liu, Gangadhara R Sareddy, Mei Zhou, Suryavathi Viswanadhapalli, Xiaonan Li, Zhao Lai, Rajeshwar R Tekmal, Andrew J Brenner, Ratna K Vadlamudi
The estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) functions as a tumor suppressor in glioblastoma cells (GBM). However, the in vivo significance of endogenous ERβ and the roles of its isoforms in GBM are incompletely understood. Using ERβ isoform-specific PCR screening, we found that GBM cells predominantly express ERβ1 and ERβ5, along with low levels of ERβ2 and ERβ4. We observed greater ERβ5 expression in higher grades of glioma than in lower grades. In CRISPR-based ERβ knockout (KO) cells and ERβ KO cells uniquely expressing ERβ1, ERβ1 significantly reduced proliferation...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Research
Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Kacper Żukowski, Katarzyna Piórkowska, Grzegorz Żak, Artur Gurgul, Natalia Derebecka, Joanna Wesoły
Recently, selection in pigs has been focused on improving the lean meat content in carcasses; this focus has been most evident in breeds constituting a paternal component in breeding. Such sire-breeds are used to improve the meat quantity of cross-breed pig lines. However, even in one breed, a significant variation in the meatiness level can be observed. In the present study, the comprehensive analysis of genes and microRNA expression profiles in porcine muscle tissue was applied to identify the genetic background of meat content...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Li Shao, Nannan Pang, Ping Yan, Fengju Jia, Qi Sun, Wenjuan Ma, Yi Yang
The influence of mild perioperative hypothermia on the immune function and incidence of postoperative wound infections has been suggested, but the specific mechanism is unclear. This study aimed to analyze the body temperature, immune function, and wound infection rates in patients receiving open surgery for gastric cancer. Body temperature was controlled in each patient using one of four different methods: wrapping limbs, head and neck; insulated blankets; warming infusion fluids and insulated blankets; and warming fluids without insulated blankets...
April 9, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Jiayi Tao, Joey V Barnett, Michiko Watanabe, Diana Ramírez-Bergeron
Epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) are an important pool of multipotent cardiovascular progenitor cells. Through epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), EPDCs invade the subepicardium and myocardium and further differentiate into several cell types required for coronary vessel formation. We previously showed that epicardial hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling mediates the invasion of vascular precursor cells critical for patterning the coronary vasculature. Here, we examine the regulatory role of hypoxia (1% oxygen) on EPDC differentiation into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Ji Young Kim, Jae Souk Lee, Hyun Sub Hwang, Dongjin R Lee, Chul-Yong Park, Sung Jun Jung, Young Rang You, Dae-Sung Kim, Dong-Wook Kim
The canonical Wnt signal pathway plays a pivotal role in anteroposterior patterning and midbrain specification during early neurogenesis. Activating Wnt signal has been a strategy for differentiating human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons; however, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of how the Wnt signal drives posterior fate remained unclear. In this study, we found that activating the canonical Wnt signal significantly upregulated the expression of EN1, a midbrain-specific marker, in a fibroblast growth factor signal-dependent manner in human PSC-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs)...
April 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Mijung Lee, Jae-Jun Ban, Seungwon Yang, Wooseok Im, Manho Kim
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Exosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted from various types of cells, and stem cell-derived exosomes are known to have beneficial effects in many diseases. Many studies have suggested that amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides have a pivotal role in AD progression, by mitochondrial dysfunction of neuronal cells. We examined the therapeutic potential of exosomes derived from ADSCs (ADSC-Exo) in preventing the disease phenotypes induced by the Aβ cascade in an AD in vitro model...
April 3, 2018: Brain Research
Emily R Cope, Brynn H Voy, Brian K Whitlock, Meg Staton, Thomas Lane, Jack Davitt, J Travis Mulliniks
To identify molecular pathways of metabolic imbalances and reproduction, 10 castrated male sheep were randomly assigned to be injected into the lateral ventricle through intracerebroventricular cannulas with 1 mL of β-hydroxybutyric acid sodium salt solution (BHB; 12,800 µmol/L) or saline solution (CON; 0.9% NaCl). Approximately two hours post injection, sheep were humanely euthanized, and hypothalamus and pituitary tissues were harvested for transcriptome characterization using RNA-sequencing. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from the hypothalamus and pituitary and sequenced at a high depth (Hypothalamus: 468,912,732 reads; Pituitary: 515,106,092 reads) using the Illumina Hi-Seq 2500 platform and aligned to Bos taurus and Ovis aries genomes...
April 6, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Angel Fernandez-Flores, David S Cassarino
Pilomatrical (pilomatrix) carcinoma is a rare cutaneous adnexal tumor with matrical differentiation and recurrent and metastatic potential. Sarcomatoid pilomatrix carcinoma is a rare variant which shows a sarcomatoid component intermingling with the epithelial one. There are only four cases previously published. We present an additional case on the hand of a 78 year-old man which appeared as a 6 mm hyperkeratotic ─focally ulcerated─ plaque. A shave biopsy demonstrated a dermal infiltrative neoplasm, composed of markedly atypical-appearing basaloid cells with focal necrotic/ghost cells, as well as an intimately associated population of atypical oval to spindle-shaped cells...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Kelly A Correll, Karen E Edeen, Rachel L Zemans, Elizabeth F Redente, Amanda Mikels-Vigdal, Robert J Mason
TGF beta is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates alveolar epithelial cells as well as immune cells and fibroblasts. TGF beta inhibits surfactant protein A, B and C expression in fetal human lung and can inhibit type II cell proliferation induced by FGF7 (KGF). However, little is known about direct effects of TGF beta on adult human type II cells. We cultured alveolar type II cells under air/liquid interface conditions to maintain their state of differentiation with or without TGF beta. TGF beta markedly decreased expression of SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, fatty acid synthase, and the phospholipid transporter ABCA3...
April 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ying He, Ying Zhang, Meng-Ying Wang, Meng Zhang, Dan Zhang, Ying Zhang, Zhuo-Cheng Jiang, Feng Wu, Jing-Hong Chen
Objective To identify the osteogenesis genes whose expression is altered in hypertrophic chondrocytes treated with H2 O2 . Methods Murine chondrogenitor cells (ATDC5) were differentiated into hypertrophic chondrocytes by Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium (ITS) treatment, and then treated with H2 O2 . Suitable conditions (concentration, time) were determined by using the MTT assay. After total RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis, the levels of 84 genes were determined using the PCR array, whereas quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to validate the PCR array data...
March 30, 2018: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
Li Zeng, Na Zhao, Fang Li, Dong Han, Yang Liu, Haochen Liu, Shichen Sun, Yixiang Wang, Hailan Feng
In a previous study, we showed that microRNA-675 (miR-675) was significantly down-regulated in pateints with tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome. One of the main features of TDO syndrome is dentin hypoplasia. Thus, we hypothesize that miR-675 plays a role in dentin development. In this study, we determined the role of miR-675 in the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). Stable overexpression and knockdown of miR-675 in hDPCs were performed using recombinant lentiviruses containing U6 promoter-driven miR-675 and short hairpin-miR675 expression cassettes, respectively...
March 28, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Lina Wei, Chunlei Xin, Wenjuan Wang, Cuifang Hao
PURPOSE: This study aimed to screen key genes and pathways involved in obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and predict drugs for treatment of obese PCOS via bioinformatics approaches. METHODS: Microarray dataset GSE10946 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 7 cumulus cell samples from obese PCOS patients and 6 lean control samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between obese PCOS and controls were obtained using Bayesian test after data preprocessing, followed by functional enrichment analyses for DEGs...
March 27, 2018: Gene
Chao He, Guiting Zhang, Hong Zhou, Si Cheng, Amel Farwa
Our previous study demonstrated that beta 2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) stimulation promotes bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) maturation and T cell proliferation in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent manner. However, β2GPI induced T cell differentiation and the role of TLR4 in this process have rarely been reported. In the present study, we focused on the differentiation of splenic T cells in β2GPI immunized Balb/c, C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice. According to our results, Th2 dominated differentiation was observed in β2GPI immunized Balb/c and C3H/HeN mice than in those treated with normal saline (NS), namely the up-regulated levels of Th2 markers GATA3 and IL-4 (p < 0...
March 27, 2018: Immunology Letters
Aylin Kanli, Murat Kasap, Kubra K Yoneten, Gurler Akpinar, Mehmet Dogan Gulkac
Tetracycline regulated protein expression in mammalian cells is a powerful tool to predict the physiological function, cellular localization, and stability of a protein. In addition, to predict metabolic networks affected by the expression of wild-type or mutant forms of proteins, researchers generally produce a single mammalian cell clone that can express the protein of interest under tetracycline control and study the changes occurring in overall proteome before and after expression of a protein of interest...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yan Liu, Erchao Li, Chang Xu, Yujie Su, Jian G Qin, Liqiao Chen, Xiaodan Wang
The fish brain plays an important role in controlling growth, development, reproduction, and adaptation to environmental change. However, few studies stem from the perspective of whole transcriptome change in a fish brain and its response to long-term hypersaline stress. This study compares the differential transcriptomic responses of juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) maintained for 8 weeks in brackish water (16 practical salinity units, psu) and in freshwater. Fish brains from each treatment were collected for RNA-seq analysis to identify potential genes and pathways responding to hypersaline stress...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Gregory Alexander Raciti, Francesca Fiory, Michele Campitelli, Antonella Desiderio, Rosa Spinelli, Michele Longo, Cecilia Nigro, Giacomo Pepe, Eduardo Sommella, Pietro Campiglia, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Beguinot, Claudia Miele
Metabolic and/or endocrine dysfunction of the white adipose tissue (WAT) contribute to the development of metabolic disorders, such as Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Therefore, the identification of products able to improve adipose tissue function represents a valuable strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of T2D. In the current study, we investigated the potential effects of dry extracts obtained from Citrus aurantium L. fruit juice (CAde) on the regulation of 3T3-L1 cells adipocyte differentiation and function in vitro...
2018: PloS One
Heini Belt, Jonna K Koponen, Tuija Kekarainen, Katja A Puttonen, Petri I Mäkinen, Henri Niskanen, Joni Oja, Galina Wirth, Jari Koistinaho, Minna U Kaikkonen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Endothelial cell (EC) therapy may promote vascular growth or reendothelization in a variety of disease conditions. However, the production of a cell therapy preparation containing differentiated, dividing cells presenting typical EC phenotype, functional properties and chemokine profile is challenging. We focused on comparative analysis of seven small molecule-mediated differentiation protocols of ECs from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Differentiated cells showed a typical surface antigen pattern of ECs as characterized with flow cytometry analysis, functional properties, such as tube formation and ability to uptake acetylated LDL...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Yamei Qiao, Xiao Liang, Yingjie Yan, Yake Lu, Di Zhang, Wu Yao, Weidong Wu, Zhen Yan
It has been previously shown that inhaled zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) can modulate inflammation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) enclosed in exosomes have been identified as an important signature for inflammatory responses. However, the role of exosomal miRNAs during pathogenic inflammation has not been investigated. Healthy rats were exposed to ZnO-NPs (41.7 nm; 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg) or saline (control) via oropharyngeal aspiration. ZnO-NPs induced significant increases in the serum levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and elevated the number of cells and the percentage of neutrophils in the blood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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