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Aspergillus parasiticus

Kyung-Tae Shin, Jing Guo, Ying-Jie Niu, Xiang-Shun Cui
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a type of mycotoxin produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. AFB1 is considered as the most toxic mycotoxin owing to its toxic effect on health. In the present study, the toxic effect of AFB1 on early porcine embryonic development and its possible mechanism were investigated. Blastocyst formation was impaired with treatment of 1 nM AFB1 compared with control, 0.01, 0.1 group (40.13 ± 2.10%, 28.21 ± 1.62%, 32.34 ± 2.07% vs 19.01 ± 1.06%)...
June 8, 2018: Theriogenology
Randa Zeidan, Zahoor Ul-Hassan, Roda Al-Thani, Virgilio Balmas, Samir Jaoua
Mycotoxins are important contaminants of food and feed. In this study, low fermenting yeast ( Lachancea thermotolerans ) and its derivatives were applied against toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins. A. parasiticus , P. verrucosum and F. graminearum and their mycotoxins were exposed to yeast volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and cells, respectively. VOCs reduced significantly the fungal growth (up to 48%) and the sporulation and mycotoxin synthesis (up to 96%). Very interestingly, it was shown that even 7 yeast colonies reduced Fusarium’s growth and the synthesis of its mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON)...
June 14, 2018: Toxins
Cong Lv, Ping Wang, Longxue Ma, Mumin Zheng, Yang Liu, Fuguo Xing
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ), which is mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus , is the most toxic and hepatocarcinogenic polyketide known. Chemical fungicides are currently utilized to reduce this fungal contaminant, but they are potentially harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural anti-aflatoxigenic products are used as sustainable alternatives to control food and feed contamination. For example, eugenol, presents in many essential oils, has been identified as an aflatoxin inhibitor...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
M Norlia, S Jinap, M A R Nor-Khaizura, R Son, C K Chin, Sardjono
Peanuts are widely consumed as the main ingredient in many local dishes in Malaysia. However, the tropical climate in Malaysia (high temperature and humidity) favours the growth of fungi from Aspergillus section Flavi, especially during storage. Most of the species from this section, such as A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, are natural producers of aflatoxins. Precise identification of local isolates and information regarding their ability to produce aflatoxins are very important to evaluate the safety of food marketed in Malaysia...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Ying-Ying Yu, Jin Niu, Pen Yin, Yong-Jian Liu, Li-Xia Tian, Donghui Xu
Aflatoxins, which was produced by Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus parasiticus fungi during grain and feed processing or storage, could cause severe health problems and reduction of yield during shrimp cultures. To evaluate toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in juvenile Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and potential protective effect of Zn(II)-curcumin (Zn-CM), four experimental diets (control, 500 μg/kg AFB1, 500 μg/kg AFB1+100 mg/kg Zn-CM, 500 μg/kg AFB1+200 mg/kg Zn-CM) were formulated in quadruplicate to feed the shrimp for 8 weeks...
May 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Joyce S F D de Almeida, Samir F de A Cavalcante, Rafael Dolezal, Kamil Kuca, Kamil Musilek, Daniel Jun, Tanos C C França
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Among them, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most frequent type in nature and also, the most carcinogenic for mammals. It can contaminate many kinds of food like seeds, oil, olives, milk, dairy products, corn and meat, causing acute and chronic damages to the organism, especially in the liver, being, for this reason, considered highly hepatotoxic. AFB1 is also a mixed inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This fact, together with its high toxicity and carcinogenicity, turns AFB1 into a potential chemical and biological warfare agent, as well as its metabolites...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Kiyoshi Okano, Chikako Nishioka, Tetsuya Iida, Yuzi Ozu, Misao Kaneko, Yuko Watanabe, Yuichi Mizukami, Masakatsu Ichinoe
Aspergillus parasiticus contamination of peanuts results in the production of highly toxic metabolites, such as aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 and G2 , and its incidence in imported peanuts is reported to be increasing. Here, we examined whether the antifungal compound allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), which is present in mustard seed, could inhibit the growth of seed-borne fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. Peanuts produced in China and Japan were inoculated with A. parasiticus and exposed to AIT vapor released by a commercial mustard seed extract in closed containers under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity...
2018: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
Titilayo D O Falade, Panagiotis K Chrysanthopoulos, Mark P Hodson, Yasmina Sultanbawa, Mary Fletcher, Ross Darnell, Sam Korie, Glen Fox
Aflatoxin contamination is associated with the development of aflatoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on food grains. This study was aimed at investigating metabolites produced during fungal development on maize and their correlation with aflatoxin levels. Maize cobs were harvested at R3 (milk), R4 (dough), and R5 (dent) stages of maturity. Individual kernels were inoculated in petri dishes with four doses of fungal spores. Fungal colonisation, metabolite profile, and aflatoxin levels were examined...
May 7, 2018: Toxins
Ajay Kumar Yagati, Sachin Ganpat Chavan, Changyoon Baek, Min-Ho Lee, Junhong Min
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB₁) is produced by the Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus group of fungi which is most hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic and occurs as a contaminant in a variety of foods. AFB₁ is mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals and is mostly found in peanuts, corn, and food grains. Therefore, novel methodologies of sensitive and expedient strategy are often required to detect mycotoxins at the lowest level. Herein, we report an electrochemical impedance sensor that selectively detects AFB₁ at the lowest level by utilizing polyaniline nanofibers (PANI) coated with gold (Au) nanoparticles composite based indium tin oxide (ITO) disk electrodes...
April 24, 2018: Sensors
Aleksandra Zielonka, Ewa Żymańczyk-Duda, Małgorzata Brzezińska-Rodak, Maciej Duda, Jakub Grzesiak, Magdalena Klimek-Ochab
Rice husks (RHs) are plant waste materials abundant in phytoliths silica bodies. These were used as starting material for fungal-mediated biotransformation leading to the synthesis of a high-value added product. A strain of Aspergillus parasiticus was capable of transforming the amorphous silica conglomerates into structured nanoparticles (NPs) in the process of RHs biotransformation. Silica NPs were produced extracellularly and their size ranged from 3 to 400 nm depending on the biotransformation conditions and the post-biotransformation supernatant processing...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Tiago M Nazareth, Jessica A F Corrêa, Anne C S M Pinto, Juliano B Palma, Giuseppe Meca, Keliani Bordin, Fernando B Luciano
BACKGROUND: Brazil produce approximately 63 million tons of corn kernels annually, which is commonly contaminated with fungi and mycotoxins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of gaseous allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium verticillioides, and mycotoxin production (aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 and G2 , fumonisins B1 and B2 ) in corn during 180 d of storage. RESULTS: AITC at 50 μL L-1 resulted in a significant reduction of the fungal population (p <0...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Chunyan Su, Yongjian Hu, Dan Gao, Y I Luo, Amanda Juan Chen, Xiaolin Jiao, Weiwei Gao
Herbs derived from roots, leaves, flowers, or fruits of plants are unavoidably contaminated with fungi and mycotoxins during growth, harvest, and storage, thereby posing a health threat to humans. Especially, root herbs (RHs) are more easily contaminated with fungi and mycotoxins because the roots are in direct contact with the soil. Here, we investigated the occurrence of fungi, aflatoxins (AFs), and ochratoxin A (OTA) in eight RHs that are used as medicines, beverages, dietary supplements, and functional foods in China and other countries...
May 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Marcelo Valle Garcia, Gilson Parussolo, Camila Brombilla Moro, Angélica Olivier Bernardi, Marina Venturini Copetti
The aim of this study was to identify fungal species present in 200 samples of rosemary, fennel, cinnamon, clove, pepperoni, black and white pepper and oregano and evaluate the mycotoxigenic potential of the some Aspergilli isolated. Clove, black and white peppers were analyzed by direct plating. For rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano samples were used spread plate. Mycotoxigenic capacity was verified by the agar plug method. With the exception of clove, all the spices showed high fungal contamination, especially by Aspergillus sp...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Geromy G Moore, Brian M Mack, Shannon B Beltz, Olivier Puel
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus arachidicola is an aflatoxigenic fungal species, first isolated from the leaves of a wild peanut species native to Argentina. It has since been reported in maize, Brazil nut and human sputum samples. This aflatoxigenic species is capable of secreting both B and G aflatoxins, similar to A. parasiticus and A. nomius. It has other characteristics that may result in its misidentification as one of several other section Flavi species. This study offers a preliminary analysis of the A...
March 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ping Hu, Zhicai Zuo, Fengyuan Wang, Xi Peng, Ke Guan, Hang Li, Jing Fang, Hengmin Cui, Gang Su, Ping Ouyang, Yi Zhou
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) is a naturally occurring secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, and is the most toxic form of aflatoxins. Selenium (Se) with antioxidant and detoxification functions is one of the essential trace elements for human beings and animals. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of Se on AFB1 -induced tissue damage and cell cycle arrest in bursa of Fabricius (BF) of chickens. The results showed that a dietary supplement of 0.4 mg·kg-1 Se alleviated the histological lesions induced by AFB1 , as demonstrated by decreasing vacuoles and nuclear debris, and relieving oxidative stress...
March 6, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Sui Sheng T Hua, Dan E Parfitt, Siov Bouy L Sarreal, Bertram G Lee, Delilah F Wood
Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and cause toxin contamination in food chain worldwide. Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic and are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Fungal isolates were collected from a California orchard and a few were initially identified to be A...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
C Luz, J Calpe, F Saladino, Fernando B Luciano, M Fernandez-Franzón, J Mañes, G Meca
ɛ-Poly-l-lysine (ɛ-PL) is a cationic peptide with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the use of ɛ-PL as natural antimicrobial to inhibit fungal growth and to reduce aflatoxins (AFs) production. Antifungal activity of starch biofilms with different concentrations of ɛ-Poly-l-lysine (ɛ-PL) was determined in solid medium against Aspergillus parasiticus (AFs producer) and Penicillium expansum . Then, biofilms were tested as antimicrobial devices for the preservation of bread loaf inoculated with A...
January 2018: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
Sheila Okoth, Marthe De Boevre, Arnau Vidal, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sofie Landschoot, Martina Kyallo, Joyce Njuguna, Jagger Harvey, Sarah De Saeger
Aspergillus flavus is the main producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities such as maize. This fungus occurs naturally on crops, and produces aflatoxins when environmental conditions are favorable. The aim of this study is to analyse the genetic variability among 109 A. flavus isolates previously recovered from maize sampled from a known aflatoxin-hotspot (Eastern region, Kenya) and the major maize-growing area in the Rift Valley (Kenya), and to determine their toxigenic potential. DNA analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA, partial β-tubulin gene (benA) and calmodulin gene (CaM) sequences were used...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gabriel J Kenne, Phani M Gummadidala, Mayomi H Omebeyinje, Ananda M Mondal, Dominic K Bett, Sandra McFadden, Sydney Bromfield, Nora Banaszek, Michelle Velez-Martinez, Chandrani Mitra, Isabelle Mikell, Saurabh Chatterjee, Josephine Wee, Anindya Chanda
An aspect of mycotoxin biosynthesis that remains unclear is its relationship with the cellular management of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we conduct a comparative study of the total ROS production in the wild-type strain (SU-1) of the plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus , and its mutant strain, AFS10, in which the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway is blocked by disruption of its pathway regulator, aflR . We show that SU-1 demonstrates a significantly faster decrease in total ROS than AFS10 between 24 h to 48 h, a time window within which aflatoxin synthesis is activated and reaches peak levels in SU-1...
January 29, 2018: Toxins
José Vicente Gómez, Andrea Tarazona, Rufino Mateo-Castro, José Vicente Gimeno-Adelantado, Misericordia Jiménez, Eva M Mateo
Recent research has showed that Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are aflatoxigenic species that can become very competitive in the framework of climate change. Aflatoxins show carcinogenic, mutagenic, immunotoxic and teratogenic effects on human and animals. Effective and sustainable measures to inhibit these species and aflatoxins in food are required. Origanum vulgare and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils (EOs) and their major active constituents, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde, respectively, were assayed for inhibiting these species and aflatoxin production in maize extract medium under different environmental conditions...
January 17, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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