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Aspergillus parasiticus

Yong Zhao, Xiao Liu, Xiaochen Wang, Chongyun Sun, Xinrui Wang, Pingping Zhang, Jingfu Qiu, Ruifu Yang, Lei Zhou
Contamination of grains and other crops by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a highly toxic aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, poses a serious threat to human health and is an important food safety issue. In this study, a competitive up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (AFB1-UPT-LF) assay was developed for rapid detection of AFB1. Detection sensitivity of the proposed assay can reach 0.03ngmL(-1) for standard AFB1 solutions, with the coefficients of variation (CV) less than 10% (from 1...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Sandhya, Sandeep Kumar, Dinesh Kumar, Neeraj Dilbaghi
Synthesis and controlled release study of polymeric nanoformulation of carbendazim (2-benzimidazole carbamic acid methyl ester) using chitosan and pectin is reported in this article. The formulation was subjected to morphological, physiological, in vitro fungicide release and bio-efficacy evaluation studies. The average size of nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 70-90 nm as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro fungicide release of nanoformulated carbendazim was compared with pure carbendazim at different pH values...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Abdi Mohammed, Alemayehu Chala, Mashilla Dejene, Chemeda Fininsa, David A Hoisington, Victor S Sobolev, Renee S Arias
This study was conducted to assess major Aspergillus species and aflatoxins associated with groundnut seeds and cake in Eastern Ethiopia and evaluate growers' management practices. A total of 160 groundnut seed samples from farmers' stores and 50 groundnut cake samples from cafe and restaurants were collected. Fungal isolation was done from groundnut seed samples. Aspergillus flavus was the dominant species followed by Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin analyses of groundnut seed samples were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography; 22...
December 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Ines Jedidi, Alejandra Cruz, Maria Teresa González-Jaén, Salem Said
Occurrence of aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and ochratoxin A (OTA) was studied in 65 samples of stored and freshly harvested wheat, barley and maize collected in Tunisia. The mycotoxins were simultaneously extracted and quantified by HPLC. Determination of AF-producing (section Flavi) and OTA-producing Aspergillus species (sections Nigri and Circumdati) was conducted in these samples by species-specific PCR. Results showed that most of maize samples were contaminated with AFs, data after storage showing higher values than those collected at harvest...
October 13, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
David Tinayeshe Maringe, Cathrine Chidewe, Mudadi Albert Benhura, Brighton Marimanzi Mvumi, Tatenda Clive Murashiki, Mavis Precious Dembedza, Lucia Siziba, Loveness Kuziwa Nyanga
Aflatoxins, mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are highly toxic and may lead to health problems such as liver cancer. Exposure to aflatoxins may result from ingestion of contaminated foods. Levels of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 in samples of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and bambara nuts (Vigna subterranean) grown by smallholder farmers in Shamva and Makoni districts, Zimbabwe, were determined at harvesting, using high performance liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity clean-up...
October 4, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Abderrahmane Houicher, Hind Hechachna, Hanifa Teldji, Fatih Ozogul
The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal activity of the essential oils isolated from three aromatic plants against 13 filamentous fungal strains. The major constituents of Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris, and Laurus nobilis essential oils were carvone (52.2%), linalool (78.1%), and 1,8-cineole (45.6%), respectively. M. spicata essential oil exhibited the strongest activity against all tested fungi in which Fusarium graminearum, F.moniliforme, and Penicillium expansum were the most sensitive to mint oil with lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 2...
September 27, 2016: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Farzaneh Nateghi, Fatemeh Noorbakhsh, Ensieh Lotfali, Sassan Rezaie
BACKGROUND: The effect of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei) as safe organisms was examined on fungal growth and aflatoxin gene regulation in Aspergillus parasiticus. METHODS: The fungus was cultured in presence of two different concentrations of L. acidophilus and L. casei in MRS broth medium. Mycelia dry weight is indicated as criteria to evaluate fungal growth. Besides, investigation of aflR gene expression by Real Time PCR was performed for analysis of gene regulatory effects in aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Perng-Kuang Chang, Leslie L Scharfenstein, Kenneth C Ehrlich, José Diana Di Mavungu
Aspergillus flavus is able to synthesize a variety of polyketide-derived secondary metabolites including the hepatocarcinogen, aflatoxin B1. The fungus reproduces and disseminates predominantly by production of conidia. It also produces hardened mycelial aggregates called sclerotia that are used to cope with unfavourable growth environments. In the present study, we examined the role of A. flavus fluP, the backbone polyketide synthase gene of secondary metabolite gene cluster 41, on fungal development. The A...
October 2016: Fungal Biology
Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Yinka Somorin, Foluke I Odutayo, Stella U Nwabekee, Afeez T Balogun, Rudolf Krska
An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Mohadeseh Namjoo, Faezeh Salamat, Niloofar Rajabli, Reza Hajihoseeini, Farhad Niknejad, Faramarz Kohsar, Hamidreza Joshaghani
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxins are the most common mycotoxins that contaminate crops. They are produced by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Wheat (Tricitumaestivum) is one of the most important staple foods used in Iran, and the environmental conditions in the north of Iran are favorable to fungal growth. This study was designed in order to determine the aflatoxin concentration in wheat samples from silos in Golestan Province north of Iran. METHODS: Samples were collected from three silos of Golestan province...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Belén Peromingo, Alicia Rodríguez, Victoria Bernáldez, Josué Delgado, Mar Rodríguez
Dry-cured hams may be colonised by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus during the ripening process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between non-ionic water stress and temperatures may have on lag phases prior to growth, growth rates and aflatoxin production by two strains of each A. parasiticus and A. flavus on meat matrices over a period of 12days. Results showed that A. flavus CBS 573.65 had shorter lag phases than A. parasiticus CECT 2688, however the growth rates were quite similar...
December 2016: Meat Science
Phani M Gummadidala, Yung Pin Chen, Kevin R Beauchesne, Kristen P Miller, Chandrani Mitra, Nora Banaszek, Michelle Velez-Martinez, Peter D R Moeller, John L Ferry, Alan W Decho, Anindya Chanda
Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter the aflatoxin producers have the ability to synthesize compounds that inhibit aflatoxin synthesis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Miroslava Císarová, Dana Tančinová, Juraj Medo, Miroslava Kačániová
The aim of the present study was to assess the antifungal and anti-toxinogenic activity of 15 essential oils (EOs) against three fungi of the genus Aspergillus (A. parasiticus KMi-227-LR, A. parasiticus KMi-220-LR and A. flavus KMi-202-LR). The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of the tested essential oils and their antifungal activity were determined using the micro-atmosphere method. The original commercial essential oil samples of Jasminum officinale L., Thymus vulgaris L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry, Rosmarinus officinalis L...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Josephine Wee, Devin M Day, John E Linz
Zinc concentrations strongly influence aflatoxin accumulation in laboratory media and in food and feed crops. The presence of zinc stimulates aflatoxin production, and the absence of zinc impedes toxin production. Initial studies that suggested a link between zinc and aflatoxin biosynthesis were presented in the 1970s. In the present study, we utilized two zinc chelators, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) to explore the effect of zinc limitation on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus...
2016: Toxins
Ilenia Siciliano, Davide Spadaro, Ambra Prelle, Dario Vallauri, Maria Chiara Cavallero, Angelo Garibaldi, Maria Lodovica Gullino
Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N₂, 0.1% O₂ and 1% O₂, 21% O₂), then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W) and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min) were optimized...
2016: Toxins
Segun Gbolagade Jonathan, Mary Adejoke Adeniyi, Michael Dare Asemoloye
This work aimed to analyze the nutrient values, examine the biodeteriorating fungi biota, and analyze the mycotoxin contents of "Suya spices." Fungi with highest percentage occurrence on all the samples are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, yeast, and Trichoderma koningii. Nutrient composition of the samples is significantly different statistically (P < 0.05) with high protein (9.53% to 13.17%), fiber (9.27 to 13.17%), carbohydrate (46...
2016: Scientifica
Seyed Soheil Ghaemmaghami, Mehrdad Modirsaneii, Ali Reza Khosravi, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i...
February 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Pratheeba Yogendrarajah, An Vermeulen, Liesbeth Jacxsens, Evangelia Mavromichali, Sarah De Saeger, Bruno De Meulenaer, Frank Devlieghere
The growth and mycotoxin production of three Aspergillus flavus isolates and an Aspergillus parasiticus isolate were studied in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L.) using a full factorial design with seven water activity (aw) (0.826-0.984) levels and three temperatures (22, 30 and 37°C). Growth rates and lag phases were estimated using linear regression. Diverse secondary models were assessed for their ability to describe the radial growth rate as a function of individual and combined effect of aw and temperature...
July 2, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Paola C Faustinelli, Xinye Monica Wang, Edwin R Palencia, Renée S Arias
Aspergillus flavusandA. parasiticusfungi produce carcinogenic mycotoxins in peanut seeds, causing considerable impact on both human health and the economy. Here, we report nine genome sequences ofAspergillusspp., isolated from Georgia peanut seeds in 2014. The information obtained will lead to further biodiversity studies that are essential for developing control strategies.
2016: Genome Announcements
Paula Asurmendi, María J García, Francisco Ruíz, Ana Dalcero, Liliana Pascual, Lucila Barberis
The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from brewer's grains on Aspergillus section Flavi growth and aflatoxin B1 production. The Aspergillus strains tested were inhibited by all the LAB strains assayed. The isolates Lactobacillus brevis B20, P. pentosaceus B86, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis B87, L. brevis B131, and Lactobacillus sp. B144 completely suppressed the fungal growth and reduced aflatoxin B1 production. In conclusion, LAB isolated from brewer's grains show a high inhibitory activity on fungal growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus...
July 2, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
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