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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452453/-personalized-ophthalmology-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-in-vitro-modelling-of-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#1
Caroline Brandl, Bernhard H F Weber
Today, the search for therapeutic options to treat retinal degeneration often relies on an in-depth understanding of the underlying pathological events. Alternatively, it is conceivable to search, in an undirected screening approach, for chemical compounds affecting disease outcome. For both approaches, there is an urgent need for in vitro and, ideally, in vivo disease models that adequately reflect the site of pathology. Currently available animal models possess limitations as they often develop only defined aspects of disease...
February 16, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452427/effect-of-routine-screening-head-ultrasounds-on-clinical-interventions-for-premature-infants
#2
Andrew Z Heling, Matthew M Laughon, Wayne A Price
OBJECTIVE: This article assesses whether routine, screening head ultrasound (HUS) studies performed at 7 to 14 postnatal days for premature infants are followed by clinical interventions. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included all inborn infants delivered at < 30 weeks' gestational age (GA) between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015 at a single center who had a routine, screening HUS performed between 7 and 14 postnatal days ( n = 303). We defined "clinical intervention" as a 7 to 14 postnatal day HUS that was followed by neurosurgical intervention prior to a 36- to 40-week postmenstrual age (PMA) HUS or elective withdrawal of critical care within 30 days of a positive HUS finding...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452418/phf20-collaborates-with-parp1-to-promote-stemness-and-aggressiveness-of-neuroblastoma-cells-through-activation-of-sox2-and-oct4
#3
Wenyong Long, Wei Zhao, Bo Ning, Jing Huang, Junjun Chu, Linfeng Li, Qianquan Ma, Changsheng Xing, Helen Y Wang, Qing Liu, Rong-Fu Wang
The differentiation status of neuroblastoma (NB) strongly correlates with its clinical outcomes; however, the molecular mechanisms driving maintenance of stemness and differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that plant homeodomain finger-containing protein 20 (PHF20) functions as a critical epigenetic regulator in sustaining stem cell-like phenotype of NB by using CRISPR/Cas9-based targeted knockout (KO) for high-throughput screening of gene function in NB cell differentiation. Expression of PHF20 in NB was significantly associated with high aggressiveness of the tumor and poor outcomes for NB patients...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452350/extra-virgin-olive-oil-contains-a-metabolo-epigenetic-inhibitor-of-cancer-stem-cells
#4
Bruna Corominas-Faja, Elisabet Cuyàs, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Sílvia Cufí, Sara Verdura, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Begoña Martin-Castillo, Ángel G Martin, Ruth Lupu, Alfons Nonell-Canals, Melchor Sanchez-Martinez, Vicente Micol, Jorge Joven, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Javier A Menendez
Targeting tumor-initiating, drug-resistant populations of cancer stem cells (CSC) with phytochemicals is a novel paradigm for cancer prevention and treatment. We herein employed a phenotypic drug discovery approach coupled to mechanism-of-action profiling and target deconvolution to identify phenolic components of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) capable of suppressing the functional traits of CSC in breast cancer (BC). In vitro screening revealed that the secoiridoid decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (DOA) could selectively target sub-populations of epithelial-like, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and mesenchymal-like, CD44+CD24-/low CSC...
February 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452348/non-invasive-screening-for-coronary-artery-disease-in-asymptomatic-diabetic-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#5
Olivier F Clerc, Tobias A Fuchs, Julia Stehli, Dominik C Benz, Christoph Gräni, Michael Messerli, Andreas A Giannopoulos, Ronny R Buechel, Thomas F Lüscher, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Philipp A Kaufmann, Oliver Gaemperli
It is unclear whether non-invasive screening of asymptomatic diabetic patients for coronary artery disease (CAD) may improve cardiac outcomes. Thus, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT's) on this topic. We searched appropriate RCT's in five online databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science) from January 2000 to November 2017 and in 41 recent reviews. Two investigators independently extracted and assessed study data using standardised forms...
February 14, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452343/height-based-equations-can-improve-the-diagnosis-of-elevated-blood-pressure-in-children
#6
F A Mourato, S S Mattos, J L Lima Filho, M F Mourato, W Nadruz JÚnior
Background: High blood pressure (BP) is usually underdiagnosed in children and adolescents, particularly due to its complex diagnosis process. This study describes novel height-based equations for the detection of BP disorders (BP>90th percentile) and compares the accuracy of this approach with previously described screening methods to identify BP disorders. Methods: Height-based equations were built using the 90th percentile values for systolic and diastolic BP and respective height values from the current guideline of high BP management in children...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452303/effect-of-biologics-on-fatigue-in-psoriatic-arthritis-a-systematic-literature-review-with-meta-analysis
#7
Thomas Reygaerts, Stéphane Mitrovic, Bruno Fautrel, Laure Gossec
OBJECTIVES: Fatigue is a significant issue in psoriatic arthritis. The objective was to assess the effect of biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs and apremilast on fatigue in psoriatic arthritis randomised controlled trials and to compare this effect with the effect in the same trials, on pain, through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed up to January 2017 in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases...
February 13, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452270/high-level-extracellular-production-of-rhizopus-oryzae-lipase-in-pichia-pastoris-via-a-strategy-combining-optimization-of-gene-copy-number-with-co-expression-of-erad-related-proteins
#8
Liangcheng Jiao, Qinghua Zhou, Zhixin Xu, Li Xu, Yunjun Yan
Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) is an important industrial enzyme limited in application due to its low production in native strains. Here, we used a new combined strategy to overexpress ROL in Pichia pastoris. An efficient method based on bio-brick was developed to construct a series of vectors harboring different copy numbers of ROL gene cassettes, which were then transformed into P. pastoris GS115 to generate a strain with specific copy numbers of ROL. An optimized gene-dosage recombinant strain of GS115/pAOα-5ROL 11# harboring five copies of ROL was screened, revealing production of the highest activity (2700 U/mL), which was 8-fold higher than that of the strain harboring one copy...
February 13, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452268/high-prevalence-of-liver-fibrosis-among-european-adults-with-unknown-liver-disease-a-population-based-study
#9
Llorenç Caballería, Guillem Pera, Ingrid Arteaga, Lluís Rodríguez, Alba Alumà, Rosa Ma Morillas, Napoleón de la Ossa, Alba Díaz, Carmen Expósito, Dolores Miranda, Carmen Sánchez, Rosa Ma Prats, Marta Urquizu, Angels Salgado, Magda Alemany, Alba Martinez, Irfan Majeed, Núria Fabrellas, Isabel Graupera, Ramón Planas, Isabel Ojanguren, Miquel Serra, Pere Torán, Juan Caballería, Pere Ginès
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver fibrosis is the main determinant of long-term outcome in chronic liver diseases. Little is known about prevalence of liver fibrosis in general population. Aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of liver fibrosis in general adult population with unknown liver disease. METHODS: Population-based, cross-sectional study, performed in Barcelona metropolitan area. Subjects aged 18-75yr were identified randomly from citizens included in primary health care registry...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452222/essential-medicines-availability-is-still-suboptimal-in-many-countries-a-scoping-review
#10
REVIEW
Mersiha Mahmić-Kaknjo, Antonia Jeličić-Kadić, Ana Utrobičić, Kit Chan, Lisa Bero, Ana Marušić
OBJECTIVE: To identify uses of WHO Model list of essential medicines (EM) and summarize studies examining essential medicines (EM) and national EM lists (NEMLs). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: In this scoping review, we searched PubMed, Scopus, WHO website and WHO Regional Databases for studies on NEMLs, reimbursement medicines lists, and WHO EML, with no date or language restrictions. RESULTS: 3,144 retrieved documents were independently screened by two reviewers; 100 full-text documents were analyzed; 37 contained data suitable for quantitative and qualitative analysis on EMs availability (11 documents), medicines for specific diseases (13 documents), and comparison of WHO EML and NEMLs (13 documents)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452217/gene-expression-screening-identifies-cdca5-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-acral-melanoma
#11
Tianxiao Xu, Meng Ma, Jie Dai, Sifan Yu, Xiaowen Wu, Huan Tang, Jiayi Yu, Junya Yan, Huan Yu, Zhihong Chi, Lu Si, Xinan Sheng, Chuanliang Cui, Yan Kong, Jun Guo
Acral melanoma (AM) is a rapidly progressing subtype of melanoma with poor prognosis. The complete array of molecular changes that occur during AM metastasis remains unclear. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of six primary and 12 lymph node metastatic AM samples by tissue microarray analysis. We found that the expression levels of 396 genes were increased, and that of 766 genes were decreased in the metastatic tissues compared with that in the primary tumors. The top 19 genes upregulated in the metastatic tissue specimens were selected for high-content short interfering (si)RNA screening...
February 13, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452198/microbial-infection-pattern-pathogenic-features-and-resistance-mechanism-of-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-during-long-term-hospitalization
#12
Shuxian Wen, Donghua Feng, Zerong Lu, Junyan Liu, Brian M Peters, Hailing Tang, Danhong Su, Yong-Ping Lin, Ling Yang, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff, Dingqiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) have become an important cause of nosocomial infections of hospitalized patients. METHODS: To investigate the microbial infection patterns and molecular epidemiology characteristics of the carbapenem-resistant GNB isolates from a long-term hospitalized patient, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, phenotypic screening test for carbapenemase production, PCR screening and DNA sequencing of carbapenemase genes, repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR), multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) and genetic environment analysis were performed...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452180/the-m-maze-task-an-automated-method-for-studying-fear-memory-in-rats-exposed-to-protracted-aversive-conditioning
#13
Rimenez R Souza, Nicole M Robertson, David T Pruitt, Lindsey Noble, Eric C Meyers, Phillip A Gonzales, Nathaniel P Bleker, Holle L Carey, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Christa K McIntyre, Robert L Rennaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning (FC) in rodents is the most used animal model to investigate the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although research using FC has generated a better understanding of fear memories, studies often rely on mild or moderate FC training and behavioral analysis generally focuses on measuring freezing responses within few test sessions. NEW METHOD: We introduce the M-Maze task, a system to measures extinction of conditioned fear using suppression of operant behavior...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452179/massively-parallel-c-elegans-tracking-provides-multi-dimensional-fingerprints-for-phenotypic-discovery
#14
Michele Perni, Pavan K Challa, Julius B Kirkegaard, Ryan Limbocker, Mandy Koopman, Maarten C Hardenberg, Pietro Sormanni, Thomas Müller, Kadi L Saar, Lianne W Y Roode, Johnny Habchi, Giulia Vecchi, Nilumi W Fernando, Samuel Casford, Ellen A A Nollen, Michele Vendruscolo, Christopher M Dobson, Tuomas P J Knowles
BACKGROUND: The nematode worm C. elegans is a model organism widely used for studies of genetics and of human disease. The health and fitness of the worms can be quantified in different ways, such as by measuring their bending frequency, speed or lifespan. Manual assays, however, are time consuming and limited in their scope providing a strong motivation for automation. NEW METHOD: We describe the development and application of an advanced machine vision system for characterizing the behaviour of C...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452176/calcium-channel-blocker-use-reduces-incident-dementia-risk-in-elderly-hypertensive-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#15
Salman Hussain, Ambrish Singh, Syed Obaidur Rahman, Anwar Habib, Abul Kalam Najmi
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are an established class of drug for the management of hypertension. Observational studies have found that CCB use is associated with a reduction in the risk of developing dementia; however, studies have variably linked the CCBs use with the risk of dementia. This meta-analysis aims to assess whether, in elderly hypertensive patients, the use of CCBs alters the risk of developing dementia. We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane from August 2013 to 21st August 2017. Studies were screened on the basis of title and abstract...
February 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452163/screening-of-binding-proteins-that-interact-with-chinese-sacbrood-virus-vp-3-capsid-protein-in-apis-cerana-larvae-cdna-library-by-the-yeast-two-hybrid-method
#16
Dongliang Fei, Dong Wei, Xiaolei Yu, Jinjin Yue, Ming Li, Li Sun, Lili Jiang, Yijing Li, Qingyun Diao, Mingxiao Ma
Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV) causes larval death and apiary collapse of Apis cerana. VP3 is a capsid protein of CSBV but its function is poorly understood. To determine the function of VP3 and screen for novel binding proteins that interact with VP3, we conducted yeast two-hybrid screening, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Galectin (GAL) is a protein involved in immune regulation and host-pathogen interactions. The yeast two-hybrid screen implicated GAL as a major VP3-binding candidate...
February 13, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452110/exploring-the-impact-of-house-screening-intervention-on-entomological-indices-and-incidence-of-malaria-in-arba-minch-town-southwest-ethiopia-a-randomized-control-trial
#17
Solomon Kinde Getawen, Temesgen Ashine, Fekadu Massebo, Daniel Woldeyes, Bernt Lindtjørn
House is the major site for malaria infection where most human-vector contact takes place. Hence, improving housing might reduce the risk of malaria infection by limiting house entry of vectors. This study aimed to explore the impact of screening doors and windows with wire meshes on density and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of malaria vector, and malaria incidence, and assess the acceptability, durability, and cost of the intervention. The susceptibility status of malaria vector was also assessed. A two-arm randomized trial was done in Arba Minch Town, southwest Ethiopia...
February 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452105/label-free-electrochemical-aptasensor-for-detection-of-alpha-fetoprotein-based-on-afp-aptamer-and-thionin-reduced-graphene-oxide-gold-nanoparticles
#18
Guiyin Li, Shanshan Li, Zhihong Wang, Yewei Xue, Chenyang Dong, Junxiang Zeng, Yong Huang, Jintao Liang, Zhide Zhou
Sensitive and accurate detection of tumor markers is critical to early diagnosis, point-of-care and portable medical supervision. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is an important clinical tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the concentration of AFP in human serum is related to the stage of HCC. In this paper, a label-free electrochemical aptasensor for AFP detection was fabricated using AFP-aptamer as the recognition molecule and thionin/reduced graphene oxide/gold nanoparticles (TH/RGO/Au NPs) as the sensor platform...
February 13, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452098/features-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-as-predictors-of-lung-cancer
#19
Laurie L Carr, Sean Jacobson, David A Lynch, Marilyn G Foreman, Eric L Flenaugh, Craig P Hersh, Frank C Sciurba, David O Wilson, Jessica C Sieren, Patrick Mulhall, Victor Kim, C Matthew Kinsey, Russell P Bowler
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a leading cause of death and hospitalization for patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, (COPD); a detailed understanding of which clinical features of COPD increase risk is needed. METHODS: To identify clinical and imaging features of smokers, with and without COPD, that are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, we performed a nested case-control study of COPDGene subjects with and without lung cancer, age 45-80, who smoked at least 10-pack years...
February 13, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451995/sex-dependent-choroidal-thickness-differences-in-healthy-adults-a-study-based-on-original-and-synthesized-data
#20
Wei Wang, Miao He, Xingwu Zhong
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of sex on choroidal thickness (CT) in healthy adults. METHODS: Healthy Chinese adults were recruited and complete ophthalmic examinations were performed. The choroid was imaged by swept-source optical coherence tomography and the macular CT in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grids was obtained by the intrinsic automated segmentation software. CT in males and females was compared after controlling other factors...
February 16, 2018: Current Eye Research
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