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severe malaria

Shahriyar Taghavi-Moghadam, Cecil D Kwong, John A Secrist, Shabana I Khan, Alice M Clark
Eupolauridine, an indenonaphthyridine alkaloid, has been previously reported by us to exhibit antifungal activity. This study describes the synthesis of new alkyl and benzyl naphthyridinium/pyridinium analogs of eupolauridine as potential antifungal agents. A majority of the analogs exhibited antifungal activity against opportunistic pathogens such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Several of them were also effective against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, MRS, Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium) and the malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) to variable extents...
February 23, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Arundhati Barua, Niharika Gill
OBJECTIVE: This comparative cross sectional study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Mumbai during the monsoon of 2014.A significant number of dengue and malaria co-infection cases, along with dengue, malaria and other infective causes of acute febrile illnesses were noted. The objective of the present study was to understand the interplay of both infections. Since the first such reported case in 2005, studies and data on such cases are scarce, hence this study. AIM: To compare the clinical course, laboratory features, severity and outcome of coinfection with monoinfection of malaria and dengue...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Denis Valle, Justin Millar, Punam Amratia
BACKGROUND: Considerable debate has arisen regarding the appropriateness of the test and treat malaria policy broadly recommended by the World Health Organization. While presumptive treatment has important drawbacks, the effectiveness of the test and treat policy can vary considerably across regions, depending on several factors such as baseline malaria prevalence and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) performance. METHODS: To compare presumptive treatment with test and treat, generalized linear mixed effects models were fitted to data from 6510 children under five years of age from Burkina Faso's 2010 Demographic and Health Survey...
October 19, 2016: Malaria Journal
Jesica F Ramírez, Beatriz Porras, Elizabeth Borrero, Sandra P Martínez
BACKGROUND: Malaria worldwide annual reported cases range between 250 and 500 million and nearly half a million deaths are reported every year. Colombia has a vast expanse of territory with environmental and social conditions conducive to malaria transmission, which is the reason why it has second place in Latin America for the number of cases of malaria. METHODS: This is a retrospective, paired, case-control study that compares patients with severe malaria and malaria patients without mention of complication...
October 19, 2016: Malaria Journal
R Rebecca Love, Aaron M Steele, Mamadou B Coulibaly, Sékou F Traore, Scott J Emrich, Michael C Fontaine, Nora J Besansky
The molecular mechanisms and genetic architecture that facilitate adaptive radiation of lineages remain elusive. Polymorphic chromosomal inversions, due to their recombination-reducing effect, are proposed instruments of ecotypic differentiation. Here we study an ecologically diversifying lineage of An. gambiae, known as the Bamako chromosomal form based on its unique complement of three chromosomal inversions, to explore the impact of these inversions on ecotypic differentiation. We used pooled and individual genome sequencing of Bamako, typical (non-Bamako) An...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
D B Kadam, Sonali Salvi, Ajay Chandanwale
The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Beatrice I Amboko, Philip Ayieko, Morris Ogero, Thomas Julius, Grace Irimu, Mike English
BACKGROUND: Up to 90 % of the global burden of malaria morbidity and mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and children under-five bear a disproportionately high malaria burden. Effective inpatient case management can reduce severe malaria mortality and morbidity, but there are few reports of how successfully international and national recommendations are adopted in management of inpatient childhood malaria. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study of inpatient malaria case management practices was conducted using data collected over 24 months in five hospitals from high malaria risk areas participating in the Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Takele Kefyalew, Zelalem Kebede, Dawit Getachew, David Mukanga, Tessema Awano, Agonafer Tekalegne, Esey Batisso, Wasihun Edossa, Emebet Mekonnen, James Tibenderana, Ebenezer Sheshi Baba, Constance Shumba, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Prudence Hamade
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Kawsar R Talaat, Ruth D Ellis, Janet Hurd, Autumn Hentrich, Erin Gabriel, Noreen A Hynes, Kelly M Rausch, Daming Zhu, Olga Muratova, Raul Herrera, Charles Anderson, David Jones, Joan Aebig, Sarah Brockley, Nicholas J MacDonald, Xiaowei Wang, Michael P Fay, Sara A Healy, Anna P Durbin, David L Narum, Yimin Wu, Patrick E Duffy
Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) that target sexual stage parasite development could be an integral part of measures for malaria elimination. Pfs25 is a leading TBV candidate, and previous studies conducted in animals demonstrated an improvement of its functional immunogenicity after conjugation to EPA, a recombinant, detoxified ExoProtein A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this report, we describe results of an open-label, dose-escalating Phase 1 trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of Pfs25-EPA conjugates formulated with Alhydrogel®...
2016: PloS One
Claire Le Manach, Aloysius T Nchinda, Tanya Paquet, Diego Gonzalez Cabrera, Yassir Younis Adam, Ze Han, Sridevi Bashyam, Mohammed Zabiulla, Dale Taylor, Nina Lawrence, Karen L White, Susan A Charman, David Waterson, Michael J Witty, Sergio Wittlin, Mariette E Botha, Sindisiswe H Nondaba, Janette Reader, Lyn-Marie Birkholtz, Maria Belen Jimenez-Diaz, Maria S Martínez-Martínez, Santiago Ferrer-Bazaga, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, Stephan Meister, Yevgeniya Antonova-Koch, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Leslie J Street, Kelly Chibale
Introduction of water-solubilizing groups on the 5-phenyl ring of a 2-aminopyrazine series led to the identification of highly potent compounds against the blood life-cycle stage of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Several compounds displayed high in vivo efficacy in two different mouse models for malaria, P. berghei-infected mice and P. falciparum-infected NOD-scid IL-2Rγnull mice. One of the frontrunners, compound 3, was identified to also have good pharmacokinetics, and additionally, very potent activity against the liver and gametocyte parasite life-cycle stages...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sabz Ali, Amjad Ali, Sajjad Ahmad Khan, Sundas Hussain
For most of the time, biomedical researchers have been dealing with ordinal outcome variable in multilevel models where patients are nested in doctors. We can justifiably apply multilevel cumulative logit model, where the outcome variable represents the mild, severe, and extremely severe intensity of diseases like malaria and typhoid in the form of ordered categories. Based on our simulation conditions, Maximum Likelihood (ML) method is better than Penalized Quasilikelihood (PQL) method in three-category ordinal outcome variable...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Alexandre Y Saito, Adriana A Marin Rodriguez, Danielle S Menchaca Vega, Rodrigo A C Sussmann, Emília A Kimura, Alejandro M Katzin
Malaria, an infectious disease that kills more than 438,000 people per year worldwide, is a major public health problem. The emergence of strains resistant to conventional therapeutic agents necessitates the discovery of new drugs. We previously demonstrated that various substances, including terpenes, have antimalarial activity in vitro and in vivo. Nerolidol is a sesquiterpene present as an essential oil in several plants that is used in scented products and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a food-flavouring agent...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Mario Del Piano, Francesco Coggiola, Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Luca Mogna
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea accounts for 9% of the mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide, and it is significantly associated with malnutrition. Each year, diarrhea kills around 760,000 children under 5 years of age and most of these are in sub-Saharan Africa.In Uganda, the infant mortality rate of 58 per 1000 is unacceptably high, and the major contributors include malnutrition, diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, prematurity, sepsis, and newborn illnesses.There is an urgent need for intervention to prevent and control diarrheal diseases...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Thomas E Kraft, Monique R Heitmeier, Marina Putanko, Rachel L Edwards, Ma Xenia G Ilagan, Maria A Payne, Joseph M Autry, David D Thomas, Audrey R Odom, Paul W Hruz
The glucose transporter PfHT is essential to the survival of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and has been shown to be a druggable target with high potential for pharmacological intervention. Identification of compounds against novel drug targets is crucial to combating resistance against current therapeutics. Here, we describe the development of a cell-based assay system readily adaptable to high-throughput screening that directly measures compound effects on PfHT-mediated glucose transport. Intracellular glucose concentrations are detected using a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based glucose-sensor...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Ryan A Zander, Jenna J Guthmiller, Amy C Graham, Rosemary L Pope, Bradly E Burke, Daniel J J Carr, Noah S Butler
CD4 T cell-dependent antibody responses are essential for limiting Plasmodium parasite replication and the severity of malaria; however, the factors that regulate humoral immunity during highly inflammatory, Th1-biased systemic infections are poorly understood. Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we show that Plasmodium infection-induced type I interferons limit T follicular helper accumulation and constrain anti-malarial humoral immunity. Mechanistically we show that CD4 T cell-intrinsic type I interferon signaling induces T-bet and Blimp-1 expression, thereby promoting T regulatory 1 responses...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Andrea K Boggild, Jennifer Geduld, Michael Libman, Cedric P Yansouni, Anne E McCarthy, Jan Hajek, Wayne Ghesquiere, Jean Vincelette, Susan Kuhn, David O Freedman, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains the most common specific cause of fever in returned travellers and can be life-threatening. We examined demographic and travel correlates of malaria among Canadian travellers and immigrants to identify groups for targeted pretravel intervention. METHODS: Descriptive data on ill returned Canadian travellers and immigrants presenting to a CanTravNet site between 2004 and 2014 with a diagnosis of malaria were analyzed. Data were collected using the GeoSentinel data platform...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Joshua M A Stough, Stephen P Dearth, Joshua E Denny, Gary R LeCleir, Nathan W Schmidt, Shawn R Campagna, Steven W Wilhelm
C57BL/6 mice are widely used for in vivo studies of immune function and metabolism in mammals. In a previous study, it was observed that when C57BL/6 mice purchased from different vendors were infected with Plasmodium yoelii, a causative agent of murine malaria, they exhibited both differential immune responses and significantly different parasite burdens: these patterns were reproducible when gut contents were transplanted into gnotobiotic mice. To gain insight into the mechanism of resistance, we removed whole ceca from mice purchased from two vendors, Taconic Biosciences (low parasitemia) and Charles River Laboratories (high parasitemia), to determine the combined host and microflora metabolome and metatranscriptome...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Olatunde Adesoro, Constance Shumba, John Kpamor, Jane Achan, Harriet Kivumbi, John Dada, Kolawole Maxwell, James Tibenderana, Madeline Marasciulo, Prudence Hamade, Olusola Oresanya, Joanita Nankabirwa, Ebenezer Baba
BACKGROUND: Innovative strategies are needed to reduce malaria mortality in high burden countries like Nigeria. Given that one of the important reasons for this high malaria mortality is delay in receiving effective treatment, improved access to such treatment is critical. Intramuscular artesunate could be used at lower-level facilities given its proven efficacy, ease of use and excellent safety profile. The objective of this study was therefore to explore health workers' perspectives on the possible use of intramuscular artesunate as definitive treatment for severe malaria at lower-level facilities, especially when access to referral facilities is challenging...
October 12, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
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