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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423992/secrecy-empowerment-and-protection-positioning-prep-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#1
Eliza Govender, Leila Mansoor, Kate MacQueen, Quarraisha Abdool Karim
The release of World Health Organisation guidelines recommending the prophylactic use of daily Truvada(®) for all populations at high risk of acquiring HIV opens the way for implementation of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). The impact of new prevention technologies is, however, dependent on demand creation strategies such as user awareness, acceptability and access, which in turn are influenced by sociocultural and gender norms. This study was conducted in three locations in KwaZulu-Natal, urban, rural and peri-urban, with six participatory workshops...
April 20, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418987/the-roles-of-behavioral-and-social-science-research-in-the-fight-against-hiv-aids-a-functional-framework
#2
Paul Gaist, Michael J Stirratt
Landmark advances have been made in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. These include proof-of-concept and public health implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and "treatment as prevention" (TasP) to reduce HIV transmission as well as definitive evidence of the clinical gain from early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Significant progress has been made in understanding and addressing the social contexts and behavioral factors that impact HIV prevention, care, and treatment interventions...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418232/high-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-uptake-and-early-adherence-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-at-risk-for-hiv-infection-the-prep-brasil-demonstration-project
#3
Brenda Hoagland, Ronaldo I Moreira, Raquel B De Boni, Esper G Kallas, José Valdez Madruga, Ricardo Vasconcelos, Silvia Goulart, Thiago S Torres, Luana M S Marins, Peter L Anderson, Paula M Luz, Iuri da Costa Leite, Albert Y Liu, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well established. Little is known about the feasibility of PrEP implementation in middle-income settings with concentrated epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). METHODS: PrEP Brasil is a prospective, multicentre, open-label demonstration project assessing PrEP delivery in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415911/risk-safety-and-sex-among-male-prep-users-time-for-a-new-understanding
#4
Kimberly Koester, Rivet K Amico, Hailey Gilmore, Albert Liu, Vanessa McMahan, Kenneth Mayer, Sybil Hosek, Robert Grant
Recent advances in biomedical HIV prevention have led to optimistic projections of a dramatic worldwide reduction of new infections by 2030. This optimism is counterbalanced by concerns that the protective benefits of one such technology, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), may be negated by increases in other behaviours that offset these benefits (risk compensation). To contribute to a deeper understanding of concepts of safety and risk in the context of HIV PrEP, we draw on the narrative accounts of 61 male PrEP users who participated in the inaugural PrEP demonstration project: the iPrEx open-label extension study...
April 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414261/-support-your-client-at-the-space-that-they-re-in-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-prescribers-perspectives-on-prep-related-risk-compensation
#5
Sarah K Calabrese, Manya Magnus, Kenneth H Mayer, Douglas S Krakower, Adam I Eldahan, Lauren A Gaston Hawkins, Kristen Underhill, Nathan B Hansen, Trace S Kershaw, Joseph R Betancourt, John F Dovidio
Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and evidence that most PrEP users do not engage in risk compensation (i.e., increased risk behavior due to a perceived decrease in HIV susceptibility), some healthcare providers report patient risk compensation to be a deterrent to prescribing PrEP. Overcoming this barrier is essential to supporting PrEP access and uptake among people at risk for HIV. To inform such efforts, this qualitative study explored PrEP-related risk compensation attitudes among providers with firsthand experience prescribing PrEP...
April 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409266/intimate-partner-violence-and-prep-acceptability-among-low-income-young-black-women-exploring-the-mediating-role-of-reproductive-coercion
#6
Tiara Willie, Trace Kershaw, Jacquelyn C Campbell, Kamila A Alexander
A few studies suggest that women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are willing to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), but no research has examined mediators of this relationship. The current study used path analysis to examine a phenomenon closely associated with IPV: reproductive coercion, or explicit male behaviors to promote pregnancy of a female partner without her knowledge or against her will. Birth control sabotage and pregnancy coercion-two subtypes of reproductive coercion behaviors-were examined as mediators of the relationship between IPV and PrEP acceptability among a cohort of 147 Black women 18-25 years of age recruited from community-based organizations in an urban city...
April 13, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403211/the-potential-impact-and-cost-of-focusing-hiv-prevention-on-young-women-and-men-a-modeling-analysis-in-western-kenya
#7
Ramzi A Alsallaq, Jasmine Buttolph, Charles M Cleland, Timothy Hallett, Irene Inwani, Kawango Agot, Ann E Kurth
OBJECTIVE: We compared the impact and costs of HIV prevention strategies focusing on youth (15-24 year-old persons) versus on adults (15+ year-old persons), in a high-HIV burden context of a large generalized epidemic. DESIGN: Compartmental age-structured mathematical model of HIV transmission in Nyanza, Kenya. INTERVENTIONS: The interventions focused on youth were high coverage HIV testing (80% of youth), treatment at diagnosis (TasP, i.e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399558/brief-report-hormonal-contraception-is-not-associated-with-reduced-art-effectiveness-among-women-initiating-art-evidence-from-longitudinal-data
#8
Rena C Patel, Jared M Baeten, Renee Heffron, Ting Hong, Nicole L Davis, Kavita Nanda, Robert W Coombs, Jairam R Lingappa, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Stacey Hurst, Katherine K Thomas, Athena P Kourtis, Nelly Mugo
BACKGROUND: To explore the association between concomitant hormonal contraceptive and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use and (1) plasma viral suppression and (2) genital HIV shedding among HIV-positive women initiating ART. METHODS: We analyzed plasma viral load and genital viral RNA shedding from 1079 HIV-positive women initiating ART who were followed prospectively in 3 sub-Saharan African HIV prevention studies. Plasma and endocervical swab samples were collected every 6 months...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392673/-life-steps-for-prep-adherence-demonstration-of-a-cbt-based-intervention-to-increase-adherence-to-preexposure-prophylaxis-prep-medication-among-sexual-minority-men-at-high-risk-for-hiv-acquisition
#9
S Wade Taylor, Christina Psaros, David W Pantalone, Jake Tinsley, Steven A Elsesser, Kenneth H Mayer, Steven A Safren
One dramatic advance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention efforts has been the prescription of medications typically used for HIV treatment as prophylaxis against acquiring HIV. As a preventative agent, this practice is referred to as "preexposure prophylaxis" (PrEP). The U.S. Federal Drug Administration approved daily PrEP for adults at risk for HIV who do not consistently use condoms during sex with HIV-infected or unknown-status partners. In this paper, we describe a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) PrEP adherence intervention developed for use in high-risk sexual-minority men in the United States, adapted from "Life-Steps," an evidence-based CBT intervention to promote adherence to HIV treatment...
February 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384841/constrained-binary-classification-using-ensemble-learning-an-application-to-cost-efficient-targeted-prep-strategies
#10
Wenjing Zheng, Laura Balzer, Mark van der Laan, Maya Petersen
Binary classification problems are ubiquitous in health and social sciences. In many cases, one wishes to balance two competing optimality considerations for a binary classifier. For instance, in resource-limited settings, an human immunodeficiency virus prevention program based on offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to select high-risk individuals must balance the sensitivity of the binary classifier in detecting future seroconverters (and hence offering them PrEP regimens) with the total number of PrEP regimens that is financially and logistically feasible for the program...
April 6, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377421/a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-infection-among-heterosexual-hiv-1-serodiscordant-african-couples
#11
Aaron F Bochner, Jared M Baeten, Alison S Rustagi, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Jairam R Lingappa, Nelly R Mugo, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Saidi Kapiga, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Connie Celum, Ruanne V Barnabas
OBJECTIVES: Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent curable STI worldwide and has been associated with adverse health outcomes and increased HIV-1 transmission risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among couples to assess how characteristics of both individuals in sexual partnerships are associated with the prevalence of male and female T. vaginalis infection. METHODS: African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples were concurrently tested for trichomoniasis at enrolment into two clinical trials...
April 4, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370177/blood-safety-implications-of-donors-using-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#12
C R Seed, H Yang, J F Lee
HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of one or more antiretroviral medications (in combination) to prevent HIV infection. The most commonly used PrEP medication (Truvada(®) , Gilead Sciences, Inc.) acts by inhibiting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. If someone who is using PrEP unknowingly becomes HIV infected (termed 'PrEP breakthrough infection'), there may be suppressed viral replication resulting in a virus level undetectable by the most sensitive HIV NAT. Failure to seroconvert and seroreversion (loss of previously detectable HIV antibodies) have also both been observed with 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation screening immunoassays, as well as Western blot assays...
March 31, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363410/factors-related-to-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prescription-by-u-s-primary-care-physicians
#13
Jennifer L Walsh, Andrew E Petroll
INTRODUCTION: Although pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) greatly reduces risk of HIV infection in HIV-negative individuals, use is not widespread enough to impact HIV incidence. Involvement of primary care physicians (PCPs) in PrEP prescription is essential, but previous research has shown low rates of prescription among PCPs. To identify targets for interventions, the information-motivation-behavioral skills model for PrEP discussion and prescription was tested in a ten-city sample of PCPs...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362073/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-hiv-self-testing-among-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-users-in-kenya
#14
Kenneth Ngure, Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Kerry A Thomson, Elizabeth Irungu, Njambi Njuguna, Lawrence Mwaniki, Connie Celum, Jared M Baeten
INTRODUCTION: HIV testing is key to the delivery of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): testing HIV-uninfected at-risk persons is the first step for PrEP initiation and ongoing HIV testing is an essential part of PrEP delivery. Thus, novel and cost-effective HIV-testing approaches to streamline delivery of PrEP are urgently needed. Within a demonstration project of PrEP for HIV prevention among high-risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya (the Partners Demonstration Project), we conducted a pilot evaluation of HIV self-testing...
February 8, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362062/a-novel-online-to-offline-o2o-model-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-hiv-testing-scale-up
#15
Tarandeep Anand, Chattiya Nitpolprasert, Deondara Trachunthong, Stephen J Kerr, Surang Janyam, Danai Linjongrat, Lisa B Hightow-Weidman, Praphan Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Nittaya Phanuphak
INTRODUCTION: PrEP awareness and uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TG) in Thailand remains low. Finding ways to increase HIV testing and PrEP uptake among high-risk groups is a critical priority. This study evaluates the effect of a novel Adam's Love Online-to-Offline (O2O) model on PrEP and HIV testing uptake among Thai MSM and TG and identifies factors associated with PrEP uptake. METHODS: The O2O model was piloted by Adam's Love (www...
March 10, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361508/delivering-safer-conception-services-to-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-in-kenya-perspectives-from-healthcare-providers-and-hiv-serodiscordant-couples
#16
Kenneth Ngure, Grace Kimemia, Kristin Dew, Njambi Njuguna, Nelly Mugo, Connie Celum, Jared M Baeten, Renee Heffron
INTRODUCTION: For HIV serodiscordant couples in resource-limited settings, pregnancy is common despite the risk of sexual and/or perinatal HIV transmission. Some safer conception strategies to reduce HIV transmission during pregnancy attempts are available but often not used for reasons including knowledge, accessibility, preference and others. We sought to understand Kenyan health providers' and HIV serodiscordant couples' perspectives and experiences with safer conception. METHODS: Between August 2015 and March 2016, we conducted key informant interviews (KIIs) with health providers from public and private HIV care and fertility clinics and in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) with HIV serodiscordant couples participating in an open-label study of integrated pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV prevention (the Partners Demonstration Project)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361507/client-uptake-of-safer-conception-strategies-implementation-outcomes-from-the-sakh-umndeni-safer-conception-clinic-in-south-africa
#17
Sheree R Schwartz, Jean Bassett, Charles B Holmes, Nompumelelo Yende, Rebecca Phofa, Ian Sanne, Annelies Van Rie
INTRODUCTION: Implementation of safer conception services for HIV-affected couples within primary healthcare clinics in resource-limited settings remains limited. We review service utilization and safer conception strategy uptake during the first three years of Sakh'umndeni, which is a safer conception clinic in South Africa. METHODS: Sakh'umndeni is located at Witkoppen Health and Welfare Centre, a high-volume primary healthcare clinic in northern Johannesburg...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356043/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-evidence-and-perspectives
#18
Georgios K Nikolopoulos, Eirini Christaki, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Stefanos Bonovas
HIV remains an important public health issue worldwide. However, new prevention approaches have recently been developed and are very promising. Antiretroviral treatment as prevention, or as a prophylaxis after exposure to HIV, has been shown to reduce the likelihood of HIV acquisition. Over the last years, animal studies and randomized clinical trials in humans showed that antiretrovirals can also be efficacious and safe if used once daily, or intermittently, as prophylaxis before an individual is exposed to HIV (Pre-exposure Prophylaxis - PrEP)...
March 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351689/detection-of-new-hiv-infections-in-a-multicentre-hiv-antiretroviral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-trial
#19
Katrien Fransen, Irith de Baetselier, Elizabeth Rammutla, Khatija Ahmed, Frederick Owino, Walter Agingu, Gustav Venter, Jen Deese, Lut Van Damme, Tania Crucitti
BACKGROUND: Monthly specimens collected from FEM-PrEP-a Phase III trial [1] were investigated for the detection of acute HIV (AHI) infection. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of the study-specific HIV algorithm in detecting AHI, and the performance of each of the serological and molecular tests used in diagnosing new infections, and their contribution to narrowing the window period. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 83 pre-seroconversion specimens from 61 seroconverters from the FEM-PrEP trial were further analyzed in a sub-study...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350843/high-hiv-prevalence-and-incidence-among-women-in-southern-mozambique-evidence-from-the-mdp-microbicide-feasibility-study
#20
Sibone Mocumbi, Mitzy Gafos, Khatia Munguambe, Ruth Goodall, Sheena McCormack
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting large scale HIV prevention clinical trials in Mozambique by measuring HIV prevalence and incidence among women of reproductive age. This paper describes the baseline socio-demographic characteristics of the Mozambique Microbicides Development Programme (MDP) feasibility cohort, baseline prevalence of HIV and other STIs, and HIV incidence. METHODS: The Mozambique MDP feasibility study was conducted from September 2007 to August 2009 in urban Mavalane and rural Manhiça, in Southern Mozambique...
2017: PloS One
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