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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095307/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-antiretroviral-treatment-interventions-with-drug-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Komi Afassinou, Faraimunashe Chirove, Keshlan S Govinder
We introduce a model for HIV/AIDS which can be utilized to assess the impact of combining pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) use interventions (incorporating drug resistance). Mathematical and numerical analyses are carried out to investigate the effects of the combined controls in the presence of PrEP drug resistance. Our results predict a significant decrease in the number of new HIV infections when PrEP and ARVs are concurrently implemented at high levels. The results also reveal that PrEP drug resistance has the potential to slow down or reverse the effects of PrEP, especially at low efficacy levels...
January 14, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073964/single-dose-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-oral-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-in-blood-saliva-and-rectal-tissue-a-sub-study-of-the-anrs-ipergay-trial
#2
Julien Fonsart, Sentob Saragosti, Milad Taouk, Gilles Peytavin, Lane Bushman, Isabelle Charreau, Allan Hance, Lauriane Goldwirt, Stéphane Morel, Fabrizio Mammano, Bénédicte Loze, Catherine Capitant, François Clavel, Nadia Mahjoub, Laurence Meyer, Peter L Anderson, Constance Delaugerre, Jean-Michel Molina
OBJECTIVES: In the ANRS IPERGAY pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial, a single dose of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine was taken orally 2-24 h before sexual intercourse. A sub-study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir and emtricitabine in blood, saliva and rectal tissue following this initial oral intake. METHODS: Plasma, PBMC, saliva and rectal tissue sampling was performed over 24 h in 12 seronegative men before enrolment in the ANRS IPERGAY trial, following a single dose of 600 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/400 mg emtricitabine...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060881/individual-hiv-risk-versus-population-impact-of-risk-compensation-after-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-initiation-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#3
Samuel M Jenness, Akshay Sharma, Steven M Goodreau, Eli S Rosenberg, Kevin M Weiss, Karen W Hoover, Dawn K Smith, Patrick Sullivan
OBJECTIVES: Risk compensation (RC) could reduce or offset the biological prevention benefits of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among those at substantial risk of infection, including men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated the potential extent and causal mechanisms through which RC could impact HIV transmission at the population and individual levels. METHODS: Using a stochastic network-based mathematical model of HIV transmission dynamics among MSM in the United States, we simulated RC as a reduction in the probability of condom use after initiating PrEP, with heterogeneity by PrEP adherence profiles and partnership type in which RC occurred...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060011/topical-tenofovir-protects-against-vaginal-shiv-infection-in-macaques-co-infected-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-trichomonas-vaginalis
#4
Natalia Makarova, Tara Henning, Andrew Taylor, Chuong Dinh, Jonathan Lipscomb, Rachael Aubert, Debra Hanson, Christi Phillips, John Papp, James Mitchell, Janet Mcnicholl, Gerardo J Garcia-Lerma, Walid Heneine, Ellen Kersh, Charles Dobard
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), two prevalent sexual transmitted infections, are known to increase HIV risk in women and could potentially diminish pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) efficacy, particularly for topical interventions that rely on local protection. We investigated in macaques whether co-infection with CT/TV reduces protection by vaginal TFV gel. METHODS: Vaginal TFV gel dosing previously shown to provide 100% or 74% protection when applied either 30 minutes or 3 days before SHIV challenge was assessed in pigtailed macaques co-infected with CT/TV and challenged twice-weekly with SHIV162p3 for up to 10 weeks (2 menstrual cycles)...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031062/maximizing-the-benefits-of-art-and-prep-in-resource-limited-settings
#5
G Akudibillah, A Pandey, J Medlock
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly being used as an HIV-prevention tool, administered to uninfected people with ongoing HIV exposure as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and to infected people to reduce their infectiousness. We used a modelling approach to determine the optimal population-level combination of ART and PrEP allocations required in South Africa to maximize programme effectiveness for four outcome measures: new infections, infection-years, death and cost. We considered two different strategies for allocating treatment, one that selectively allocates drugs to sex workers and one that does not...
December 29, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025734/reaching-key-populations-prep-uptake-in-an-urban-health-care-system-in-the-bronx-new-york
#6
Cedric H Bien, Viraj V Patel, Oni J Blackstock, Uriel R Felsen
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been established as an effective HIV prevention tool, but real world studies are limited. To inform dissemination efforts, we sought to describe individuals prescribed PrEP in the largest health care system in the Bronx, New York, an urban region with a high burden of HIV. We used a clinical database and chart review to identify individuals prescribed PrEP between 2011 and 2015 (n = 108). A majority were Black and Hispanic, half were men who have sex with men, and nearly a third were cisgender women who have sex with men...
December 26, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013265/decline-in-bone-mass-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-is-associated-with-hormonal-changes-in-the-absence-of-renal-impairment-when-used-by-hiv-uninfected-adolescent-boys-and-young-men-for-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#7
Peter L Havens, Charles B Stephensen, Marta D Van Loan, Gertrud U Schuster, Leslie R Woodhouse, Patricia M Flynn, Catherine M Gordon, Cynthia G Pan, Brandy Rutledge, Nancy Liu, Craig M Wilson, Rohan Hazra, Sybil G Hosek, Peter L Anderson, Sharon M Seifert, Bill G Kapogiannis, Kathleen Mulligan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to define the relative importance of renal and endocrine changes in tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-related bone toxicity. METHODS: In a study of daily TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected young men who have sex with men, we measured changes from baseline in blood and urine markers of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-vitamin D-fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) axis, creatinine, and renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007341/better-late-than-never-prep-in-england
#8
EDITORIAL
The Lancet Hiv
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004219/progress-and-challenges-in-ending-hiv-and-aids-in-australia
#9
Martin Holt
This review considers Australia's progress towards the elimination of HIV and AIDS, as specified in international targets. In particular, it considers the reaction to recent media reports that Australia has 'ended AIDS' and evaluates progress towards reducing HIV transmission. Recent surveillance data and research show significant improvements in HIV testing and treatment, but countervailing trends such as increased condomless sex between gay and other men who have sex with men. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is being implemented at scale in some jurisdictions, with the hope that this will significantly alter the trajectory of Australia's HIV epidemic, which has been stable for the last five years (at around 1000-1100 infections per year)...
December 21, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003117/facebook-network-structure-and-awareness-of-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#10
Aditya S Khanna, Phil Schumm, John A Schneider
BACKGROUND: Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are the only population in the United States who have experienced rising human immunodeficiency virus incidence over the past decade. Consistent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use can substantially reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. What differentiates those who become aware of PrEP, and those who do not, remains largely unknown. METHODS: The social networks of YBMSM can impact their awareness of PrEP; to examine this impact, we used two waves of Facebook data from "uConnect"-a longitudinal cohort study of YBMSM in Chicago (n = 266)...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990587/willingness-to-use-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-an-empirical-test-of-the-information-motivation-behavioral-skills-imb-model-among-high-risk-drug-users-in-treatment
#11
Roman Shrestha, Frederick L Altice, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Pramila Karki, Michael Copenhaver
Evidence from recent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials has demonstrated its safety and efficacy in significantly reducing the risk of HIV acquisition for those who are at considerable risk of acquiring HIV infection. With a rapid increase in the amount of research on the efficacy of PrEP for HIV prevention, complementary research on the willingness to use PrEP has grown, especially among MSM, but limited research has been focused among people who use drugs (PWUD). As part of the formative process, we utilized the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change to characterize and guide intervention development for promoting willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD...
December 19, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987435/social-structural-properties-and-hiv-prevention-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-ballroom-house-and-independent-gay-family-communities
#12
Lindsay E Young, Adam B Jonas, Stuart Michaels, Joel D Jackson, Mario L Pierce, John A Schneider
The endogenous social support systems of young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM), like surrogate families and social networks, are considered crucial assets for HIV prevention in this population. Yet, the extent to which these social systems foster sexual health protections or risks remains unclear. We examine the networked patterns of membership in ballroom houses and independent gay families, both Black gay subcultures in the United States, and how these memberships are related to HIV protective and risk traits of members...
December 8, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986691/uptake-of-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-commercially-insured-persons-united-states-2010-2014
#13
Hsiu Wu, Maria C B Mendoza, Ya-Lin A Huang, Tameka Hayes, Dawn K Smith, Karen W Hoover
BACKGROUND: Daily, oral use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy to prevent acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is important to monitor PrEP uptake at the national level to increase our understanding of trends in its utilization, but national HIV surveillance data do not include PrEP uptake. Our objective was to develop feasible methods to estimate PrEP uptake and to estimate uptake each year among commercially insured persons during 2010-2014...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27970805/systematic-review-of-studies-estimating-the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm
#14
O Damm, S Scholz, W Greiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964776/-since-both-of-us-are-using-antiretrovirals-we-have-been-supportive-to-each-other-facilitators-and-barriers-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-use-in-heterosexual-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-in-kisumu-kenya
#15
Rena C Patel, Gaelen Stanford-Moore, Josephine Odoyo, Maria Pyra, Imeldah Wakhungu, Keerthana Anand, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Jared M Baeten, Joelle M Brown
INTRODUCTION: Since 2015, the World Health Organization recommends pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for all persons at substantial risk for HIV, including HIV-uninfected partners in serodiscordant relationships in resource-limited settings. As PrEP moves from clinical trials to real-world use, understanding facilitators of and barriers to PrEP initiation and adherence is critical to successful PrEP implementation and rollout. METHODS: We conducted 44 in-depth individual or couple interviews with 63 participants (30 without HIV and 33 with HIV) enrolled in the Partners Demonstration Project in Kisumu, Kenya, between August and September 2014...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930607/counseling-framework-for-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-on-the-integrated-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#16
Jennifer F Morton, Connie Celum, John Njoroge, Agnes Nakyanzi, Imeldah Wakhungu, Edna Tindimwebwa, Snaidah Ongachi, Eric Sedah, Emmanuel Okwero, Kenneth Ngure, Josephine Odoyo, Nulu Bulya, Jessica E Haberer, Jared M Baeten, Renee Heffron
BACKGROUND: For HIV-serodiscordant couples, integrated delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive partners and time-limited pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for negative partners virtually eliminates HIV transmission. Standardized messaging, sensitive to the barriers and motivators to HIV treatment and prevention, is needed for widespread scale-up of this approach. METHODS: Within the Partners Demonstration Project, a prospective interventional project among 1013 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda, we offered ART to eligible HIV-positive partners and PrEP to HIV-negative partners before ART initiation and through the HIV-positive partner's first 6 months of ART use...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925486/real-talk-developing-a-computer-delivered-sexual-health-program-for-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#17
Charles Klein, Carmela Lomonaco
HIV disproportionately affects Black men who have sex with men (MSM), yet there are few evidence-based programs that respond to the diverse realities of Black MSM communities. This article examines the development of Real Talk, a new harm reduction-based, sexual health intervention for Black MSM. We first analyze the key themes from our formative research: (1) stigma, discrimination, and intersectionalities in the lives of Black MSM, (2) the importance of safe spaces and community provided by health promotion programs, and (3) moving beyond condoms in sexual health messaging...
December 2016: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923009/counseling-framework-for-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-on-the-integrated-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#18
Jennifer F Morton, Connie Celum, John Njoroge, Agnes Nakyanzi, Imeldah Wakhungu, Edna Tindimwebwa, Snaidah Ongachi, Eric Sedah, Emmanuel Okwero, Kenneth Ngure, Josephine Odoyo, Nulu Bulya, Jessica E Haberer, Jared M Baeten, Renee Heffron
BACKGROUND: For HIV-serodiscordant couples, integrated delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive partners and time-limited pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for negative partners virtually eliminates HIV transmission. Standardized messaging, sensitive to the barriers and motivators to HIV treatment and prevention, is needed for widespread scale-up of this approach. METHODS: Within the Partners Demonstration Project, a prospective interventional project among 1013 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda, we offered ART to eligible HIV-positive partners and PrEP to HIV-negative partners before ART initiation and through the HIV-positive partner's first 6 months of ART use...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922719/markov-mixed-effects-modeling-using-electronic-adherence-monitoring-records-identifies-influential-covariates-to-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#19
Kumpal Madrasi, Ayyappa Chaturvedula, Jessica E Haberer, Mark Sale, Michael J Fossler, David Bangsberg, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Craig W Hendrix
Adherence is a major factor in the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Modeling patterns of adherence helps to identify influential covariates of different types of adherence as well as to enable clinical trial simulation so that appropriate interventions can be developed. We developed a Markov mixed-effects model to understand the covariates influencing adherence patterns to daily oral PrEP. Electronic adherence records (date and time of medication bottle cap opening) from the Partners PrEP ancillary adherence study with a total of 1147 subjects were used...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918880/racial-differences-in-hiv-and-hcv-risk-behaviors-transmission-and-prevention-knowledge-among-non-treatment-seeking-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder
#20
Verena E Metz, Maria A Sullivan, Jermaine D Jones, Elizabeth Evans, Rachel Luba, Jonathan Vogelman, Sandra D Comer
In light of New York's recently reinforced strategy to end the AIDS epidemic by expanding testing, treatment, and access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), we assessed drug use and sexual risk behaviors, along with HIV/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and prevention knowledge among non-treatment-seeking adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) in New York City. Over the course of 18 months, volunteers screening for research studies in the Opioid Laboratory at the New York State Psychiatric Institute completed a locally developed self-assessment questionnaire...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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