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Aspergillus flavus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213013/time-course-of-germination-initiation-of-mycelium-proliferation-and-probability-of-visible-growth-and-detectable-afb1-production-of-an-isolate-of-aspergillus-flavus-on-pistachio-extract-agar
#1
Laila Aldars-García, Vicente Sanchis, Antonio J Ramos, Sonia Marín
The aim of this work was to assess the temporal relationship among quantified germination, mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production from colonies coming from single spores, in order to find the best way to predict as accurately as possible the presence of AFB1 at the early stages of contamination. Germination, mycelial growth, probability of growth and probability of AFB1 production of an isolate of Aspergillus flavus were determined at 25 °C and two water activities (0.85 and 0.87) on 3% Pistachio Extract Agar (PEA)...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212851/the-high-affinity-phosphodiesterase-pdeh-regulates-development-and-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-flavus
#2
Kunlong Yang, Yinghang Liu, Linlin Liang, Zhenguo Li, Qiuping Qin, Xinyi Nie, Shihua Wang
Cyclic AMP signaling controls a range of physiological processes in response to extracellular stimuli in organisms. Among the signaling cascades, cAMP, as a second messenger, is orchestrated by adenylate cyclase(biosynthesis) and cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs)(hydrolysis). In this study, we investigated the function of the high-affinity (PdeH) and low-affinity (PdeL) cAMP phosphodiesterase from the carcinogenic aflatoxin producing fungus Aspergillus flavus, and found that instead of PdeL, inactivation of PdeH exhibited a reduction in conidiation and sclerotia formation...
February 14, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197828/coinfection-with-lichtheimia-corymbifera-and-aspergillus-flavus-in-an-immune-competent-patient-mimicking-as-pulmonary-renal-syndrome
#3
Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Farah Idrees, Kauser Jabeen, Saima Kamal, Afia Zafar
Lichtheimia corymbifera and Aspergillus flavus pulmonary coinfection has been rarely reported in immune-competent patients. We report case of a young male who presented with clinical features of pulmonary-renal syndrome and was later diagnosed to have bilateral polymicrobial fungal lung infection.
February 14, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158222/comparative-analysis-of-nbs-lrr-genes-and-their-response-to-aspergillus-flavus-in-arachis
#4
Hui Song, Pengfei Wang, Changsheng Li, Suoyi Han, Chuanzhi Zhao, Han Xia, Yuping Bi, Baozhu Guo, Xinyou Zhang, Xingjun Wang
Studies have demonstrated that nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes respond to pathogen attack in plants. Characterization of NBS-LRR genes in peanut is not well documented. The newly released whole genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaënsis have allowed a global analysis of this important gene family in peanut to be conducted. In this study, we identified 393 (AdNBS) and 437 (AiNBS) NBS-LRR genes from A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis, respectively, using bioinformatics approaches...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132403/tulbaghia-violacea-harv-plant-extract-affects-cell-wall-synthesis-in-aspergillus-flavus
#5
Vuyokazi Belewa, Himansu Baijnath, Carminita Frost, Benesh Munilal Somai
AIMS: This study investigates the effect that aqueous extracts of T. violacea Harv. harbouring plant saponins, phenolics and tannins have on Aspergillus flavus β-(1,3) glucan and chitin synthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A. flavus was treated with various sub-inhibitory concentrations of an aqueous T. violacea plant extract and the β-(1,3) glucan and chitin content was determined together with glucan synthase and chitin synthase production respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The aqueous extract caused a significant decline (p< 0...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126666/design-synthesis-and-spectroscopic-characterization-of-metal-ii-complexes-derived-from-a-tetradentate-macrocyclic-ligand-study-on%C3%A2-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-complexes
#6
Parveez Gull, Manzoor Ahmad Malik, Ovas Ahmad Dar, Athar Adil Hashmi
The paper presents the synthesis of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of macrocyclic Schiff base ligand derived from 1, 4-dicarbonyl-phenyl-dihydrazide and ethyl 3-oxobutanoate (2:2). The synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements, FTIR, UV-Vis., mass (1)H NMR and X-ray diffraction. The Cu(II) complex exhibit distorted octahedral geometry, whereas an octahedral geometry is suggested for other complexes. The synthesized compounds were screened in vitro for their antimicrobial activities to evaluate their inhibiting potential against bacterial species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and fungal species include Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumingatus, and Candida albicans...
January 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122038/effective-control-of-molds-using-a-combination-of-nanoparticles
#7
Ariana Auyeung, Miguel Ángel Casillas-Santana, Gabriel Alejandro Martínez-Castañón, Yael N Slavin, Wayne Zhao, Jason Asnis, Urs O Häfeli, Horacio Bach
Molds are filamentous fungi able to grow on a variety of surfaces, including constructed surfaces, food, rotten organic matter, and humid places. Mold growth is characterized by having an unpleasant odor in enclosed or non-ventilated places and a non-aesthetic appearance. They represent a health concern because of their ability to produce and release mycotoxins, compounds that are toxic to animals and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate commercial nanoparticles (NPs) that can be used as an additive in coatings and paints to effectively control the growth of harmful molds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117705/detoxification-of-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2-by-zygosaccharomyces-rouxii-with-solid-state-fermentation-in-peanut-meal
#8
Guanghui Zhou, Yujie Chen, Qing Kong, Yunxiao Ma, Yang Liu
Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste-one kind of traditional Chinese food-to detoxify aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%...
January 20, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117685/a-survey-of-aflatoxin-producing-aspergillus-sp-from-peanut-field-soils-in-four-agroecological-zones-of-china
#9
Chushu Zhang, Jonathan Nimal Selvaraj, Qingli Yang, Yang Liu
Peanut pods are easily infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp.ecies from field soil. To assess the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in different peanut field soils, 344 aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus strains were isolated from 600 soil samples of four agroecological zones in China (the Southeast coastal zone (SEC), the Yangtze River zone (YZR), the Yellow River zone (YR) and the Northeast zone (NE)). Nearly 94.2% (324/344) of strains were A. flavus and 5.8% (20/344) of strains were A. parasiticus...
January 20, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115342/rifampin-enhances-the-activity-of-amphotericin-b-for-fusarium-solani-species-complex-and-aspergillus-flavus-species-complex-isolated-from-keratitis
#10
Yi He, Lutan Zhou, Chuanwen Gao, Lei Han, Yan Xu
The in vitro activities of amphotericin B in combination with rifampin were assessed against 95 ocular fungal isolates. The interactions between amphotericin B and rifampin at 4, 8, 16 and 32 μg/ml were synergistic for 11.8, 51.0, 90.2 and 94.1%, respectively, of the Fusarium solani species complex isolates and for 13.6, 45.5, 93.2 and 95.5%, respectively, of the Aspergillus flavus species complex isolates. Antagonism was never observed for the amphotericin B-rifampin combinations.
January 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109854/histone-methyltransferase-aflrmta-gene-is-involved-in-the-morphogenesis-mycotoxin-biosynthesis-and-pathogenicity-of-aspergillus-flavus
#11
Yu Li, Yizi He, Xing Li, Opemipo Esther Fasoyin, Yule Hu, Yaju Liu, Jun Yuan, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
Arginine methyltransferases catalyze the posttranslational methylation of arginine, which is involved in a range of important biological processes. aflrmtA gene, an arginine methyltransferase was deleted from Aspergillus flavus in this study by homologous recombination. In morphogenesis assay, aflrmtA was found to down-regulate conidiation by regulating the activity of brlA and abaA genes. It was also found to increase sclerotia formation by up-regulating the expression of nsdC and nsdD genes. In mycotoxin biosynthesis, aflrmtA gene was found to significantly up-regulate the biosynthesis of AFB1 in PDA and PDB media by improving the expression of aflR, aflC and aflK, but it was of no effect in YES medium...
January 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100314/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-for-rapid-identification-of-fungal-rhinosinusitis-pathogens
#12
Xinxin Lu, Yanfei Huang, Mingxin Zhang, Min Zhu, Mei Wang, Yufeng Sun, Haitong Gu, Jingjing Cao, Xue Li, Shaoya Zhang, Jinglin Wang
BACKGROUND: filamentous fungi are the most important pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS). Current laboratory diagnosis of FRS pathogens mainly relies on phenotypic identification by culture and microscopic examination, which is time-consuming and expertise-dependent. Although matrix -assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been employed to identify various fungi, its performance for the identification of FRS fungi is less clear...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098779/unravelling-the-diversity-of-the-cyclopiazonic-acid-family-of-mycotoxins-in-aspergillus-flavus-by-uhplc-triple-tof-hrms
#13
Valdet Uka, Geromy G Moore, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Dashnor Nebija, Sarah De Saeger, José Diana Di Mavungu
Cyclopiazonic acid (α-cyclopiazonic acid, α-CPA) is an indole-hydrindane-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by various fungal species, including the notorious food and feed contaminant Aspergillus flavus. Despite its discovery in A. flavus cultures approximately 40 years ago, its contribution to the A. flavus mycotoxin burden is consistently minimized by our focus on the more potent carcinogenic aflatoxins also produced by this fungus. Here, we report the screening and identification of several CPA-type alkaloids not previously found in A...
January 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080986/clinical-implications-of-globally-emerging-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#14
REVIEW
Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary, Johanna L Rhodes, Matthew C Fisher, Paul E Verweij
Aspergillus fungi are the cause of an array of diseases affecting humans, animals and plants. The triazole antifungal agents itraconazole, voriconazole, isavuconazole and posaconazole are treatment options against diseases caused by Aspergillus However, resistance to azoles has recently emerged as a new therapeutic challenge in six continents. Although de novo azole resistance occurs occasionally in patients during azole therapy, the main burden is the aquisition of resistance through the environment. In this setting, the evolution of resistance is attributed to the widespread use of azole-based fungicides...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075512/alkyl-formate-ester-synthesis-by-a-fungal-baeyer-villiger-monooxygenase
#15
Felix Martin Ferroni, Carmien Tolmie, Martha Sophia Smit, Diederik Johannes Opperman
Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) mediated synthesis of alkyl formate esters, important flavour and fragrance products, was investigated. A recombinant fungal BVMO from Aspergillus flavus was found to transform a selection of aliphatic aldehydes to alkyl formates with high regioselectivity. Near complete conversion of 10 mM octanal was achieved within 8 h with a regiomeric excess of ~80%. Substrate concentration was found to affect specific activity and regioselectivity of the BVMO as well as the rate of product autohydrolysis to the primary alcohol...
January 11, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053655/an-investigation-of-fungal-contamination-on-the-surface-of-medicinal-herbs-in-china
#16
Run-Sheng Zheng, Wen-Li Wang, Jing Tan, Hui Xu, Ruo-Ting Zhan, Wei-Wen Chen
BACKGROUND: The dried parts of medicinal herbs are susceptible to the infection of fungi during pre- or post-harvest procedure. This study aimed to investigate the presence of fungi and their metabolites mycotoxins on the surface of medicinal herbs collected from China. METHODS: Forty-five retail samples of 15 different medicinal herbs were collected from 3 different regions in China. Then the potential fungi were immediately washed off from the surface of each sample with 0...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043539/invasive-forms-of-candida-and-aspergillus-in-sputum-samples-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-attending-the-tuberculosis-reference-laboratory-in-ghaemshahr-northern-iran-an-analysis-of-samples-collected-during-the-past-10years
#17
Mohammad Reza Jabbari Amiri, Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Mohammad Taghi Hedayati, Mahdi Abastabar, Masoud Aliyali, Masoumeh Jabbari Amiri, Hamid Hasanpour
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. This is especially true in Northern Iran, which has high TB prevalence. The chronic nature of this disease is further exacerbated if it is accompanied by fungal infection, which usually remains undiagnosed and thus untreated. Thus, mycotic infections add fatal dimensions to pulmonary TB. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of invasive forms of fungal elements in sputum samples collected from patients with pulmonary TB at a reference laboratory in Ghaemshahr, Northern Iran, during the past 10years...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042000/mycotoxigenic-potentials-of-the-genera-aspergillus-fusarium-and-penicillium-isolated-from-houseflies-musca-domestica-l
#18
J Z Phoku, T G Barnard, N Potgieter, M F Dutton
A study on the potential of houseflies (Musca domestica L.) to spread fungal spores in Gauteng Province, South Africa proved that houseflies are vectors for fungal spores. Therefore, there is a need to determine the toxigenic potentials and to identify the mycotoxins produced by fungal isolates derived from this study. In total 377 potentially toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus (186), Fusarium (85) and Penicillium (106) species (spp.) were isolated. These isolates were further tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) [aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2], deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1) ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) respectively...
December 29, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040569/thermal-and-optical-characterization-of-biologically-synthesized-zns-nanoparticles-synthesized-from-an-endophytic-fungus-aspergillus-flavus-a-colorimetric-probe-in-metal-detection
#19
Priyanka Uddandarao, Raj Mohan Balakrishnan
Nanostructured semiconductor materials are of great importance for several technological applications due to their optical and thermal properties. The design and fabrication of metal sulfide nanoparticles with tunable properties for advanced applications have drawn a great deal of attention in the field of nanotechnology. ZnS is a potential II-IV group material which is used in hetero-junction solar cells, light emitting diodes, optoelectronic devices, electro luminescent devices and photovoltaic cells. Due to their multiple applications, there is a need to elucidate their thermal and optical properties...
March 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030812/aflatoxin-b1-invokes-apoptosis-via-death-receptor-pathway-in-hepatocytes
#20
Muhammad Jameel Mughal, Peng Xi, Zhou Yi, Fang Jing
The fungal metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus cause detrimental health effects on humans and animals. Particularly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most studied and a well-known global carcinogen, producing hepatotoxic, genotoxic and immunotoxic effects in multiple species. AFB1 is shown to provoke liver dysfunctioning by causing hepatocytes apoptosis and disturbing cellular enzymatic activities. In liver, AFB1 causes apoptosis via extrinsic mechanism because of high expression of death receptor pathway...
January 31, 2017: Oncotarget
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