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Aspergillus parasiticus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207242/suppression-of-aflatoxin-production-in-aspergillus-species-by-selected-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-stilbenoids
#1
Victor S Sobolev, Renée Silvia Arias, Kerestin Goodman, Travis Walk, Valerie Orner, Paola Faustinelli, Alicia Massa
Aspergillus flavus is a soil fungus that commonly invades peanut seeds and often produces the carcinogenic aflatoxins. Under favorable conditions, the fungus-challenged peanut plant produces and accumulates resveratrol and its prenylated derivatives in response to such invasion. These prenylated stilbenoids are considered peanut antifungal phytoalexins. However, the mechanism of peanut-fungus interaction has not been sufficiently studied. We used pure peanut stilbenoids, arachidin-1, arachidin-3, and chiricanine A to study their effect on the viability and metabolite production by several important toxigenic Aspergillus species...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168184/effect-of-ultra-superheated-steam-on-aflatoxin-reduction-and-roasted-peanut-properties
#2
Parawee Pukkasorn, Wannasawat Ratphitagsanti, Vichai Haruthaitanasan
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxins are carcinogenic toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that are found naturally in peanut. It requires extremely high temperatures for eliminating aflatoxins from the nuts. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of ultra superheated steam (USS) on the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) accompanying roasting process and to determine roasted peanut qualities that affected consumer acceptance. RESULTS: Whole peanut kernels were intentionally contaminated by AFB1 standard solution at the level of 50±10 μg kg(-1) before subjected to USS treatment at 300-400°C between 10 and 80 s...
November 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154716/occurrence-of-toxigenic-fungi-and-mycotoxins-during-smoked-paprika-production
#3
Rocío Casquete, Alicia Rodríguez, Alejandro Hernández, Alberto Martín, Teresa Bartolomé, Juan José Córdoba, María G Córdoba
'La Vera' smoked paprika is a traditional Spanish product regulated under a protected designation of origin. Mycotoxins are possible contaminants in paprika, yet there is little information about mycotoxin production during the processing of smoked paprika. In this study, samples of dried peppers collected from six traditional dryers from four producers were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, mycotoxins, and mycotoxin-producing fungi. The moisture content and water activity of the peppers ranged from 11...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152206/global-population-structure-and-adaptive-evolution-of-aflatoxin-producing-fungi
#4
Geromy G Moore, Rodrigo A Olarte, Bruce W Horn, Jacalyn L Elliott, Rakhi Singh, Carolyn J O'Neal, Ignazio Carbone
Aflatoxins produced by several species in Aspergillus section Flavi are a significant problem in agriculture and a continuous threat to human health. To provide insights into the biology and global population structure of species in section Flavi, a total of 1,304 isolates were sampled across six species (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. caelatus, A. tamarii, and A. alliaceus) from single fields in major peanut-growing regions in Georgia (USA), Australia, Argentina, India, and Benin (Africa). We inferred maximum-likelihood phylogenies for six loci, both combined and separately, including two aflatoxin cluster regions (aflM/alfN and aflW/aflX) and four noncluster regions (amdS, trpC, mfs and MAT), to examine population structure and history...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150754/detoxification-of-aflatoxin-b1-by-antifungal-compounds-from-lactobacillus-brevis-and-lactobacillus-paracasei-isolated-from-dairy-products
#5
Eman Zakaria Gomaa, Manal Farouk Abdelall, Omima Mohammed El-Mahdy
Aflatoxins are a large group of highly toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by specific species of fungi. Potential contamination of food commodities by these compounds causes extensive damage that lead to great economic losses. This study explored the potential use of antifungal compounds, produced by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei, for growth inhibition and subsequent aflatoxin B1 production from select strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Lactobacilli strains were isolated from traditional Egyptian dairy products, whereas fungal strains were isolated from infected cereal seeds...
November 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146305/validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-detection-of-aflatoxin-b1-residues-in-broiler-liver
#6
Alejandra P Magnoli, María L González Pereyra, María P Monge, Lilia R Cavaglieri, Stella M Chiacchiera
Aflatoxin B1 is a carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It is the predominant mycotoxin found in raw materials used for the manufacture of broiler feeds. The aim of the present study was to develop a new and optimized method for the detection and quantification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) residues in broiler liver using solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) detection...
November 14, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134389/exploration-antifungal-and-antiaflatoxigenic-activity-of-halophilic-bacteria-communities-from-saline-soils-of-howze-soltan-playa-in-iran
#7
Samaneh Jafari, Seyed-Soheil Aghaei, Hossein Afifi-Sabet, Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Zahra Jahanshiri, Mohammadhassan Gholami-Shabani, Seyedahmad Shafiei-Darabi, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh
In the present study, halophilic bacteria communities were explored in saline soils of Howze-Soltan playa in Iran with special attention to their biological activity against an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. Halophilic bacteria were isolated from a total of 20 saline soils using specific culture media and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing in neighbor-joining tree analysis. Antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of the bacteria were screened by a nor-mutant A. parasiticus NRRL 2999 using visual agar plate assay and confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography...
November 13, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107194/anti-aflatoxigenic-effect-of-organic-acids-produced-by-lactobacillus-plantarum
#8
Ana Guimarães, Ana Santiago, José A Teixeira, Armando Venâncio, Luís Abrunhosa
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are commonly used in the production of fermented foods, have been gaining attention for their antifungal and antimycotoxin properties. In this work, the strain Lactobacillus plantarum UM55 was selected among other LAB for inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus flavus. Further, it is shown that cell-free supernatant (CFS) of this strain inhibits the production of aflatoxins (AFLs) by 91%. This inhibition was dependent on CFS pH, increased with increasing concentrations of CFS, and was independent of fungal growth, which was inhibited only by 32%...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068590/vitamin-e-%C3%AE-tocopherol-attenuates-toxicity-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-aflatoxin-in-rats
#9
Seval Yılmaz, Emre Kaya, Selim Comakli
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and are classified as group I carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible preventive role of vitamin E (Vit E) on aflatoxin (AF) induced toxicity by using biochemical and histopathological approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: control group, Vit E group (Vit E was administered), AFB1 group (a single dose of AFB1 was administered), AF + Vit E group (AF and Vit E were administered)...
September 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064057/antiaflatoxigenic-potential-of-cell-free-supernatant-from-lactobacillus-plantarum-mys44-against-aspergillus-parasiticus
#10
K Poornachandra Rao, B V Deepthi, S Rakesh, T Ganesh, Premila Achar, M Y Sreenivasa
The study aims to evaluate the cell-free supernatant (CFS) from Lactobacillus plantarum strain MYS44 against the growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus MTCC 411. Standard in vitro techniques revealed the potential antifungal activity of CFS of LpMYS44. In poison food technique, it was observed that 6% CFS of LpMYS44 retarded maximum growth. The inhibition of A. parasiticus on peanuts confirmed the ability of CFS of LpMYS44 for biopreservation. Further, CFS of LpMYS44 was purified by chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS...
October 24, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041787/a-comparative-analysis-of-mycotoxin-contamination-of-supermarket-and-premium-brand-pelleted-dog-food-in-durban-south-africa
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sanil D Singh, Anil A Chuturgoon
Dry pelleted dog food in the South African market is available via supermarkets, pet stores (standard brands [SBs]) and veterinary channels (premium brands [PBs]). For the purpose of this study, the supermarket channel included the cheaper quality foods and PBs were sold via the veterinary channel (n = 20). These feeds were analysed for four main mycotoxins (aflatoxins [AF], fumonisin [FB], ochratoxin A [OTA] and zearalenone [ZEA]) using standard welldescribed extraction, characterisation and quantitation processes...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941897/characterization-of-aspergillus-section-flavi-isolated-from-fresh-chestnuts-and-along-the-chestnut-flour-process
#12
Simona Prencipe, Ilenia Siciliano, Cecilia Contessa, Roberto Botta, Angelo Garibaldi, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Davide Spadaro
An extensive sampling of Aspergillus section Flavi considered to be the main agent responsible for aflatoxin contamination, was carried out in the field and along the processing phases of chestnut flour production in 2015. Fifty-eight isolates were characterized by means of biological, molecular and chemical assays. The highest incidence of Aspergillus section Flavi was found in the field. The identification of the isolates was based on β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. A. flavus was found to be the dominant species, and this was followed by A...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938783/phytochemicals-reduce-aflatoxin-induced-toxicity-in-chicken-embryos
#13
Hsin-Bai Yin, Chi-Hung Chen, Michael J Darre, Ann M Donoghue, Dan J Donoghue, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which frequently contaminate poultry feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased bird performance and reduced egg production. Moreover, AF residues in fertilized eggs result in huge economic losses by decreasing embryo viability and hatchability. This study investigated the efficacy of 2 generally recognized as safe phytochemicals, namely carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), in protecting chicken embryos from AF-induced toxicity...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928533/control-of-aflatoxigenic-strains-by-cinnamomum-porrectum-essential-oil
#14
Oratai Sukcharoen, Pramote Sirirote, Dusanee Thanaboripat
Essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type system for 3 h and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds were safrole (93.9%), elemicine (4.3%) and methyl eugenol (1.7%). The effect of essential oil on mycelial growth, sporulation, and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 283883 and Aspergillus flavus IMI 242684 was evaluated using contact and vapor treatments. Aflatoxin B1 was determined using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926946/the-fungal-bzip-transcription-factor-atfb-controls-virulence-associated-processes-in-aspergillus-parasiticus
#15
Josephine Wee, Sung-Yong Hong, Ludmila V Roze, Devin M Day, Anindya Chanda, John E Linz
Fungal basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors mediate responses to oxidative stress. The ability to regulate stress response pathways in Aspergillus spp. was postulated to be an important virulence-associated cellular process, because it helps establish infection in humans, plants, and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the fungal transcription factor AtfB encodes a protein that is associated with resistance to oxidative stress in asexual conidiospores, and AtfB binds to the promoters of several stress response genes...
September 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915412/aspergillus-section-flavi-community-structure-in-zambia-influences-aflatoxin-contamination-of-maize-and-groundnut
#16
Paul W Kachapulula, Juliet Akello, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J Cotty
Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus populations associated with aflatoxin contamination in Zambia have not been adequately detailed. Most of Zambia's arable land is non-cultivated and Aspergillus communities in crops may originate in non-cultivated soil...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794934/activity-of-chitosan-lysozyme-nanoparticles-on-the-growth-membrane-integrity-and-%C3%AE-1-3-glucanase-production-by-aspergillus-parasiticus
#17
Cynthia Nazareth Hernández-Téllez, Francisco Julián Rodríguez-Córdova, Ema Carina Rosas-Burgos, Mario Onofre Cortez-Rocha, Armando Burgos-Hernández, Jaime Lizardi-Mendoza, Wilfrido Torres-Arreola, Aarón Martínez-Higuera, Maribel Plascencia-Jatomea
Synthesis of nanocomposites from antimicrobial biopolymers such as chitosan (CS) and lysozyme (LZ) is an important and promising area in bionanotechnology. Chitosan-lysozyme (CS-LZ) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method, using commercial chitosan of 153 kDa. TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis were carried out to evaluate the morphology, size, dispersion, and Z potential. Association efficiency of lysozyme was determined using Coomassie blue assay. The antifungal activity of NPs against Aspergillus parasiticus was evaluated through cell viability (XTT), germination and morphometry of spores, and reducing sugars production; the effects on membrane integrity and cell wall were also analyzed...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738076/the-comparison-of-chca-solvent-compositions-for-improving-lc-maldi-performance-and-its-application-to-study-the-impact-of-aflatoxin-b1-on-the-liver-proteome-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-1-mice
#18
Fuu-Jen Tsai, Shih-Yin Chen, Yu-Ching Liu, Hsin-Yi Liao, Chao-Jung Chen
In nanoflow liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (nanoLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF) approaches, it is critical to directly apply small amounts of the sample elutes on the sample target using a nanoLC system due to its low flow rate of 200 ~ 300 nl/min. It is recommended to apply a sheath liquid containing a matrix with a several μL/min flow rate at the end of the nanoLC column to ensure a larger co-eluted droplet for more reproducible sample spotting and avoid the laborious task of post-manual matrix spotting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710744/cloning-and-characterization-of-f3pyc-gene-encoding-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-aspergillus-flavus-strain-f3
#19
Sadia Qayyum, Ibrar Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad Bhatti, Changsheng Peng
Pyruvate carboxylase is a major enzyme for biosynthesis of organic acids like; citric acid, fumeric acid, and L-malic acid. These organic acids play very important role for biological remediation of heavy metals. In this study, gene walking method was used to clone and characterize pyruvate carboxylase gene (F3PYC) from heavy metal resistant indigenous fungal isolate Aspergillus flavus (F3). 3579 bp of an open reading frame which encodes 1193 amino acid protein (isoelectric point: 6.10) with a calculated molecular weight of 131...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675475/fumigation-of-brazil-nuts-with-allyl-isothiocyanate-to-inhibit-the-growth-of-aspergillus-parasiticus-and-aflatoxin-production
#20
Lucas F Lopes, Keliani Bordin, Gabriel H C de Lara, Federica Saladino, Juan M Quiles, Giuseppe Meca, Fernando B Luciano
BACKGROUND: Brazil produces approximately 40,000 tons of Brazil nuts annually, which is commonly contaminated with fungi and mycotoxins. Gaseous allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) was used to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and its production of aflatoxins (AFs) in Brazil nuts. RESULTS: Nuts were inoculated with 10(4) spores g(-1) of A. parasiticus and placed in airtight glass jars with controlled relative humidity (RH = 95 or 85 %). Samples were treated with 0, 0...
July 4, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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