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Communities of practice AND medical education

Sairam Parthasarathy, Mary A Carskadon, Girardin Jean-Louis, Judith Owens, Adam Bramoweth, Daniel Combs, Lauren Hale, Elizabeth Harrison, Chantelle N Hart, Brant P Hasler, Sarah M Honaker, Elisabeth Hertenstein, Samuel Kuna, Clete Kushida, Jessica C Levenson, Caitlin Murray, Allan I Pack, Vivek Pillai, Kristi Pruiksma, Azizi Seixas, Patrick Strollo, Saurabh S Thosar, Natasha Williams, Daniel Buysse
A wealth of scientific knowledge is being generated in sleep and circadian science. In order for us to realize the return on investment for such scientific knowledge and to improve the health of the nation, we need to disseminate and implement research findings into practice. An implementation gap - termed a "quality chasm" by the Institutes of Medicine - separates the scientific knowledge we possess and the implementation of such knowledge into preventative interventions or healthcare treatments. It is frequently reported that a time lag of 17 years transpires before medical research reaches clinical practice...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Radha K Dhiman, Sandeep Satsangi, Gagandeep S Grover, Pankaj Puri
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally prevalent pathogen and is a major cause of healthcare burden in India. HCV poses a significant problem in the state of Punjab, India owing to the higher prevalence of risk factors like unsafe medical practices (including unsafe injections and dental procedures) and intravenous drug use. The reported prevalence of HCV in this part of the country was 5.2% in 2012, while a recent study has shown the prevalence to be 3.2% in 2016. Similar to the other geographic belts in India, genotype 3 predominates in the state of Punjab...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
P S Sidhu
In these days of political vagueness, to use a kinder term, although many would describe the situation as turmoil, in Europe, there are success stories to be lauded. Notwithstanding the direction individual countries choose in relation to closer or not so close co-operation in Europe and the direction the political agenda will travel over the next few years, I believe science and in particular medicine has benefited enormously form close co-operation across the European Union and with colleagues outside this political and trading block of nations...
October 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Grigoriy E Gurvits, Gloria Lan, Amy Tan, Arlene Weissman
BACKGROUND: Increasing prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poses significant challenges to medical community. Preventive medicine, including vaccination against opportunistic infections, is important in decreasing morbidity and mortality in patients with IBD. We conduct first study to evaluate general awareness and adherence to immunisation guidelines by primary care physicians in the USA. METHODS: We administered an electronic questionnaire to the research panel of the American College of Physicians (ACP) assessing current vaccination practices, barriers to vaccination and provider responsibility for administering vaccinations and compared responses with the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization consensus guidelines and expert opinion from the USA...
October 12, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Stylianos Hatzipanagos, Bernadette John, Yuan-Li Tiffany Chiu
BACKGROUND: Social media can support and sustain communities much better than previous generations of learning technologies, where institutional barriers undermined any initiatives for embedding formal and informal learning. Some of the many types of social media have already had an impact on student learning, based on empirical evidence. One of these, social networking, has the potential to support communication in formal and informal spaces. OBJECTIVE: In this paper we report on the evaluation of an institutional social network-King's Social Harmonisation Project (KINSHIP)-established to foster an improved sense of community, enhance communication, and serve as a space to model digital professionalism for students at King's College London, United Kingdom...
March 3, 2016: JMIR Med Educ
Piriyatharisini Thamilselvan, Krishna Raj Muthuraman, Jharna Mandal, Subash Chandra Parija
INTRODUCTION: Taenia solium is a common two-host parasitic cestode, residing in both humans (definitive) and pigs (intermediate). Invasion of this parasitic cyst into central nervous system leads to a condition known as neurocysticercosis (NCC). The World Health Organization (WHO) considers NCC as one of the "most neglected" tropical zoonotic diseases. The disease is presented with pleomorphic clinical manifestations, of which epilepsy is the most common. Diagnosis of NCC is carried out by serological tests and imaging methods...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Robert G Bing-You, Kalli Varaklis
BACKGROUND: A new organizational model of educational administrative support was instituted in the Department of Medical Education (DME) to better meet increasing national accreditation demands. Residency and fellowship programs were organized into four 'Communities of Practice' (CoOPs) based on discipline similarity, number of learners, and geographic location. Program coordinator reporting lines were shifted from individual departments to a centralized reporting structure within the DME...
2016: Medical Education Online
Ayşen Esen Danacı, Kuzeymen Balıkçı, Orkun Aydın, Cengiz Cengisiz, A Burak Uykur
OBJECTIVE: It has been widely acknowledged that the community and health professionals hold negative attitudes toward patients with impaired mental health. This constitutes a majör obstacle for those patients in coping with their disease, managing their care, and hence regulating their lives. Although studies carried out in Turkey document the presence of stigma, they provide limited information about the ways for solving this problem. Drawing on the litrature, the present study investigated the effect of medical education on stigmatization...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Katherine Rhoades, Sarah Telliard, Tiffany Stanfill Thomas, Jennifer L Barkin
OBJECTIVE: We examined 1) women's perceptions regarding self-care, 2) applications of self-care, and 3) barriers to practicing effective self-care. METHODS: Four focus groups were conducted in a low-income, pregnant population. Focus group recruitment and discussions took place at a large medical center in a medically underserved area of central Georgia. Thirty-two adult pregnant women attending a high-risk obstetric clinic were included. Data related to holistic self-care were identified and grouped into one of three categories: women's valuations of self-care, applications of self-care, and barriers to self-care...
September 30, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Sarah Mahoney, Paul Worley, Helen Parry, Sally Clarke
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Flinders University established an urban, community-based, longitudinal integrated program providing medical students extended placements that offered continuities of patient care, clinical supervision and peer group. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to analyse academic outcomes of the new placement program. METHODS: The results of all students undertaking Year 3 exams from 2011 to 2014 were collected and analysed...
October 2016: Australian Family Physician
G Edward Miller, Eric M Sarpong, Amy J Davidoff, Eunice Y Yang, Nicole J Brandt, Donna M Fick
OBJECTIVE: To examine the determinants of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: U.S. nationally representative data on (n = 16,588) noninstitutionalized older adults (age ≥65) with drug use from the 2006-2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. STUDY DESIGN: We operationalized the 2012 Beers Criteria to identify PIM use during the year, and we examined associations with individual-level characteristics hypothesized to be quality enabling or related to need complexity...
September 29, 2016: Health Services Research
Anas M A Salim, Bashir Elgizoli
OBJECTIVES: The principal aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of community pharmacists in Khartoum State, Sudan about why they dispense antibiotics without prescription, and to understand their opinions about why they think patients self-medicate. METHODS: This was a qualitative exploratory interview study. Individual, in-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 30 community pharmacists working in Khartoum State, Sudan in the period from May to June 2015...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Amelie Colin, Benoit Nicolas, Aurelie Durufle, Luc Lepape, Sophie Achille, Philippe Gallien
OBJECTIVE: For 10 years the Breizh PC network has developed a training policy for health professionals based on the analysis of the medical needs of patients with cerebral palsy and professional practices. Several studies have highlighted various health problems. We detail the main actions and their impact on the satisfaction of users and professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since the creation of the network regulatory triennial assessments led us to perform satisfaction surveys among users and professional members of the network...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Molly J Mallory, Alexander Do, Sara E Bublitz, Susan J Veleber, Brent A Bauer, Anjali Bhagra
Acupuncture is a widely practiced system of medicine that has been in place for thousands of years. Consumer interest and use of acupuncture are becoming increasingly popular in the United States, as it is used to treat a multitude of symptoms and disease processes as well as to maintain health and prevent illness. A growing body of evidence increasingly validates the practice of acupuncture. Further developing scientific data will play an important role in the future of acupuncture and other complementary and alternative medicines in public health...
September 2016: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Ciara McGlade, Edel Daly, Joan McCarthy, Nicola Cornally, Elizabeth Weathers, Rónán O'Caoimh, D William Molloy
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of cognitive impairment and frailty complicates the feasibility of advance care planning in the long-term-care population. RESEARCH AIM: To identify challenges in implementing the 'Let Me Decide' advance care planning programme in long-term-care. RESEARCH DESIGN: This feasibility study had two phases: (1) staff education on advance care planning and (2) structured advance care planning by staff with residents and families...
September 16, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Jennifer D Taylor, Sarah E Goletz
INTRODUCTON: In the USA, area health education centers (AHECs) work to recruit and educate students to serve in medically underserved communities, primary care, and rural settings. One important aspect of their work is connecting students with rural clinical experiences. Within these experiences, AHECs incorporate a community health/socioeconomic experience within the family medicine clerkship that may not be as prevalent in the standard family medicine clerkship experiences. The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between AHEC-sponsored family medicine clerkships with a self-reported intent to practice in a rural setting upon graduation...
July 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Marcus Law, Sarah Wright, Maria Mylopoulos
OBJECTIVE: To obtain a deeper understanding of community faculty members' perceptions about engagement in educational scholarship. DESIGN: One-on-one semistructured interviews that were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and subsequently analyzed. SETTING: Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Purposive, theoretical sample of 8 physician faculty members at the University of Toronto. METHODS: Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach...
September 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Barry Jubraj, Sheena Patel, Iram Naseem, Samantha Copp, Dimitrios Karagkounis
BACKGROUND: The Acute Care Assessment Tool (ACAT) was developed as a workplace-based assessment (WPBA) for trainee performance whilst working in acute medicine. Here, we discuss the multi-professional potential of ACAT through a pilot with foundation and senior hospital pharmacists. CONTEXT: The pharmacy profession is engaging meaningfully with foundation training for pharmacists akin to doctor foundation training, and has launched a post-foundation recognition scheme as a route to advanced generalist or specialist practice...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Teacher
Emily M Mader, Chester H Fox, John W Epling, Gary J Noronha, Carlos M Swanger, Angela M Wisniewski, Karen Vitale, Amanda L Norton, Christopher P Morley
BACKGROUND: Despite the current evidence of preventive screening effectiveness, rates of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer in the United States fall below national targets. We evaluated the efficacy and feasibility of combining practice facilitation and academic detailing quality improvement (QI) strategies to help primary care practices increase breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening among patients. METHODS: Practices received a 1-hour academic detailing session addressing current cancer screening guidelines and best practices, followed by 6 months of practice facilitation to implement evidence-based interventions aimed at increasing patient screening...
September 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
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