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Communities of practice

Youn Young Shim, Rana Mustafa, Jianheng Shen, Kornsulee Ratanapariyanuch, Martin J T Reaney
Chickpea and other pulses are commonly sold as canned products packed in a thick solution or a brine. This solution has recently been shown to produce stable foams and emulsions, and can act as a thickener. Recently interest in this product has been enhanced through the internet where it is proposed that this solution, now called aquafaba by a growing community, can be used a replacement for egg and milk protein. As aquafaba is both new and being developed by an internet based community little is known of its composition or properties...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Basma R Damiri, Hisham N Sandouka, Eiad H Janini, Omar N Yaish
BACKGROUND: Substance use has been an increasing problem in the occupied Palestinian territory for decades. The aim of this study was to describe the practice, knowledge, and attitudes associated with substance use by university students in the occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done in 2015. Male and female students from four main public universities in the West Bank were recruited to fill out a self-administered questionnaire...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Trudy Mooren, Yoke Rabaia, Suzan Mitwalli, Relinde Reiffers, Rosemarijn Koenen, Marguerithe de Man
BACKGROUND: Families with a child who has a disability have extra difficulties, particularly when services are hard to reach or less available. In a collaborative project, the Institute of Community and Public Health, the Palestinian community-based rehabilitation programme, and international non-governmental organisations cooperated to share and develop expertise and knowledge on increasing families' resilience through establishing family groups. This contribution focuses on the use of the Multi-Family Approach (MFA) in a Palestinian context...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Suzan Mitwalli, Yoke Rabaia, Hanna Kienzler
BACKGROUND: Since 2013, the community-based rehabilitation programme in the north of the West Bank has established nineteen support groups for mothers following a Multi-Family Approach (MFA), with technical support from the Institute of Community and Public Health (Birzeit University) and the War Trauma Foundation (Netherlands). The main aims of the programme are to improve the wellbeing of mothers who have children with a handicap, to build support networks between vulnerable families, and to counter problems associated with social isolation and stigma...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Said Alyacoubi, Yousef Abuowda, Loai Albarqouni, Bettina Böttcher, Khamis Elessi
BACKGROUND: Disease severity scores such as CURB-65 are often used to guide the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Early and adequate empirical antibiotic treatment reduces mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the severity assessment and management of patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia at the European Gaza Hospital in the Gaza Strip and to compare this to the best available evidence. METHODS: Medical records of all patients admitted to the European Gaza Hospital with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia between Dec 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, were reviewed retrospectively...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Ron J Smith
BACKGROUND: Siege, a process of political domination aimed at isolating an entire population, is a unique threat to health-care provision. The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine the effects of the Israeli siege on the practices and systems that underlie health in the Gaza Strip. METHODS: Data were from participant observation between 2009 and 2017, including 20 interviews with doctors and health administrators in non-governmental organisations (NGO), government, and UN sectors...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Karuna D Sagili, Srinath Satyanarayana, Sarabjit S Chadha, Nevin C Wilson, Ajay M V Kumar, Patrick K Moonan, John E Oeltmann, Vineet K Chadha, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Smita Ghosh, Terrence Q Lo, Tyson Volkmann, Matthew Willis, Kalpita Shringarpure, Ravichandra Chinnappa Reddy, Prahlad Kumar, Sreenivas A Nair, Raghuram Rao, Mohammed Yassin, Perry Mwangala, Rony Zachariah, Jamhoih Tonsing, Anthony D Harries, Sunil Khaparde
BACKGROUND: The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices. OBJECTIVES: To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice...
2018: Global Health Action
Tamara Sussman, Shari Brotman, Heather MacIntosh, Line Chamberland, Judith MacDonnell, Andrea Daley, Jean Dumas, Molly Churchill
It is critical to ensure that long-term care (LTC) homes are sensitive to the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. However, the extent to which the LTC home sector has adopted recommended strategies is unknown. This qualitative study reports findings from two initiatives: Semi-structured telephone interviews with Canadian LTC home administrators on strategies adopted to support LGBT inclusivity (n = 32), and discussions with participants attending a 2-day meeting on supporting LGBT inclusivity in LTC (n = 25)...
March 19, 2018: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
Ingela Fredriksson, Susanna Geidne, Charli Eriksson
AIMS: The aim of this paper is to advocate for the importance of meaningful leisure time for young people from a health-promotion perspective using experiences from two youth centres in multicultural neighbourhoods in Sweden. METHODS: In this practice-based study, data were collected between 2012 and 2014 at two youth centres in multicultural, socially deprived suburbs in Sweden using surveys with 12- to 16-year-old adolescents ( n = 207), seven individual interviews with staff and three cooperation partners in the neighbourhoods, and six group interviews with adolescents (50% girls)...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Craig M Lilly, Omar Badawi, Xinggang Liu, Gill Christine S, Ilene Harris
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients transfused red blood cell (RBC) products according to guideline-specified pretransfusion hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations or for other reasons were more likely to survive their intensive care unit (ICU) stay. DESIGN: An observational study of 375 478 episodes of ICU care, over 5 years, was performed with ICU survival as the primary outcome. Outcomes were analyzed as a function of pretransfusion Hb concentration for groups with distinct transfusion indications while adjusting for potential confounders...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Tammy Toscos, Maria Carpenter, Mindy Flanagan, Kislaya Kunjan, Bradley N Doebbeling
Background: Despite health care access challenges among underserved populations, patients, providers, and staff at community health clinics (CHCs) have developed practices to overcome limited access. These "positive deviant" practices translate into organizational policies to improve health care access and patient experience. Objective: To identify effective practices to improve access to health care for low-income, uninsured or underinsured, and minority adults and their families...
January 2018: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
Sathvik B Sridhar, Atiqulla Shariff, Lana Dallah, Doaa Anas, Maryam Ayman, Padma Gm Rao
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature, reasons, and consequences of self-medication practice among the general population of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, survey-based study. Data with respect to knowledge, awareness, and practices regarding self-medication were collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire answered by the study participants. Thus, collected data from 413 survey respondents were analyzed using SPSS version 24...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Marc J Weigensberg, Cheryl Vigen, Paola Sequeira, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Magaly Juarez, Daniella Florindez, Joseph Provisor, Anne Peters, Elizabeth A Pyatak
Background: The transition of young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from pediatric to adult care is challenging and frequently accompanied by worsening of diabetes-related health. To date, there are no reports which prospectively assess the effects of theory-based psycho-behavioral interventions during the transition period neither on glycemic control nor on psychosocial factors that contribute to poor glycemic control. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to develop and pilot test an integrative group intervention based on the underlying principles of self-determination theory (SDT), in young adults with T1D...
2018: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
David A Broniatowski
Design decisions often require input from multiple stakeholders or require balancing multiple design requirements. However, leading axiomatic approaches to decision-based design suggest that combining preferences across these elements is virtually guaranteed to result in irrational outcomes. This has led some to conclude that a single "dictator" is required to make design decisions. In contrast, proponents of heuristic approaches observe that aggregate decisions are frequently made in practice, and argue that this widespread usage justifies the value of these heuristics to the engineering design community...
January 2018: Research in Engineering Design
Miya Narushima, Jian Liu, Naomi Diestelkamp
The Active Ageing Framework has been adapted as a global strategy in ageing policies, practices and research over the last decade. Lifelong learning, however, has not been fully integrated into this discourse. Using survey data provided by 416 adults (aged 60 years and above) enrolled in non-formal general-interest courses in a public continuing education programme in Canada, this study examined the association between older adults' duration of participation in the courses and their level of psychological wellbeing, while taking their age, gender, self-rated health and vulnerability level into consideration...
April 2018: Ageing and Society
Pacharaporn Phueanpinit, Juraporn Pongwecharak, Janet Krska, Narumol Jarernsiripornkul
Aim This study aimed to explore community pharmacists' roles on screening for risk factors, providing safety information-related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to patients. BACKGROUND: NSAIDs are widely dispensed without a prescription from pharmacies in Thailand, while they are frequently reported as causing adverse events. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all accredited pharmacies in Thailand, inviting the main pharmacist in each pharmacy to participate in this study...
March 19, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Juntao Xia, Lin Ye, Hongqiang Ren, Xu-Xiang Zhang
Aerobic granular sludge (AGS), a self-immobilized microbial consortium containing different functional microorganisms, is receiving growing attention, since it has shown great technological and economical potentials in the field of wastewater treatment. Microbial community is crucial for the formation, stability, and pollutant removal efficiency of aerobic granules. This mini-review systematically summarizes the recent findings of the microbial community structure and function of AGS and discusses the new research progress in the microbial community dynamics during the granulation process and spatial distribution patterns of the microbiota in AGS...
March 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Anwar E Ahmed, Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Abeer N Alshukairi, Mody Alaqeel, Salma S Siddiq, Hanan A Alsaab, Ezzeldin A Sakr, Hamed A Alyahya, Munzir M Alandonisi, Alaa T Subedar, Nouf M Aloudah, Salim Baharoon, Majid A Alsalamah, Sameera Al Johani, Mohammed G Alghamdi
BACKGROUND: Rapidly and accurately identifying individuals who are at high risk for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) remains a major challenge for the medical and scientific communities. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk prediction model for the screening of suspected cases of MERS-CoV infection in patients who had developed pneumonia. METHODS: A two-center retrospective case-control study was done, including 360 patients with confirmed pneumonia who were evaluated for MERS-CoV infection by Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from September 1, 2012 to June 1, 2016 at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh (KAMC-R) and King Fahd General Hospital in Jeddah (KFGH-JED)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Jeroen M van de Pol, Jurjen G Geljon, Svetlana V Belitser, Geert W J Frederix, Anke M Hövels, Marcel L Bouvy
INTRODUCTION: The nature of community pharmacy is changing, shifting from the preparation and distribution of medicines to the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS); however, often the provision of traditional services leaves little time for innovative services. This study investigated the time community pharmacists spend on the tasks and activities of daily practice and to what extent they are able to implement CPS-related services in daily practice. METHODS: Self-reporting work sampling was used to register the activities of community pharmacists...
March 9, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Mohamed Djamel Miara, Hamdi Bendif, Mohammed Ait Hammou, Irene Teixidor-Toneu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This study is the first ethnobotanical survey focusing on the herbal medicines traditionally used by the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, identifying new medicinal plants and uses from one of the most characteristic indigenous populations in Algeria. Moreover, the study contributes to the understanding of transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in the Mediterranean basin. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aims to document the phytotherapeutical knowledge and practice of the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, and compare it with neighbouring sedentary populations and Mediterranean historical texts...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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