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Aspergillus parasiticus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665959/nanosilica-synthesis-mediated-by-aspergillus-parasiticus-strain
#1
Aleksandra Zielonka, Ewa Żymańczyk-Duda, Małgorzata Brzezińska-Rodak, Maciej Duda, Jakub Grzesiak, Magdalena Klimek-Ochab
Rice husks (RHs) are plant waste materials abundant in phytoliths silica bodies. These were used as starting material for fungal-mediated biotransformation leading to the synthesis of a high-value added product. A strain of Aspergillus parasiticus was capable of transforming the amorphous silica conglomerates into structured nanoparticles (NPs) in the process of RHs biotransformation. Silica NPs were produced extracellularly and their size ranged from 3 to 400 nm depending on the biotransformation conditions and the post-biotransformation supernatant processing...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652439/evaluation-of-gaseous-allyl-isothiocyanate-against-the-growth-of-mycotoxigenic-fungi-and-mycotoxin-production-in-corn-stored-for-6-months
#2
Tiago M Nazareth, Jessica A F Corrêa, Anne C S M Pinto, Juliano B Palma, Giuseppe Meca, Keliani Bordin, Fernando B Luciano
BACKGROUND: Brazil produce approximately 63 million tons of corn kernels annually, which is commonly contaminated with fungi and mycotoxins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of gaseous allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium verticillioides, and mycotoxin production (aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 and G2 , fumonisins B1 and B2 ) in corn during 180 d of storage. RESULTS: AITC at 50 μL L-1 resulted in a significant reduction of the fungal population (p <0...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620485/occurrence-of-toxigenic-fungi-and-mycotoxins-on-root-herbs-from-chinese-markets
#3
Chunyan Su, Yongjian Hu, Dan Gao, Y I Luo, Amanda Juan Chen, Xiaolin Jiao, Weiwei Gao
Herbs derived from roots, leaves, flowers, or fruits of plants are unavoidably contaminated with fungi and mycotoxins during growth, harvest, and storage, thereby posing a health threat to humans. Especially, root herbs (RHs) are more easily contaminated with fungi and mycotoxins because the roots are in direct contact with the soil. Here, we investigated the occurrence of fungi, aflatoxins (AFs), and ochratoxin A (OTA) in eight RHs that are used as medicines, beverages, dietary supplements, and functional foods in China and other countries...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526231/fungi-in-spices-and-mycotoxigenic-potential-of-some-aspergilli-isolated
#4
Marcelo Valle Garcia, Gilson Parussolo, Camila Brombilla Moro, Angélica Olivier Bernardi, Marina Venturini Copetti
The aim of this study was to identify fungal species present in 200 samples of rosemary, fennel, cinnamon, clove, pepperoni, black and white pepper and oregano and evaluate the mycotoxigenic potential of the some Aspergilli isolated. Clove, black and white peppers were analyzed by direct plating. For rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano samples were used spread plate. Mycotoxigenic capacity was verified by the agar plug method. With the exception of clove, all the spices showed high fungal contamination, especially by Aspergillus sp...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523080/genome-sequence-of-an-aflatoxigenic-pathogen-of-argentinian-peanut-aspergillus-arachidicola
#5
Geromy G Moore, Brian M Mack, Shannon B Beltz, Olivier Puel
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus arachidicola is an aflatoxigenic fungal species, first isolated from the leaves of a wild peanut species native to Argentina. It has since been reported in maize, Brazil nut and human sputum samples. This aflatoxigenic species is capable of secreting both B and G aflatoxins, similar to A. parasiticus and A. nomius. It has other characteristics that may result in its misidentification as one of several other section Flavi species. This study offers a preliminary analysis of the A...
March 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512029/the-protective-role-of-selenium-in-afb-1-induced-tissue-damage-and-cell-cycle-arrest-in-chicken-s-bursa-of-fabricius
#6
Ping Hu, Zhicai Zuo, Fengyuan Wang, Xi Peng, Ke Guan, Hang Li, Jing Fang, Hengmin Cui, Gang Su, Ping Ouyang, Yi Zhou
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) is a naturally occurring secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, and is the most toxic form of aflatoxins. Selenium (Se) with antioxidant and detoxification functions is one of the essential trace elements for human beings and animals. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of Se on AFB1 -induced tissue damage and cell cycle arrest in bursa of Fabricius (BF) of chickens. The results showed that a dietary supplement of 0.4 mg·kg-1 Se alleviated the histological lesions induced by AFB1 , as demonstrated by decreasing vacuoles and nuclear debris, and relieving oxidative stress...
March 6, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464607/first-report-of-an-atypical-new-aspergillus-parasiticus-isolates-with-nucleotide-insertion-in-aflr-gene-resembling-to-a-sojae
#7
Sui Sheng T Hua, Dan E Parfitt, Siov Bouy L Sarreal, Bertram G Lee, Delilah F Wood
Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and cause toxin contamination in food chain worldwide. Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic and are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Fungal isolates were collected from a California orchard and a few were initially identified to be A...
February 20, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456275/antimicrobial-packaging-based-on-%C3%A9-polylysine-bioactive-film-for-the-control-of-mycotoxigenic-fungi-in-vitro-and-in-bread
#8
C Luz, J Calpe, F Saladino, Fernando B Luciano, M Fernandez-Franzón, J Mañes, G Meca
ɛ-Poly-l-lysine (ɛ-PL) is a cationic peptide with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the use of ɛ-PL as natural antimicrobial to inhibit fungal growth and to reduce aflatoxins (AFs) production. Antifungal activity of starch biofilms with different concentrations of ɛ-Poly-l-lysine (ɛ-PL) was determined in solid medium against Aspergillus parasiticus (AFs producer) and Penicillium expansum . Then, biofilms were tested as antimicrobial devices for the preservation of bread loaf inoculated with A...
January 2018: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434580/genetic-and-toxigenic-variability-within-aspergillus-flavus-population-isolated-from-maize-in-two-diverse-environments-in-kenya
#9
Sheila Okoth, Marthe De Boevre, Arnau Vidal, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sofie Landschoot, Martina Kyallo, Joyce Njuguna, Jagger Harvey, Sarah De Saeger
Aspergillus flavus is the main producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities such as maize. This fungus occurs naturally on crops, and produces aflatoxins when environmental conditions are favorable. The aim of this study is to analyse the genetic variability among 109 A. flavus isolates previously recovered from maize sampled from a known aflatoxin-hotspot (Eastern region, Kenya) and the major maize-growing area in the Rift Valley (Kenya), and to determine their toxigenic potential. DNA analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA, partial β-tubulin gene (benA) and calmodulin gene (CaM) sequences were used...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382166/activation-of-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-alleviates-total-ros-in-aspergillus-parasiticus
#10
Gabriel J Kenne, Phani M Gummadidala, Mayomi H Omebeyinje, Ananda M Mondal, Dominic K Bett, Sandra McFadden, Sydney Bromfield, Nora Banaszek, Michelle Velez-Martinez, Chandrani Mitra, Isabelle Mikell, Saurabh Chatterjee, Josephine Wee, Anindya Chanda
An aspect of mycotoxin biosynthesis that remains unclear is its relationship with the cellular management of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we conduct a comparative study of the total ROS production in the wild-type strain (SU-1) of the plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus, and its mutant strain, AFS10, in which the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway is blocked by disruption of its pathway regulator, aflR. We show that SU-1 demonstrates a significantly faster decrease in total ROS than AFS10 between 24 h to 48 h, a time window within which aflatoxin synthesis is activated and reaches peak levels in SU-1...
January 29, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338637/selected-plant-essential-oils-and-their-main-active-components-a-promising-approach-to-inhibit-aflatoxigenic-fungi-and-aflatoxin-production-in-food
#11
José Vicente Gómez, Andrea Tarazona, Rufino Mateo-Castro, José Vicente Gimeno-Adelantado, Misericordia Jiménez, Eva M Mateo
Recent research has showed that Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are aflatoxigenic species that can become very competitive in the framework of climate change. Aflatoxins show carcinogenic, mutagenic, immunotoxic and teratogenic effects on human and animals. Effective and sustainable measures to inhibit these species and aflatoxins in food are required. Origanum vulgare and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils (EOs) and their major active constituents, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde, respectively, were assayed for inhibiting these species and aflatoxin production in maize extract medium under different environmental conditions...
January 17, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277474/an-evidence-of-c16-fatty-acid-methyl-esters-extracted-from-microalga-for-effective-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-property
#12
MubarakAli Davoodbasha, Baldev Edachery, Thajuddin Nooruddin, Sang-Yul Lee, Jung-Wan Kim
Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derived from lipids of microalgae is known to have wide bio-functional materials including antimicrobials. FAME is an ideal super-curator and superior anti-pathogenic. The present study evaluated the efficiency of FAME extracted from microalgae Scenedesmus intermedius as an antimicrobial agent against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Bacillus cereus) Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and Fungi (Aspergillus parasiticus and Candida albicans)...
February 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207242/suppression-of-aflatoxin-production-in-aspergillus-species-by-selected-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-stilbenoids
#13
Victor Sobolev, Renee Arias, Kerestin Goodman, Travis Walk, Valerie Orner, Paola Faustinelli, Alicia Massa
Aspergillus flavus is a soil fungus that commonly invades peanut seeds and often produces carcinogenic aflatoxins. Under favorable conditions, the fungus-challenged peanut plant produces and accumulates resveratrol and its prenylated derivatives in response to such an invasion. These prenylated stilbenoids are considered peanut antifungal phytoalexins. However, the mechanism of peanut-fungus interaction has not been sufficiently studied. We used pure peanut stilbenoids arachidin-1, arachidin-3, and chiricanine A to study their effects on the viability of and metabolite production by several important toxigenic Aspergillus species...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168184/effect-of-ultra-superheated-steam-on-aflatoxin-reduction-and-roasted-peanut-properties
#14
Parawee Pukkasorn, Wannasawat Ratphitagsanti, Vichai Haruthaitanasan
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxins are carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that are found naturally in peanut. It requires extremely high temperatures to eliminate aflatoxins from the nuts. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of ultra-superheated steam (USS) on the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) accompanying the roasting process and to determine roasted peanut qualities that affected consumer acceptance. RESULTS: Whole peanut kernels were intentionally contaminated by AFB1 standard solution at the level of 50 ± 10 µg kg-1 before subjecting to USS treatment at 300-400 °C between 10 and 80 s...
November 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154716/occurrence-of-toxigenic-fungi-and-mycotoxins-during-smoked-paprika-production
#15
Rocío Casquete, Alicia Rodríguez, Alejandro Hernández, Alberto Martín, Teresa Bartolomé, Juan José Córdoba, María G Córdoba
'La Vera' smoked paprika is a traditional Spanish product regulated under a protected designation of origin. Mycotoxins are possible contaminants in paprika, yet there is little information about mycotoxin production during the processing of smoked paprika. In this study, samples of dried peppers collected from six traditional dryers from four producers were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, mycotoxins, and mycotoxin-producing fungi. The moisture content and water activity of the peppers ranged from 11...
December 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152206/global-population-structure-and-adaptive-evolution-of-aflatoxin-producing-fungi
#16
Geromy G Moore, Rodrigo A Olarte, Bruce W Horn, Jacalyn L Elliott, Rakhi Singh, Carolyn J O'Neal, Ignazio Carbone
Aflatoxins produced by several species in Aspergillus section Flavi are a significant problem in agriculture and a continuous threat to human health. To provide insights into the biology and global population structure of species in section Flavi , a total of 1,304 isolates were sampled across six species ( A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. caelatus, A. tamarii, and A. alliaceus ) from single fields in major peanut-growing regions in Georgia (USA), Australia, Argentina, India, and Benin (Africa)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150754/detoxification-of-aflatoxin-b1-by-antifungal-compounds-from-lactobacillus-brevis-and-lactobacillus-paracasei-isolated-from-dairy-products
#17
Eman Zakaria Gomaa, Manal Farouk Abdelall, Omima Mohammed El-Mahdy
Aflatoxins are a large group of highly toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by specific species of fungi. Potential contamination of food commodities by these compounds causes extensive damage that lead to great economic losses. This study explored the potential use of antifungal compounds, produced by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei, for growth inhibition and subsequent aflatoxin B1 production from select strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Lactobacilli strains were isolated from traditional Egyptian dairy products, whereas fungal strains were isolated from infected cereal seeds...
November 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146305/validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-detection-of-aflatoxin-b1-residues-in-broiler-liver
#18
Alejandra P Magnoli, María L González Pereyra, María P Monge, Lilia R Cavaglieri, Stella M Chiacchiera
Aflatoxin B1 is a carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It is the predominant mycotoxin found in raw materials used for the manufacture of broiler feeds. The aim of the present study was to develop a new and optimized method for the detection and quantification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) residues in broiler liver using solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) detection...
November 14, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134389/exploration-antifungal-and-antiaflatoxigenic-activity-of-halophilic-bacteria-communities-from-saline-soils-of-howze-soltan-playa-in-iran
#19
Samaneh Jafari, Seyed-Soheil Aghaei, Hossein Afifi-Sabet, Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Zahra Jahanshiri, Mohammadhassan Gholami-Shabani, Seyedahmad Shafiei-Darabi, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh
In the present study, halophilic bacteria communities were explored in saline soils of Howze-Soltan playa in Iran with special attention to their biological activity against an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. Halophilic bacteria were isolated from a total of 20 saline soils using specific culture media and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing in neighbor-joining tree analysis. Antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of the bacteria were screened by a nor-mutant A. parasiticus NRRL 2999 using visual agar plate assay and confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography...
January 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107194/anti-aflatoxigenic-effect-of-organic-acids-produced-by-lactobacillus-plantarum
#20
Ana Guimarães, Ana Santiago, José A Teixeira, Armando Venâncio, Luís Abrunhosa
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are commonly used in the production of fermented foods, have been gaining attention for their antifungal and antimycotoxin properties. In this work, the strain Lactobacillus plantarum UM55 was selected among other LAB for inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus flavus. Further, it is shown that cell-free supernatant (CFS) of this strain inhibits the production of aflatoxins (AFLs) by 91%. This inhibition was dependent on CFS pH, increased with increasing concentrations of CFS, and was independent of fungal growth, which was inhibited only by 32%...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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