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Aspergillus parasiticus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710744/cloning-and-characterization-of-f3pyc-gene-encoding-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-aspergillus-flavus-strain-f3
#1
Sadia Qayyum, Ibrar Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad Bhatti, Changsheng Peng
Pyruvate carboxylase is a major enzyme for biosynthesis of organic acids like; citric acid, fumeric acid, and L-malic acid. These organic acids play very important role for biological remediation of heavy metals. In this study, gene walking method was used to clone and characterize pyruvate carboxylase gene (F3PYC) from heavy metal resistant indigenous fungal isolate Aspergillus flavus (F3). 3579 bp of an open reading frame which encodes 1193 amino acid protein (isoelectric point: 6.10) with a calculated molecular weight of 131...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675475/fumigation-of-brazil-nuts-with-allyl-isothiocyanate-to-inhibit-the-growth-of-aspergillus-parasiticus-and-aflatoxin-production
#2
Lucas F Lopes, Keliani Bordin, Gabriel H C de Lara, Federica Saladino, Juan M Quiles, Giuseppe Meca, Fernando B Luciano
BACKGROUND: Brazil produces approximately 40,000 tons of Brazil nuts annually, which is commonly contaminated with fungi and mycotoxins. Gaseous allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) was used to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and its production of aflatoxins (AFs) in Brazil nuts. RESULTS: Nuts were inoculated with 10(4) spores g(-1) of A. parasiticus and placed in airtight glass jars with controlled relative humidity (RH = 95 or 85 %). Samples were treated with 0, 0...
July 4, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659622/determination-of-aspergillus-pathogens-in-agricultural-products-by-a-specific-nanobody-polyclonal-antibody-sandwich-elisa
#3
Ting Wang, Peiwu Li, Qi Zhang, Wen Zhang, Zhaowei Zhang, Tong Wang, Ting He
Aspergillus and its poisonous mycotoxins are distributed worldwide throughout the environment and are of particular interest in agriculture and food safety. In order to develop a specific method for rapid detection of Aspergillus flavus to forecast diseases and control aflatoxins, a nanobody, PO8-VHH, highly reactive to A. flavus was isolated from an immunized alpaca nanobody library by phage display. The nanobody was verified to bind to the components of extracellular and intracellular antigen from both A...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648291/gene-expression-as-a-good-indicator-of-aflatoxin-contamination-in-dry-cured-ham
#4
Belén Peromingo, Mar Rodríguez, Josué Delgado, María J Andrade, Alicia Rodríguez
Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are mould species producers of aflatoxins (AFs) and may grow on dry-cured ham during the ripening process. In this study, the influence of different water activity (aw) and temperatures on the temporal relative expression of three genes involved in AFs biosynthesis and their relationship with AFs production on dry-cured ham-based medium were evaluated. In general, the regulatory aflR and aflS genes showed similar expression patterns, and the expression of the structural aflP gene was much higher than that obtained for aflR and aflS genes...
October 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618218/citrate-coated-silver-nanoparticles-growth-independently-inhibit-aflatoxin-synthesis-in-aspergillus-parasiticus
#5
Chandrani Mitra, Phani M Gummadidala, Kamelia Afshinnia, Ruth C Merrifield, Mohammed Baalousha, Jamie R Lead, Anindya Chanda
Manufactured silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have long been used as antimicrobials. However, little is known about how these NPs affect fungal cell functions. While multiple previous studies reveal that Ag NPs inhibit secondary metabolite syntheses in several mycotoxin producing filamentous fungi, these effects are associated with growth repression and hence need sublethal to lethal NP doses, which besides stopping fungal growth, can potentially accumulate in the environment. Here we demonstrate that citrate-coated Ag NPs of size 20 nm, when applied at a selected nonlethal dose, can result in a >2 fold inhibition of biosynthesis of the carcinogenic mycotoxin and secondary metabolite, aflatoxin B1 in the filamentous fungus and an important plant pathogen, Aspergillus parasiticus, without inhibiting fungal growth...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612469/functional-analyses-of-the-versicolorin-b-synthase-gene-in-aspergillus%C3%A2-flavus
#6
Silin Ren, Yuewei Yue, Yu Li, Xiaodong Guo, Shihua Wang
Aflatoxin is a toxic, carcinogenic mycotoxin primarily produced by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Previous studies have predicted the existence of more than 20 genes in the gene cluster involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Among these genes, aflK encodes versicolorin B synthase, which converts versiconal to versicolorin B. Past research has investigated aflK in A. parasiticus, but few studies have characterized aflK in the animal, plant, and human pathogen A. flavus. To understand the potential role of aflK in A...
June 13, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553767/assessment-of-aflatoxin-b1-myocardial-toxicity-in-rats-mitochondrial-damage-and-cellular-apoptosis-in-cardiomyocytes-induced-by-aflatoxin-b1
#7
Junhua Ge, Haichu Yu, Jian Li, Zhexun Lian, Hongjing Zhang, Hao Fang, Lusha Qian
Objective The number of deaths from heart disease is increasing worldwide. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a toxin produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is frequently detected in improperly processed/stored human food products. While AFB1 hepatotoxicity and carcinogenic properties have been well addressed, its myocardial toxicity is poorly documented. This study aimed to investigate myocardial toxic activity of AFB1. Methods Ten rats were fed with AFB1 at a dose that did not result in acute toxic reactions for 30 days and 10 vehicle-fed rats served as controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531554/efficacy-of-bacillus-subtilis-and-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-in-the-control-of-aspergillus-parasiticus-growth-and-aflatoxins-production-on-pistachio
#8
Fatemeh Siahmoshteh, Ilenia Siciliano, Houda Banani, Zohreh Hamidi-Esfahani, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Davide Spadaro
Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is an important nut for its economic, nutritional and health aspects but it can be contaminated by aflatoxigenic fungi in the field and during storage. Biological control could be considered as an alternative to chemical treatment. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic capability of two Bacillus spp. both in vitro and on pistachio kernels. In in vitro conditions, both strains were able to reduce the mycelial growth and they were able to degrade the four aflatoxins during the first three days after inoculation...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525761/impact-of-bioactive-packaging-systems-based-on-evoh-films-and-essential-oils-in-the-control-of-aflatoxigenic-fungi-and-aflatoxin-production-in-maize
#9
Eva M Mateo, José V Gómez, Irene Domínguez, Jose V Gimeno-Adelantado, Rufino Mateo-Castro, Rafael Gavara, Misericordia Jiménez
Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common fungal species associated with aflatoxin (AF) contamination of cereals, especially maize, and other agricultural commodities. AFB1, the most frequent and toxic metabolite, is a powerful hepatotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic compound. Effective strategies to control these fungal species and AFs in food and feed are required. Active packaging film containing essential oils (EO) is one of the most innovative food packaging concepts. In this study, ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) copolymer films incorporating EO from Origanum vulgare (ORE), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CIN) or their major active constituents, carvacrol (CAR) and cinnamaldehyde (CINHO), respectively, were developed and assayed to control growth of A...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513456/aflatoxins-characteristics-and-impact-on-human-health
#10
Anna Kowalska, Katarzyna Walkiewicz, Paweł Kozieł, Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń
Some molds commonly occurring in the natural environment produce mycotoxins in the process of secondary metabolism. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are species of molds, which are responsible for the production of aflatoxins and are crucial in the pathogenesis of human diseases. Aspergillus species present in decaying plants, the soil and their spores are transferred via air currents and insects to crops and food storages. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 are the most common derivatives of aflatoxins...
May 5, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506119/study-of-the-genetic-diversity-of-the-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-cluster-in-aspergillus-section-flavi-using-insertion-deletion-markers-in-peanut-seeds-from-georgia-usa
#11
Paola C Faustinelli, Edwin R Palencia, Victor S Sobolev, Bruce W Horn, Hank T Sheppard, Marshall C Lamb, Xinye M Wang, Brian E Scheffler, Jaime Martinez Castillo, Renée S Arias
Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. The major aflatoxin-producing fungi are Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Numerous crops, including peanut, are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination by these fungi. There has been an increased use of RNA interference (RNAi) technology to control phytopathogenic fungi in recent years. In order to develop molecular tools targeting specific genes of these fungi for the control of aflatoxins, it is necessary to obtain their genome sequences. Although high-throughput sequencing is readily available, it is still impractical to sequence the genome of every isolate...
April 12, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433057/low-cost-humic-acid-bonded-silica-as-an-effective-solid-phase-extraction-sorbent-for-convenient-determination-of-aflatoxins-in-edible-oils
#12
Neng-Zhi Zhou, Ping Liu, Xiao-Chuan Su, Yan-Hua Liao, Ning-Sheng Lei, Yong-Hong Liang, Shao-Huan Zhou, Wen-Si Lin, Jie Chen, Yu-Qi Feng, Yang Tang
Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic secondary metabolites produced by the toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. AFs tend to contaminate a wide range of foods which is a serious and recurring food safety problem worldwide. Currently, immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) has become the most conventional sample clean-up method for determining AFs in foodstuffs. However, IAC method is limited in the large-scale food analysis because it requires the use of expensive disposable cartridges and the IA procedure is time-consuming...
June 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428686/aflatoxins-implications-on-health
#13
REVIEW
Usha P Sarma, Preetida J Bhetaria, Prameela Devi, Anupam Varma
Environmental occurrence of Aspergillus and other fungal spores are hazardous to humans and animals. They cause a broad spectrum of clinical complications. Contamination of aflatoxins in agri-food and feed due to A. flavus and A. parasiticus result in toxicity in humans and animals. Recent advances in aspergillus genomics and aflatoxin management practices are encouraging to tackle the challenges posed by important aspergillus species.
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400284/transcriptome-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-and-histopathology-analysis-of-hepatopancreas-from-the-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-fed-with-aflatoxin-b1-afb1
#14
Wei Zhao, Lei Wang, Mei Liu, Keyong Jiang, Mengqiang Wang, Guang Yang, Cancan Qi, Baojie Wang
Aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus parasiticus fungi during grain and feed processing and storage. Aflatoxins cause severe health problems reducing the yield and profitability of shrimp cultures. We sought to understand the interaction between shrimp immunity and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), analyzing transcriptome expression, antioxidant enzyme activity, and histological features of the hepatopancreas of shrimp fed with AFB1. From over 4 million high-quality reads, de novo unigene assembly produced 103,644 fully annotated genes...
April 8, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399711/effects-of-microwaves-on-the-reduction-of-aspergillus-flavus-and-aspergillus-parasiticus-on-brown-rice-oryza-sativa-l-and-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#15
Seung-Hun Lee, Shin Young Park, Kye-Hwan Byun, Hyang Sook Chun, Sang-Do Ha
Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are primary pathogen moulds on brown rice and barley. This study investigated the effects of microwave irradiation (MWI) (2450 MHz, 700 W, 10-50 s) on inactivation of A. flavus and A. parasiticus on brown rice and barley and the quality of these samples. The counts of both strains were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by the stepwise increase in MWI treatment time. The log reductions of A. flavus on brown rice and barley were 0.05 and 0.04 after 10 s; 1...
May 22, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373142/aflatoxins-produced-by-aspergillus-parasiticus-present-in-the-diet-of-quails-increase-the-activities-of-cholinesterase-and-adenosine-deaminase
#16
Aleksandro Schafer da Silva, Janio M Santurio, Lenilson F Roza, Nathieli B Bottari, Gabriela M Galli, Vera M Morsch, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Matheus D Baldissera, Lenita M Stefani, Willian M Radavelli, Thainã Tomasi, Marcel M Boiago
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aflatoxins on cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in quails. For this, twenty male quails were randomly distributed into two groups (n = 10 each): the group A was composed by quails that received feed without aflatoxin (the control group); while the group B was composed by quails that received feed contaminated with 200 ppm/kg of feed of aflatoxin. On day 20, the animals were euthanized to measure the activities of AChE (total blood and brain), BChE (serum) and ADA (serum, liver, and brain), as well as for histopathological analyses (liver and intestine)...
March 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367868/inhibitory-effects-of-thai-essential-oils-on-potentially-aflatoxigenic-aspergillus-parasiticus-and-aspergillus-flavus
#17
Kittika Jantapan, Amnart Poapolathep, Kanjana Imsilp, Saranya Poapolathep, Phanwimol Tanhan, Susumu Kumagai, Usuma Jermnak
 The antiaflatoxigenic and antifungal activities of essential oils (EOs) of finger root (Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.), pine (Pinus pinaster), rosewood (Aniba rosaedora), Siam benzoin (Styrax tonkinensis), Thai moringa (Moringa oleifera), and ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) were tested for Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in potato dextrose broth. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was extracted from culture using a QuEChERS-based extraction procedure and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector...
2017: Biocontrol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290359/the-biodiversity-of-aspergillus-section-flavi-and-aflatoxins-in-the-brazilian-peanut-production-chain
#18
Ligia Manoel Martins, Anderson S Sant'Ana, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Josué José Silva, Maristela da Silva do Nascimento, Jens Christian Frisvad, Marta Hiromi Taniwaki
A total of 119 samples of peanut were collected throughout the peanut production chain in São Paulo State, Brazil. The peanut samples were directly plated for determination of percentages of infection and a polyphasic approach was used to identify Aspergillus section Flavi species. Further, the potential for aflatoxin production by the isolates was tested using the agar plug technique and the presence of aflatoxins in peanuts was assessed using an immunoaffinity column followed by quantification using HPLC with reverse phase column and fluorescence detection...
April 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271854/verification-of-radio-frequency-pasteurization-treatment-for-controlling-aspergillus-parasiticus-on-corn-grains
#19
Ajuan Zheng, Lihui Zhang, Shaojin Wang
Radio frequency (RF) heating has been proposed and tested to achieve a required anti-fungal efficacy on various food samples due to its advantage of deeper penetration depth and better heating uniformity. The purpose of this study was to validate applications of RF treatments for controlling Aspergillus parasiticus in corn while maintaining product quality. A pilot-scale, 27.12MHz, 6kW RF heating system together with hot air heating was used to rapidly pasteurize 3.0kg corn samples. Results showed that the pasteurizing effect of RF heating on Aspergillus parasiticus increased with increasing heating temperature and holding time, and RF heating at 70°C holding in hot air for at least 12min resulted in 5-6 log reduction of Aspergillus parasiticus in corn samples with the moisture content of 15...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224915/characterization-of-small-rna-populations-in-non-transgenic-and-aflatoxin-reducing-transformed-peanut
#20
Imana L Power, Phat M Dang, Victor S Sobolev, Valerie A Orner, Joseph L Powell, Marshall C Lamb, Renee S Arias
Aflatoxin contamination is a major constraint in food production worldwide. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), these toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus Link and A. parasiticus Speare. The use of RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising method to reduce or prevent the accumulation of aflatoxin in peanut seed. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNA populations in a control line and in two transformed peanut lines that expressed an inverted repeat targeting five genes involved in the aflatoxin-biosynthesis pathway and that showed up to 100% less aflatoxin B1 than the controls...
April 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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