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Aspergillus parasiticus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042000/mycotoxigenic-potentials-of-the-genera-aspergillus-fusarium-and-penicillium-isolated-from-houseflies-musca-domestica-l
#1
J Z Phoku, T G Barnard, N Potgieter, M F Dutton
A study on the potential of houseflies (Musca domestica L.) to spread fungal spores in Gauteng Province, South Africa proved that houseflies are vectors for fungal spores. Therefore, there is a need to determine the toxigenic potentials and to identify the mycotoxins produced by fungal isolates derived from this study. In total 377 potentially toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus (186), Fusarium (85) and Penicillium (106) species (spp.) were isolated. These isolates were further tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) [aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2], deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1) ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) respectively...
December 29, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030812/aflatoxin-b1-invokes-apoptosis-via-death-receptor-pathway-in-hepatocytes
#2
Muhammad Jameel Mughal, Xi Peng, Yi Zhou, Jing Fang
The fungal metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus cause detrimental health effects on humans and animals. Particularly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most studied and a well-known global carcinogen, producing hepatotoxic, genotoxic and immunotoxic effects in multiple species. AFB1 is shown to provoke liver dysfunctioning by causing hepatocytes apoptosis and disturbing cellular enzymatic activities. In liver, AFB1 causes apoptosis via extrinsic mechanism because of high expression of death receptor pathway...
December 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979117/structure-of-starch-aerogel-as-affected-by-crosslinking-and-feasibility-assessment-of-the-aerogel-for-an-anti-fungal-volatile-release
#3
Negar Abhari, Ashkan Madadlou, Ali Dini
Starch suspensions were crosslinked with trisodium citrate for either 0 or 17h, gelled and then freeze-dried to corresponding aerogels. The aerogel from the 17h-crosslinked suspension was loaded with the antifungal compound, trans-2-hexenal, and coated with the surfactant, sorbitan monooleate. Aerogel hardness was increased by the citrate-mediated crosslinking, whereas its adhesiveness decreased. Starch gelation decreased the crystallinity index (CrI) from 59% to ≈23%; however, the pre-gelation crosslinking resulted in a higher CrI value (i...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939550/invited-review-microbe-mediated-aflatoxin-decontamination-of-dairy-products-and-feeds
#4
Sejeong Kim, Heeyoung Lee, Soomin Lee, Jeeyeon Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Yukyung Choi, Yohan Yoon, Kyoung-Hee Choi
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus nomius contaminate corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, tree nuts, figs, ginger, nutmeg, and milk. They produce aflatoxins, especially aflatoxin B1, which is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Many studies have focused on aflatoxin removal from food or feed, especially via microbe-mediated mechanisms-either adsorption or degradation. Of the lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG efficiently binds aflatoxin B1, and a peptidoglycan in the bacterium cell wall plays an important role...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924547/pcr-rflp-for-aspergillus-species
#5
Ali Atoui, André El Khoury
Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is the most simple method for single-nucleotide change detection. It is widely used in the detection and differentiation between mycotoxigenic species. It is based on PCR amplification of a target region containing the variant site of the studied species followed by restriction endonuclease digestion and gel electrophoresis to visualize the RFLP patterns. In this method primers are designed to flank the polymorphic site and positioned in such a way as to create unequally sized fragments upon restriction endonuclease cleavage of the PCR products...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906500/phylogenetic-studies-gene-cluster-analysis-and-enzymatic-reaction-support-anthrahydroquinone-reduction-as-the-physiological-function-of-fungal-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase
#6
Leon Fürtges, David Conradt, Michael A Schätzle, Shailesh Kumar Singh, Nada Kraševec, Tea Lanišnik Rižner, Michael Müller, Syed Masood Husain
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSDcl) from the filamentous fungus Curvularia lunata (teleomorph Cochliobolus lunatus) catalyzes NADP(H)-dependent oxidoreductions of androgens and estrogens. Despite detailed biochemical and structural characterization of 17β-HSDcl, its physiological function remains unknown. On the basis of amino acid sequence alignment, phylogenetic studies, and the recent identification of the physiological substrates of the homologous MdpC from Aspergillus nidulans and AflM from Aspergillus parasiticus, we propose an anthrahydroquinone as the physiological substrate of 17β-HSDcl...
January 3, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899241/effects-of-nitrogen-metabolism-on-growth-and-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-flavus
#7
Bin Wang, Xiaoyun Han, Youhuang Bai, Zhenguo Lin, Mengguang Qiu, Xinyi Nie, Sen Wang, Feng Zhang, Zhenhong Zhuang, Jun Yuan, Shihua Wang
Aflatoxins (AFs), produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are strongly toxic and carcinogenic. Here, we showed that glutamine is the optimal nitrogen source for AF-production in A. flavus grown in Czapek Dox medium. Additionally, 4mM glutamine was the threshold for high production of aflatoxin B1. However, no significant impact of glutamine synthetase inhibitor was detected for on AF biosynthesis. In contrast, rapamycin could significantly suppress the glutamine inducing effect on AFs production, simultaneously inhibiting the fungal growth and conidiation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848109/monitoring-of-aflatoxin-g1-b1-g2-and-b2-occurrence-in-some-samples-of-walnut
#8
Reza Habibipour, Parisa Rahimi Tamandegani, Abbas Farmany
This research was conducted to monitor the aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of walnut in the Hamedan province. For this purpose, 40 samples were analyzed. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, yeast, and some different bacteria were isolated from walnuts. Aspergillus is the most frequent genus. Aspergillus flavus was predominantly isolated. HPLC was used for evaluation of aflatoxin contamination of walnut samples. Aflatoxins G1 (AFG1), B1 (AFB1), G2 (AFG2), and B2 (AFB2) were produced by 20 isolates...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842453/aflatoxigenic-aspergillus-flavus-and-aspergillus-parasiticus-strains-in-hungarian-maize-fields
#9
Flóra Sebők, Csaba Dobolyi, Dóra Zágoni, Anita Risa, Csilla Krifaton, Mátyás Hartman, Mátyás Cserháti, Sándor Szoboszlay, Balázs Kriszt
Due to the climate change, aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and strains have appeared in several European countries, contaminating different agricultural commodities with aflatoxin. Our aim was to screen the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi in maize fields throughout the seven geographic regions of Hungary. Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated in the ratio of 26.9% and 42.3% from soil and maize samples in 2013, and these ratios decreased to 16.1% and 34.7% in 2014. Based on morphological characteristics and the sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene, all isolates proved to be Aspergillus flavus, except four strains, which were identified as Aspergillus parasiticus...
December 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808430/collagenase-produced-from-aspergillus-sp-ucp-1276-using-chicken-feather-industrial-residue
#10
Catarina Michelle Oliveira Ferreira, Patyanne Carvalho Correia, Romero Marcos Pedrosa Brandão-Costa, Wendell Wagner Campos Albuquerque, Tatiana Pereira Shin Lin Liu, Galba Maria Campos-Takaki, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo Porto
An extracellular collagenolytic serine protease was purified from Aspergillus sp., isolated from the Caatinga biome in northeast Brazil by a two-step chromatographic procedure, using an anion-exchanger and gel filtration. The enzyme was produced by submerged fermentation of feather residue as a substrate. The purified collagenase showed a 2.09-fold increase in specific activity and 22.85% yield. The enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 28.7 kDa, estimated by an SDS-PAGE and AKTA system...
November 3, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800127/effects-of-pistacia-atlantica-subsp-kurdica-on-growth-and-aflatoxin-production-by-aspergillus-parasiticus
#11
Sadegh Khodavaisy, Sassan Rezaie, Fatemeh Noorbakhsh, Elham Baghdadi, Somayeh Sharifynia, Farzad Aala
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus parasiticus. This species can contaminate a wide range of agricultural commodities, including cereals, peanuts, and crops in the field. In recent years, research on medicinal herbs, such as Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica, have led to reduced microbial growth, and these herbs also have a particular effect on the production of aflatoxins as carcinogenic compounds. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we to examine P...
July 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769409/development-and-evaluation-of-an-up-converting-phosphor-technology-based-lateral-flow-assay-for-rapid-and-quantitative-detection-of-aflatoxin-b1-in-crops
#12
Yong Zhao, Xiao Liu, Xiaochen Wang, Chongyun Sun, Xinrui Wang, Pingping Zhang, Jingfu Qiu, Ruifu Yang, Lei Zhou
Contamination of grains and other crops by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a highly toxic aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, poses a serious threat to human health and is an important food safety issue. In this study, a competitive up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (AFB1-UPT-LF) assay was developed for rapid detection of AFB1. Detection sensitivity of the proposed assay can reach 0.03ngmL(-1) for standard AFB1 solutions, with the coefficients of variation (CV) less than 10% (from 1...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761863/preparation-characterization-and-bio-efficacy-evaluation-of-controlled-release-carbendazim-loaded-polymeric-nanoparticles
#13
Sandhya, Sandeep Kumar, Dinesh Kumar, Neeraj Dilbaghi
Synthesis and controlled release study of polymeric nanoformulation of carbendazim (2-benzimidazole carbamic acid methyl ester) using chitosan and pectin is reported in this article. The formulation was subjected to morphological, physiological, in vitro fungicide release and bio-efficacy evaluation studies. The average size of nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 70-90 nm as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro fungicide release of nanoformulated carbendazim was compared with pure carbendazim at different pH values...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748169/aspergillus-and-aflatoxin-in-groundnut-arachis-hypogaea-l-and-groundnut-cake-in-eastern-ethiopia
#14
Abdi Mohammed, Alemayehu Chala, Mashilla Dejene, Chemeda Fininsa, David A Hoisington, Victor S Sobolev, Renee S Arias
This study was conducted to assess major Aspergillus species and aflatoxins associated with groundnut seeds and cake in Eastern Ethiopia and evaluate growers' management practices. A total of 160 groundnut seed samples from farmers' stores and 50 groundnut cake samples from cafe and restaurants were collected. Fungal isolation was done from groundnut seed samples. Aspergillus flavus was the dominant species followed by Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin analyses of groundnut seed samples were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography; 22...
December 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735214/aflatoxins-and-ochratoxin-a-and-their-aspergillus-causal-species-in-tunisian-cereals
#15
Ines Jedidi, Alejandra Cruz, Maria Teresa González-Jaén, Salem Said
Occurrence of aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and ochratoxin A (OTA) was studied in 65 samples of stored and freshly harvested wheat, barley and maize collected in Tunisia. The mycotoxins were simultaneously extracted and quantified by HPLC. Determination of AF-producing (section Flavi) and OTA-producing Aspergillus species (sections Nigri and Circumdati) was conducted in these samples by species-specific PCR. Results showed that most of maize samples were contaminated with AFs, data after storage showing higher values than those collected at harvest...
October 13, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700622/natural-postharvest-aflatoxin-occurrence-in-food-legumes-in-the-smallholder-farming-sector-of-zimbabwe
#16
David Tinayeshe Maringe, Cathrine Chidewe, Mudadi Albert Benhura, Brighton Marimanzi Mvumi, Tatenda Clive Murashiki, Mavis Precious Dembedza, Lucia Siziba, Loveness Kuziwa Nyanga
Aflatoxins, mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are highly toxic and may lead to health problems such as liver cancer. Exposure to aflatoxins may result from ingestion of contaminated foods. Levels of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 in samples of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and bambara nuts (Vigna subterranean) grown by smallholder farmers in Shamva and Makoni districts, Zimbabwe, were determined at harvesting, using high performance liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity clean-up...
October 4, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697030/in-vitro-study-of-the-antifungal-activity-of-essential-oils-obtained-from-mentha-spicata-thymus-vulgaris-and-laurus-nobilis
#17
Abderrahmane Houicher, Hind Hechachna, Hanifa Teldji, Fatih Ozogul
The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal activity of the essential oils isolated from three aromatic plants against 13 filamentous fungal strains. The major constituents of Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris, and Laurus nobilis essential oils were carvone (52.2%), linalool (78.1%), and 1,8-cineole (45.6%), respectively. M. spicata essential oil exhibited the strongest activity against all tested fungi in which Fusarium graminearum, F.moniliforme, and Penicillium expansum were the most sensitive to mint oil with lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 2...
September 27, 2016: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648422/investigation-the-effects-of-lactobacillus-acidophilus-and-lactobacillus-casei-on-aflr-gene-expression-in-aspergillus-parasiticus-by-real-time-pcr
#18
Farzaneh Nateghi, Fatemeh Noorbakhsh, Ensieh Lotfali, Sassan Rezaie
BACKGROUND: The effect of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei) as safe organisms was examined on fungal growth and aflatoxin gene regulation in Aspergillus parasiticus. METHODS: The fungus was cultured in presence of two different concentrations of L. acidophilus and L. casei in MRS broth medium. Mycelia dry weight is indicated as criteria to evaluate fungal growth. Besides, investigation of aflR gene expression by Real Time PCR was performed for analysis of gene regulatory effects in aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647242/the-aspergillus-flavus-flup-associated-metabolite-promotes-sclerotial-production
#19
Perng-Kuang Chang, Leslie L Scharfenstein, Kenneth C Ehrlich, José Diana Di Mavungu
Aspergillus flavus is able to synthesize a variety of polyketide-derived secondary metabolites including the hepatocarcinogen, aflatoxin B1. The fungus reproduces and disseminates predominantly by production of conidia. It also produces hardened mycelial aggregates called sclerotia that are used to cope with unfavourable growth environments. In the present study, we examined the role of A. flavus fluP, the backbone polyketide synthase gene of secondary metabolite gene cluster 41, on fungal development. The A...
October 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543818/mould-and-mycotoxin-exposure-assessment-of-melon-and-bush-mango-seeds-two-common-soup-thickeners-consumed-in-nigeria
#20
Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Yinka Somorin, Foluke I Odutayo, Stella U Nwabekee, Afeez T Balogun, Rudolf Krska
An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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