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María Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, María Puerto, Sara Maisanaba, Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Silvia Pichardo, Ana M Cameán
Essential oils from Origanum spp. exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities making them suitable for use as food additives. The incorporation of oregano essential oil in active food packaging is under study; however, it has been not authorized for this purpose thus far. In order to fulfill the requirements of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the aim of the present study was to determine the genotoxic potential of oregano essential oil using both the micronucleus (MN) test and comet (standard and enzyme-modified) assays in Wistar rats treated with 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight administered daily for 90 days...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Roberto Scaffaro, Francesco Lopresti, Manuela D'Arrigo, Andreana Marino, Antonia Nostro
Carvacrol (CAR) is one of the most promising essential oil components with antimicrobial activity. New technologies aimed to incorporate this active molecule into carrier matrix to improve the stability and prolong the biological activity. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating CAR into electrospun membranes of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for potential applications as active antimicrobial system. To this end, PLA membranes containing homogeneously dispersed CAR were successfully prepared and a series of systematic tests including morpho-mechanical properties, in vitro release rate, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were carried out...
March 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Saud Alanazi, Maryam Alnoman, Saeed Banawas, Ryoichi Saito, Mahfuzur R Sarker
C. perfringens type A is the causative agent of C. perfringens type A food poisoning (FP) and non-food-borne (NFB) human gastrointestinal diseases. Due to its ability to form highly heat-resistant spores, it is of great interest to develop strategies alternative to thermal processing to inactivate C. perfrinegens. Thus, in this study we evaluated the inhibitory effects of essential oil constituents (EOCs) (cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), and carvacrol) against germination, outgrowth and vegetative growth of spores of C...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Marília Gonçalves Cattelan, Yara Paula de Oliveira Nishiyama, Tânia Maria Vinturim Gonçalves, Alexandre Rodrigo Coelho
There is a broad research interest in the search for alternatives to chemical additives for use as natural food preservatives. Although many natural compounds have biological in vitro properties evidenced, in situ studies are still scarce. This study evaluated the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) and salt (NaCl) concentrations against Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), in salad dressing, using the response surface methodology. The experiment included a 22 central composite rotatable design (CCRD) in a total of 11 formulations of salad dressings...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Meriem Zerrouki, Farid Benkaci-Ali
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can oxidize and thus damage DNA. Exposure to high levels of ROS is therefore linked with the development of severe illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Effective treatments for these diseases are yet to be found, despite intensive research. However, it is known that the natural nonenzymatic repair of DNA damage using phytophenols occurs more rapidly than the corresponding enzymatic repair process. Carvacrol, thymol, thymohydroquinone, and p-cymene-2,3-diol are strong natural antioxidant phytophenols that are found in medicinal plants...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Katharina T Schrapers, Gerhard Sponder, Franziska Liebe, Hendrik Liebe, Friederike Stumpff
Absorption of ammonia from the gastrointestinal tract results in problems that range from hepatic encephalopathy in humans to poor nitrogen efficiency of cattle with consequences for the global climate. Previous studies on epithelia and cells from the native ruminal epithelium suggest functional involvement of the bovine homologue of TRPV3 (bTRPV3) in ruminal NH4+ transport. Since the conductance of TRP channels to NH4+ has never been studied, bTRPV3 was overexpressed in HEK-293 cells and investigated using the patch-clamp technique and intracellular calcium imaging...
2018: PloS One
Hossein Haddadi, Ziba Rajaei, Hojjatallah Alaei, Somayeh Shahidani
The present study investigated the effects of carvacrol on motor and memory deficits as well as hyperalgesia in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease. The animals were subjected to unilateral microinjection of 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle and treated with carvacrol (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) for six weeks after surgery. The 6-OHDA-lesioned rats showed contralateral rotations towards the lesion side, which was accompanied by learning and memory deficits in a passive avoidance test and a decrease in tail withdrawal latency in a tail flick test at the end of week 6...
February 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Danka Bukvicki, Abdulhmid Giweli, Dejan Stojkovic, Ljubodrag Vujisic, Vele Tesevic, Milos Nikolic, Marina Sokovic, Petar D Marin
The essential oil of Thymus algeriensis was analyzed as a potential preservative in soft cheese. We developed a novel method to test the preserving properties of essential oil in soft cheese. Contamination incidence of Penicillium aurantiogriseum was absent after 30 d of storage at 4°C with 25 µL of essential oil added. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 8 bacteria and 8 fungi. Thymus algeriensis oil showed inhibitory activity against tested bacteria at 0.03 to 0.09 mg/mL, and bactericidal activity was achieved at 0...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Aram Sharifi, Ali Ahmadi, Abdolmajid Mohammadzadeh
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Thymus daenensis L., Satureja hortensis L., and Origanum vulgare L. essential oils (EOs) on the planktonic growth, biofilm formation, quorum sensing (QS), and competence system (CS) of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The anti-biofilm activity of EOs was determined by Microtiter-Plate Test (MtP) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The QS and CS inhibitory activities were determined on the pre-grown biofilm by gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT-PCR...
February 23, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
P Suwanamornlert, S Sangchote, W Chinsirikul, A Sane, V Chonhenchob
The aim of this study was to find alternatives to conventional synthetic fungicides to control postharvest decay of longan fruit. The antifungal potential of thymol, carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde was evaluated against four major longan pathogens, Lasiodiplodia spp., Phomopsis spp., Pestalotiopsis spp. and Geotrichum candidum, using vapor phase and direct contact methods. The vapor phase of all active compounds was more effective on fungal growth than direct contact. A volatile vapor of thymol and carvacrol had strong antifungal activity against the tested fungi, exhibiting minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 40 to 80 mg/L air; trans-cinnamaldehyde showed the least efficiency, with MIC ranging from 80 to 160 mg/L air for G...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Niluni M Wijesundara, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
In the present study, essential oils (EOs) extracted from oregano, sage, cloves, and ginger were evaluated for the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EOs. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined using MTT assay and fixed biofilms were observed through scan electron microscopy...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xuesheng Han, Tory L Parker
The use of oregano ( Origanum vulgare ) essential oil (OEO) has become popular in skin care products. However, scientific research regarding its effects on human skin cells is scarce. In this study, we investigated the biological activity of a commercially available OEO, which is high in carvacrol content, in a human skin cell disease model. OEO induced marked antiproliferative effects and significantly inhibited several inflammatory biomarkers, including monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG)...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
Fong-Chin Huang, Ashok Giri, Melina Daniilidis, Guangxin Sun, Katja Härtl, Thomas Hoffmann, Wilfried Schwab
Glycosylation mediated by uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) is one of the most common reactions for the biosynthesis of small molecule glycosides. As glycosides have various biological roles we characterized UGTs from grapevine (Vitis vinifera). In silico analysis of VvUGTs that were highly expressed in leaves identified UGT92G6 which showed sequence similarity to both, monosaccharide and disaccharide glucoside forming transferases. The recombinant UGT92G6 glucosylated phenolics, among them caffeic acid, carvacrol, eugenol, and raspberry ketone, and also accepted geranyl glucoside and citronellyl glucoside...
February 10, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ayse Günes-Bayir, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Eray Metin Güler, Mehmet Gültekin Bilgin, İlyas Samet Ergün, Agnes Dadak
Carvacrol is a natural phenolic compound found in essential oils of Lamiaceae species. In the present study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the mechanism behind the anti-cancer potential of carvacrol on human gastric adenocarcinomas (AGS) by comparing its effects on cancer cells AGS to those on normal human fibroblast (WS-1) cells, in vitro. Cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, glutathione (GSH) levels, genotoxicity, and apoptotic effects of carvacrol (0-600 µM) were studied in both cell lines...
February 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Iva Potočnjak, Ivana Gobin, Robert Domitrović
Carvacrol has been shown to possess anticancer activity, but the mechanism is unknown, as well as the possibility of interaction with anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in carvacrol-induced human cervical cancer HeLa cell cytotoxicity. In addition, we studied sensitization of HeLa cells to cisplatin (CP) by carvacrol. Both carvacrol and CP showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HeLa cells and activated ERK1/2...
February 8, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Imran Khan, Ashutosh Bahuguna, Monika Bhardwaj, Tejinder Pal Khaket, Sun Chul Kang
Carvacrol is a monoterpenoid flavonoid found abundantly in thyme plants. Its physiochemical instability and partial solubility in water is the principal limitation for its industrial use. Hence, we made a carvacrol nanoemulsion (CANE) using ultrasonication method and characterized it by dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique which revealed a negative surface charge (-29.89 mV) with 99.1 nm average droplet size. CANE effectively induced apoptosis in doxorubicin-resistant A549 lung carcinoma cells (A549 DR ) evident by the elevated expression of apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Cytochrome C, and Cleaved caspase 3 and 9...
February 6, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
L Pradebon Brondani, T Alves da Silva Neto, R Antonio Freitag, R Guerra Lund
This study aimed to evaluate the anti-enzymatic activity of Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oil against 15 strains of Candida albicans. Candida albicans samples were isolated from the oral mucosa of patients with denture stomatitis treated in a Dentistry school on a public university. Preparation of the inoculum was performed with a suspension of C. albicans reactivated 24h earlier in 5mL of sterile phosphate buffer saline (PBS) adjusted to a 0.5-turbidity on the MacFarland scale (1,5×108 UFC/mL). The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type machine and analyzed by gas chromatography...
February 2, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Lícia T S Pina, Jamylle N S Ferro, Thallita K Rabelo, Marlange A Oliveira, Luciana Scotti, Marcus Tullius Scotti, Cristiani Isabel Bandero Walker, Emiliano O Barreto, Lucindo J Quintans Júnior, Adriana G Guimarães
Allergic inflammation is a response of the body against pathogens by cytokine release and leucocyte recruitment. Recently, there was an increase in morbimortality associated with allergic inflammation, especially asthma. The treatment has many adverse effects, requiring the search for new therapies. Monoterpenes are natural products with anti-inflammatory activity demonstrated in several studies and can be an option to inflammation management. Thus, we investigated the effects of citronellol, α-terpineol and carvacrol on allergic inflammation...
February 2, 2018: Natural Product Research
Marika Pellegrini, Antonella Ricci, Annalisa Serio, Clemencia Chaves-López, Giovanni Mazzarrino, Serena D'Amato, Claudio Lo Sterzo, Antonello Paparella
In the present study, the essential oils (EOs) of some officinal plants from Abruzzo territory (Italy) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and their volatile fraction chemical characterization. The EOs were extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita, Allium sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymus vulgaris and Coriandrum sativum seeds. The antimicrobial activity was screened against thirteen Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)...
February 2, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Estefânia V R Campos, Patrícia L F Proença, Jhones L Oliveira, Cirano C Melville, Jaqueline F Della Vechia, Daniel J de Andrade, Leonardo F Fraceto
Carvacrol and linalool are natural compounds extracted from plants and are known for their insecticidal and repellent activities, respectively. However, their low aqueous solubility, high photosensitivity, and high volatility restrict their application in the control of agricultural pests. The encapsulation of volatile compounds can be an effective way of overcoming such problems. Inclusion complexes between beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and carvacrol (CVC) or linalool (LNL) were investigated. Inclusion complexes were prepared by the kneading method...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
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