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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793059/longitudinal-surveillance-of-drug-resistance-in-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-from-the-china-myanmar-border-reveals-persistent-circulation-of-multidrug-resistant-parasites
#1
Yao Bai, Jiaqi Zhang, Jinting Geng, Shiling Xu, Shuang Deng, Weilin Zeng, Zenglei Wang, Huguette Gaelle Ngassa Mbenda, Jie Zhang, Na Li, Yanrui Wu, Cuiying Li, Huae Liu, Yonghua Ruan, Yaming Cao, Zhaoqing Yang, Liwang Cui
Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong Subregion of Southeast Asia is a major threat to malaria elimination and requires close surveillance. In this study, we collected 107 longitudinal clinical samples of P. falciparum in 2007-2012 from the malaria hypoendemic region of the China-Myanmar border and measured their in vitro susceptibilities to 10 antimalarial drugs. Overall, parasites had significantly different IC50 values to all the drugs tested as compared to the reference 3D7 strain...
May 21, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785484/challenges-in-malaria-management-and-a-glimpse-at-some-nanotechnological-approaches
#2
Adrian Najer, Cornelia G Palivan, Hans-Peter Beck, Wolfgang Meier
Malaria is a devastating infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes, affecting millions of people and killing about half a million children each year. Despite tremendous progress in the control and elimination of malaria within the past years, there are still considerable challenges to be solved. To name a few, drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and the difficulty to formulate a potent malaria vaccine need to be addressed with new strategies to achieve the final goal of malaria eradication...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784863/the-gpi-transamidase-complex-subunit-pbgpi16-of-plasmodium-berghei-is-important-for-inducing-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#3
Qingyang Liu, Yan Zhao, Li Zheng, Xiaotong Zhu, Liwang Cui, Yaming Cao
In animal models of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), the glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) and GPI anchors are the major factors that induce nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and proinflammatory responses, which contribute to malaria pathogenesis. GPIs and GPI anchors are transported to the cell surface via a process called GPI transamidation, which involves the GPI transamidase (GPI-T) complex. In this study, we showed that GPI16, one of the GPI-T subunits, is highly conserved among Plasmodium species...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784862/antibodies-to-icam1-binding-pfemp1-dbl%C3%AE-are-biomarkers-of-protective-immunity-to-malaria-in-a-cohort-of-young-children-from-papua-new-guinea
#4
Sofonias K Tessema, Digjaya Utama, Olga Chesnokov, Anthony N Hodder, Clara S Lin, G L Abby Harrison, Jakob S Jespersen, Bent Petersen, Livingstone Tavul, Peter Siba, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Thomas Lavstsen, Diana S Hansen, Andrew V Oleinikov, Ivo Mueller, Alyssa E Barry
Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) mediates parasite sequestration to the cerebral microvasculature via binding of DBLβ domains to Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) and is associated with severe cerebral malaria. In a cohort of 187 young children from Papua New Guinea (PNG), we examined baseline antibody levels to the ICAM1-binding PfEMP1 domain, DBLβ3PF11_0521 , in comparison to four control antigens including NTS-DBLα and CIDR1 domains from another group A variant and a group B/C variant...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783973/erythrocyte-microrna-sequencing-reveals-differential-expression-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Kira Groen, Vicki E Maltby, Rodney A Lea, Katherine A Sanders, J Lynn Fink, Rodney J Scott, Lotti Tajouri, Jeannette Lechner-Scott
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of knowledge concerning erythrocytes in the aetiology of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) despite their potential to contribute to disease through impaired antioxidant capacity and altered haemorheological features. Several studies have identified an abundance of erythrocyte miRNAs and variable profiles associated with disease states, such as sickle cell disease and malaria. The aim of this study was to compare the erythrocyte miRNA profile of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients to healthy sex- and age-matched controls...
May 21, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779669/synthesis-and-profiling-of-benzylmorpholine-1-2-4-5-tetraoxane-analogue-n205-towards-tetraoxane-scaffolds-with-potential-for-single-dose-cure-of-malaria
#6
Paul M O' Neill, Paul A Stocks, Sunil Sabbani, Natalie L Roberts, Richard K Amewu, Emma R Shore, Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Iñigo Angulo-Barturén, María Belén, Jiménez-Díaz, Santiago Ferrer Bazaga, María Santos Martínez, Brice Campo, Raman Sharma, Susan A Charman, Eileen Ryan, Gong Chen, David M Shackleford, Jill Davies, Gemma L Nixon, Giancarlo A Biagini, Stephen A Ward
A series of aryl carboxamide and benzylamino dispiro 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane analogues have been designed and synthesized in a short synthetic sequence from readily available starting materials. From this series of endoperoxides, molecules with in vitro IC50s versus Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) as low as 0.84 nM were identified. Based on an assessment of blood stability and in vitro microsomal stability, N205 (10a) was selected for rodent pharmacokinetic and in vivo antimalarial efficacy studies in the mouse Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum Pf3D70087/N9 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse models...
May 17, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774074/placenta-specific-drug-delivery-by-trophoblast-targeted-nanoparticles-in-mice
#7
Baozhen Zhang, Lunbo Tan, Yan Yu, Baobei Wang, Zhilong Chen, Jinyu Han, Mengxia Li, Jie Chen, Tianxia Xiao, Balamurali K Ambati, Lintao Cai, Qing Yang, Nihar R Nayak, Jian Zhang, Xiujun Fan
Rationale: The availability of therapeutics to treat pregnancy complications is severely lacking, mainly due to the risk of harm to the fetus. In placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) on the surfaces of trophoblasts. Based on this principle, we have developed a method for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta using a synthetic placental CSA-binding peptide (plCSA-BP) derived from VAR2CSA, a CSA-binding protein expressed on IEs...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771281/high-risk-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-following-splenectomy-in-papua-indonesia
#8
Steven Kho, Benediktus Andries, Jeanne R Poespoprodjo, Robert J Commons, Putu A I Shanti, Enny Kenangalem, Nicholas M Douglas, Julie A Simpson, Paulus Sugiarto, Nicholas M Anstey, Ric N Price
Background: Splenectomy increase the risk of severe and fatal infections, however the risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria is unknown. We quantified the Plasmodium species-specific risks of malaria and other outcomes following splenectomy in patients attending a hospital in Papua, Indonesia. Methods: Records of all patients attending Mitra-Masyarakat Hospital 2004-2013 were reviewed, identifying those who underwent splenectomy. Subsequent risks of specific clinical outcomes within 12 months for splenectomized patients were compared to non-splenectomized patients from their first recorded hospital admission...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770278/-2tm-proteins-an-antigenically-diverse-superfamily-with-variable-functions-and-export-pathways
#9
Jasweer Kaur, Rachna Hora
Malaria is a disease that affects millions of people annually. An intracellular habitat and lack of protein synthesizing machinery in erythrocytes pose numerous difficulties for survival of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum . The parasite refurbishes the infected red blood cell (iRBC) by synthesis and export of several proteins in an attempt to suffice its metabolic needs and evade the host immune response. Immune evasion is largely mediated by surface display of highly polymorphic protein families known as variable surface antigens...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769448/tlr-adjuvanted-nanoparticle-vaccines-differentially-influence-the-quality-and-longevity-of-responses-to-malaria-antigen-pfs25
#10
Elizabeth A Thompson, Sebastian Ols, Kazutoyo Miura, Kelly Rausch, David L Narum, Mats Spångberg, Michal Juraska, Ulrike Wille-Reece, Amy Weiner, Randall F Howard, Carole A Long, Patrick E Duffy, Lloyd Johnston, Conlin P O'Neil, Karin Loré
Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) are considered an integral element of malaria eradication efforts. Despite promising evaluations of Plasmodium falciparum Pfs25-based TBVs in mice, clinical trials have failed to induce robust and long-lived Ab titers, in part due to the poorly immunogenic nature of Pfs25. Using nonhuman primates, we demonstrate that multiple aspects of Pfs25 immunity were enhanced by antigen encapsulation in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based [(PLGA)-based] synthetic vaccine particles (SVP[Pfs25]) and potent TLR-based adjuvants...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769102/securitizing-hiv-aids-a-game-changer-in-state-societal-relations-in-china
#11
Catherine Yuk-Ping Lo
BACKGROUND: China has experienced unprecedented economic growth since the 1980s. Despite this impressive economic development, this growth exists side by side with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crises and the persisting deficiencies in public health provision in China. Acknowledging the prevailing health problems, the Chinese government has encouraged the development of health non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to respond to the health challenges and address the gaps in public health provision of the government...
May 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768302/pharmacogenomics-in-papua-new-guineans-unique-profiles-and-implications-for-enhancing-drug-efficacy-while-improving-drug-safety
#12
Joseph D Tucci, Paul P Pumuye, Nuala A Helsby, Daniel T Barratt, Percy P Pokeya, Francis Hombhanje, Andrew A Somogyi
Papua New Guinea (PNG) can be roughly divided into highland, coastal and island peoples with significant mitochondrial DNA differentiation reflecting early and recent distinct migrations from Africa and East Asia, respectively. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and HIV severely impact on the health of its peoples for which drug therapy is the major treatment and pharmacogenetics has clinical relevance for many of these drugs. Although there is generally little information about known single nucleotide polymorphisms in the population, in some instances, their frequencies have been shown to be higher than anywhere worldwide...
June 2018: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765136/detection-of-malaria-sporozoites-expelled-during-mosquito-sugar-feeding
#13
V A Brugman, M Kristan, M P Gibbins, F Angrisano, K A Sala, J T Dessens, A M Blagborough, T Walker
Malaria is a severe disease of global importance transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. The ability to rapidly detect the presence of infectious mosquitoes able to transmit malaria is of vital importance for surveillance, control and elimination efforts. Current methods principally rely on large-scale mosquito collections followed by labour-intensive salivary gland dissections or enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) methods to detect sporozoites. Using forced salivation, we demonstrate here that Anopheles mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium expel sporozoites during sugar feeding...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764842/role-of-the-hepcidin-ferroportin-axis-in-pathogen-mediated-intracellular-iron-sequestration-in-human-phagocytic-cells
#14
Rodrigo Abreu, Frederick Quinn, Pramod K Giri
Upon infection, pathogen and host compete for the same iron pool, because this trace metal is a crucial micronutrient for all living cells. Iron dysregulation in the host is strongly associated with poor outcomes in several infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, AIDS, and malaria, and inefficient iron scavenging by pathogens severely affects their virulence. Hepcidin is the master regulator of iron homeostasis in vertebrates, responsible for diminishing iron export from macrophages during iron overload or infection...
May 22, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764454/screening-a-repurposing-library-the-medicines-for-malaria-venture-stasis-box-against-schistosoma-mansoni
#15
Valérian Pasche, Benoît Laleu, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: The development of new treatments against schistosomiasis is imperative but lacks commercial interest. Drug repurposing represents a suitable strategy to identify potential treatments, which have already unblocked several essential steps along the drug development path, hence reducing costs and timelines. Promoting this approach, the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) recently distributed a drug repurposing library of 400 advanced lead candidates (Stasis Box). METHODS: All 400 compounds were initially tested in vitro against the larval stage of Schistosoma mansoni at 10 μM...
May 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764438/larvicidal-activity-of-zanthoxylum-acanthopodium-essential-oil-against-the-malaria-mosquitoes-anopheles-anthropophagus-and-anopheles-sinensis
#16
Qi He, Wenxia Wang, Liang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Zanthoxylum acanthopodium has insecticidal effect in Chinese traditional medicine. In this study, the essential oil from the dried Zanthoxylum plant was used as a larvicidal compound against the malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis. METHODS: Compounds in the Zanthoxylum essential oil were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The larvicidal bioassays of the whole oil, as well as the main compounds in the oil (estragole and eucalyptol) were performed using WHO method...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764407/are-we-doing-enough-to-prevent-poor-quality-antimalarial-medicines-in-the-developing-world
#17
Erin J Walker, Gregory M Peterson, James Grech, Evie Paragalli, Jackson Thomas
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a deadly parasitic disease that affects more than 3 billion people worldwide, in predominantly resource-poor countries. Despite malaria being preventable and treatable, a large number of adults and children, mostly in Africa, die from this disease each year. One contributor to needless morbidity and mortality is the production and distribution of poor-quality antimalarial medicines; indeed, it is estimated that over 122,000 deaths of children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan countries were caused by poor-quality antimalarial medicines, in 2013 alone...
May 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764366/phylogenetic-signal-from-rearrangements-in-18-anopheles-species-by-joint-scaffolding-extant-and-ancestral-genomes
#18
Yoann Anselmetti, Wandrille Duchemin, Eric Tannier, Cedric Chauve, Sèverine Bérard
BACKGROUND: Genomes rearrangements carry valuable information for phylogenetic inference or the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of adaptation. However, the detection of genome rearrangements is often hampered by current deficiencies in data and methods: Genomes obtained from short sequence reads have generally very fragmented assemblies, and comparing multiple gene orders generally leads to computationally intractable algorithmic questions. RESULTS: We present a computational method, ADSEQ, which, by combining ancestral gene order reconstruction, comparative scaffolding and de novo scaffolding methods, overcomes these two caveats...
May 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763669/travel-related-health-problems-in-the-immunocompromised-traveller-an-exploratory-study
#19
Mariëlle van Aalst, Marella C E van Ruissen, Roos Verhoeven, Godelieve J de Bree, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised travellers (ICTs) are at increased risk of travel-related health problems. Therefore, they are advised to attend specialised pre-travel clinics for advise on vaccination, malaria chemoprophylaxis and on demand antibiotics. However, studies yield conflicting data regarding travel-related health problems encountered by ICTs; questioning the rationale for certain advises, and particularly the advice of on demand antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate self-reported travel-related health problems, antibiotic use, medical visits and risk behaviours in ICTs and controls...
May 12, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761755/a-deadly-wait-for-u-s-health-insurance-coverage-sitting-on-the-couch-with-malaria
#20
Jonathan S Schultz, Adam J Atherly, Andrés F Henao-Martínez
Uninsured and unprepared travelers to countries with endemic tropical diseases pose great health-care burdens and financial risks on returning to the United States. We discuss the delayed presentation of an uninsured U.S. traveler returning from West Africa with severe malaria who required intensive care measures to save his life. Despite being critically ill on his return, he sat rigoring on his couch taking antipyretics for 3 days, while he applied for insurance on the Affordable Care Act website and waited for approval because he was fearful of the costs of seeking care...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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