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José Vicente Gómez, Andrea Tarazona, Rufino Mateo-Castro, José Vicente Gimeno-Adelantado, Misericordia Jiménez, Eva M Mateo
Recent research has showed that Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are aflatoxigenic species that can become very competitive in the framework of climate change. Aflatoxins show carcinogenic, mutagenic, immunotoxic and teratogenic effects on human and animals. Effective and sustainable measures to inhibit these species and aflatoxins in food are required. Origanum vulgare and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils (EOs) and their major active constituents, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde, respectively, were assayed for inhibiting these species and aflatoxin production in maize extract medium under different environmental conditions...
January 17, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Kaibo Wang, Shanshan Jiang, Te Pu, Liming Fan, Fawu Su, Min Ye
The aim of this work is to explore the possibility of using the phenolic monoterpenes (PMs) as leading compounds with antifungal activity against plant disease. The in vitro antifungal activities of carvacrol and thymol against seven kinds of plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated on mycelium growth rate method, and the results showed that carvacrol and thymol exhibited broad spectrum antifungal activity. Structure requirement for the antifungal activity of PMs was also investigated. The preliminary conclusion was that phenolic hydroxyl and monoterpene were basic structures for the antifungal activity of PMs, and the position of phenolic hydroxyl showed less effect...
January 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
Mohaddese Mahboubi
Irritable Bowel syndrome (IBS), the most common chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder, is categorized as IBS-C and IBS-D, which are equivalent to Ghoolenj Rihi and Maghs Rihi in Iranian traditional medicine. One of the main applications of Zataria multiflora Boiss in traditional medicine is its efficacy in the gastrointestinal tract with symptoms such as IBS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zataria multiflora essential oil in management of IBS. We used all the accessible references (electronic and published books, theses, and reports) to write this article...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Jessica I Lozano-Navarro, Nancy P Díaz-Zavala, Carlos Velasco-Santos, José A Melo-Banda, Ulises Páramo-García, Francisco Paraguay-Delgado, Ricardo García-Alamilla, Ana L Martínez-Hernández, Samuel Zapién-Castillo
The aim of this study is to analyze the properties of a series of polysaccharide composite films, such as apparent density, color, the presence of functional groups, morphology, and thermal stability, as well as the correlation between them and their antimicrobial and optical properties. Natural antioxidants such as anthocyanins (from cranberry; blueberry and pomegranate); betalains (from beetroot and pitaya); resveratrol (from grape); and thymol and carvacrol (from oregano) were added to the films. Few changes in the position and intensity of the FTIR spectra bands were observed despite the low content of extract added to the films...
January 12, 2018: Materials
Vladimir Morocho, Andrea Valle, Jessica García, Gianluca Gilardoni, Luis Cartuche, Alírica I Suárez
The phytochemical investigation of both volatile and fixed metabolites of Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth) Govaerts (Lamiaceae) was performed for the first time. It allowed the isolation and characterization of the essential oil and six known compounds: carvacrol (1), squalane (2), uvaol (3), erythrodiol (4), ursolic acid (5), and salvigenin (6). Their structures were identified and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), and corroborated by literature...
January 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Imran Khan, Ashutosh Bahuguna, Pradeep Kumar, Vivek K Bajpai, Sun Chul Kang
Carvacrol is present abundantly in the essential oils of many medicinal plants and well known for its numerous biological activities. Since partial solubility in water and physicochemical instability limits its industrial uses, the present study was performed to prepare a carvacrol nanoemulsion (CANE) using an ultrasonication technique and further evaluation of its anticancer potential against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The nanoemulsion formulation was optimized by varying carvacrol and polysorbate 80 ratios and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), which revealed a negative surface charge with a mean droplet size between 105...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria Luisa Fernández Márquez, María José Grande Burgos, Rubén Pérez Pulido, Antonio Gálvez, Rosario Lucas López
Persistence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella in the food chain may depend on strain tolerance to other antimicrobials and also on biofilm formation capacity. Yet, there is limited information on sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella to other antimicrobials, such as phenolic compounds, chemical preservatives, or antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed at correlating antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation capacity in antibiotic-resistant, biocide-tolerant Salmonella strains from hen eggshells...
February 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Azam Alavinezhad, Mahdiyeh Hedayati, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
Objective: The preventive effect of Zataria multiflora in animal models of asthma has been reported. In the present study, its effect on wheezing, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and plasma nitrite (NO2-) in asthmatic patients was studied. Materials and Methods: In this study, forty asthmatic patients including 15 males and 25 females (aged 45.8±6.21 years) were randomly allocated in four groups including placebo group (P), and three treatment groups which received two doses of Z...
November 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Hulya Ozturk, Ayhan Cetinkaya, Selma Erdogan Duzcu, Buket Kin Tekce, Hayrettin Ozturk
BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury is the most common cause of acute kidney injury, which frequent occurrence in critically ill patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Carvacrol (CARV) against bilateral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in rats. METHODS: Renal I/R injury were induced by clamping of the left and right renal arteries for 45 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to three groups (n = 10): the sham-control group, the renal I/R-untreated (I/R-untreated) group, and the I/R-CARV-treated group...
December 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Khaoula Habbadi, Thibault Meyer, Ludovic Vial, Vincent Gaillard, Rachid Benkirane, Abdellatif Benbouazza, Isabelle Kerzaon, El Hassan Achbani, Céline Lavire
Allorhizobium (Agrobacterium) vitis is a host-specific pathogenic bacterium that causes grapevine crown gall disease, affecting vine growth and production worldwide. The antibacterial activities of different aromatic plant essential oils were tested in vitro and in planta against A. vitis. Among the essential oils tested, those of Origanum compactum and Thymus vulgaris showed the most significant in vitro antibacterial activities, with a MIC of 0.156 and 0.312 mg/mL, respectively. A synergistic effect of these two essential oils (1:1) was observed and confirmed by the checkerboard test...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Patrícia Fontes Pinheiro, Luciana Alves Parreira Menini, Patrícia Campos Bernardes, Sérgio Henriques Saraiva, José Walkimar Mesquita Carneiro, Adilson Vidal Costa, Társila Rodrigues Arruda, Mateus Ribeiro Lage, Patrícia Martins Gonçalves, Carolina de Oliveira Bernardes, Elson Santiago Alvarenga, Luciano Menini
Semisynthetic phenol derivatives were obtained from the natural phenols: thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, and guaiacol through catalytic oxychlorination, Williamson synthesis, and aromatic Claisen rearrangement. The compounds characterization was carried out by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry. The natural phenols and their semisynthetic derivatives were tested for their antimicrobial activity against the bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica ssp...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Chi Young Jung, So-Young Kim, Chuhee Lee
BACKGROUND/AIM: AXL has been reported to be overexpressed and highly activated in various cancer types. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of carvacrol on cell proliferation and migration in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by impeding the expression and activation of AXL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The levels of AXL protein, mRNA and promoter activity were evaluated by western blot, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and luciferase assay, respectively...
January 2018: Anticancer Research
Lucy Owen, Katie Laird, Philippe B Wilson
Many essential oil components are known to possess broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against antibiotic resistant bacteria. These compounds may be a useful source of new and novel antimicrobials. However, there is limited research on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of essential oil compounds, which is important for target identification and lead optimization. This study aimed to elucidate SARs of essential oil components from experimental and literature sources. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of essential oil components were determined against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using a microdilution method and then compared to those in published in literature...
December 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Abdul Qadir, Athar Ali, Muhammad Arif, Abdulmohsen H Al-Rohaimi, Satya Prakash Singh, Usama Ahmad, Mohd Khalid, Arun Kumar
The seed kernels of Sesamum indicum L. (family: Pedaliaceae) were extracted with ethanol and yield of components determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The free radical scavenging activities of ethanolic extract against1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were determined by UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of numerous bioactive compounds including steroids, phenolic, terpenoids, fatty acids and different types of ester compounds. The ethanolic extract was purified and analyzed by GC MS...
December 12, 2017: Drug Research
Larissa Isabela Oliveira de Souza, Patrícia Cristina Bezzera-Silva, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Alexandre Gomes da Silva, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia, Márcia Vanusa da Silva, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo
Essential/volatile oils (EOs) from plants used in the traditional medicine are known as a rich source of chemically diverse compounds with relevant biological activities. In this work we analysed the chemical composition and the in vitro effects of EOs from leaves of Eugenia brejoensis (EBEO), Hyptis pectinata (HPEO), Hypenia salzmannii (HSEO), Lippia macrophylla (LMEO) and seeds of Syagrus coronata (SCEO) on Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. The EOs were extracted through hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analysed by GC/MS...
December 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ghofran Al-Nasiri, Marlene J Cran, Andrew J Smallridge, Stephen W Bigger
Beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) inclusion complexes with naturally derived antimicrobial (AM) agents: thymol, carvacrol, and linalool were prepared using a co-precipitation technique. Conditions including solvent composition, temperature, reaction time, and total solvent volume were investigated to optimise the inclusion efficiency (IE) and yield. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was used to confirm the formation of the thymol/β-CD complex and gas chromatography was used to quantify the amount AM agent that was encapsulated, absorbed onto the surface, or remaining in the filtered solvent...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
Azam Alavinezhad, Mohammad Reza Khazdair, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
The relaxant effects of carvacrol, a phenolic monoterpene, on tracheal smooth muscle and its preventive effect on asthmatic animals were reported. The effect of carvacrol in asthmatic patients was examined in the placebo group (Group P, n = 11) receiving placebo and treatment group (Group C, n = 12), which received carvacrol capsule (1.2 mg/kg/day) for 2 months in a double-blind manner. Pulmonary function tests, respiratory symptoms, hematological indices, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured before, 1 and 2 months after starting treatment...
November 28, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Iveta Bartoňková, Zdeněk Dvořák
Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are used to flavor, color and preserve foods and drinks. Dietary intake of EOs is significant, deserving an attention of toxicologists. We examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on the transcriptional activity of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a pivotal xenobiotic sensor, having also multiple roles in human physiology. Tested EOs were sorted out into AhR-inactive ones (14 EOs) and AhR-active ones, including full agonists (cumin, jasmine, vanilla, bay leaf), partial agonists (cloves, dill, thyme, nutmeg, oregano) and antagonists (tarragon, caraway, turmeric, lovage, fennel, spearmint, star anise, anise)...
November 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mansour Bayat, Niloofar Hassannejad, Hadi Ghazanfari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the use of antifungal drugs, the visceral candidiasis is associated with a high mortality rate. The aims of this study were an evaluation of intrinsic and acquired immune cells infiltration in kidney and spleen of the mice infected with systemic candidiasis and treated with chloroform fraction of Zataria Multiflora Boiss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Candida albicans (C. albicans) ATCC10231 clinical standard strain was isolated. C. albicans LD50 was determined...
November 25, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Juste Baranauskaite, Asta Kubiliene, Mindaugas Marksa, Vilma Petrikaite, Konradas Vitkevičius, Algirdas Baranauskas, Jurga Bernatoniene
The aim of this study was to evaluate concentration-dependent antioxidant and anticancer activities of CA and RA in ethanol extracts of three different Oregano species (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare L., and Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum). The study revealed the highest RA antioxidant activity in O. vulgare ssp. hirtum (9550 ± 95 mmol/g) and the lowest in O. vulgare L. (2605 ± 52 mmol/g) (p < 0.05). The highest CA amount was present in O. onites L., which was 1.8 and 4.7 times higher (p < 0...
2017: BioMed Research International
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