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Aspergillus flavus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147866/a-review-of-onychomycosis-due-to-aspergillus-species
#1
REVIEW
Felix Bongomin, C R Batac, Malcolm D Richardson, David W Denning
Aspergillus spp. are emerging causative agents of non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis (NDMO). New Aspergillus spp. have recently been described to cause nail infections. The following criteria are required to diagnose onychomycosis due to Aspergillus spp.: (1) positive direct microscopy and (2) repeated culture or molecular detection of Aspergillus spp., provided no dermatophyte was isolated. A review of 42 epidemiological studies showed that onychomycosis due to Aspergillus spp. varies between < 1 and 35% of all cases of onychomycosis in the general population and higher among diabetic populations accounting for up to 71% and the elderly; it is very uncommon among children and adolescence...
November 16, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146305/validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-detection-of-aflatoxin-b1-residues-in-broiler-liver
#2
Alejandra P Magnoli, María L González Pereyra, María P Monge, Lilia R Cavaglieri, Stella M Chiacchiera
Aflatoxin B1 is a carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It is the predominant mycotoxin found in raw materials used for the manufacture of broiler feeds. The aim of the present study was to develop a new and optimized method for the detection and quantification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) residues in broiler liver using solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) detection...
November 14, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142397/chemical-composition-antimicrobial-and-antitumor-potentiality-of-essential-oil-of-ferula-tingitana-l-apiaceae-grow-in-libya
#3
Waleed Elghwaji, Abeer Mohamed El-Sayed, Kadriya S El-Deeb, Aly M ElSayed
Background: Ferula tingitana L. (Apiaceae) has been considered to have abortive and menstruation-inducing properties. It used to treat sore throat, fever, indigestion, and pains. Objectives: The objective of this study is to establish the chemical composition of the essential oil of flower, leaves of F. tingitana, and to throw light on antimicrobial, cytotoxic activities of Libyan plant. Materials and Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil of flower (0...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138628/biocontrol-activity-of-volatile-producing-bacillus-megaterium-and-pseudomonas-protegens-against-aspergillus-flavus-and-aflatoxin-production-on-stored-rice-grains
#4
Mohamed Mannaa, Ji Yeon Oh, Ki Deok Kim
In our previous study, three bacterial strains, Bacillus megaterium KU143, Microbacterium testaceum KU313, and Pseudomonas protegens AS15, were selected as effective biocontrol agents against Aspergillus flavus on stored rice grains. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of the volatiles produced by the strains on A. flavus growth and aflatoxin production on stored rice grains. The three strains significantly reduced mycelial growth of A. flavus in dual-culture assays compared with the negative control strain, Sphingomonas aquatilis KU408, and an untreated control...
September 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127811/distribution-and-incidence-of-atoxigenic-aspergillus-flavus-vcg-in-tree-crop-orchards-in-california-a-strategy-for-identifying-potential-antagonists-the-example-of-almonds
#5
Adeline Picot, Mark Doster, Md-Sajedul Islam, Kenneth Callicott, Alejandro Ortega-Beltran, Peter Cotty, Themis Michailides
To identify predominant isolates for potential use as biocontrol agents, Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from soils of almond, pistachio and fig orchard in the Central Valley of California were tested for their membership to 16 atoxigenic vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), including YV36, the VCG to which AF36, an atoxigenic isolate commercialized in the United States as biopesticide, belongs. A surprisingly large proportion of isolates belonged to YV36 (13.3%, 7.2% and 6.6% of the total almond, pistachio and fig populations, respectively), while the percentage of isolates belonging to the other 15 VCGs ranged from 0% to 2...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126800/nanoencapsulated-illicium-verum-hook-f-essential-oil-as-an-effective-novel-plant-based-preservative-against-aflatoxin-b1-production-and-free-radical-generation
#6
Abhishek Kumar Dwivedy, Vipin Kumar Singh, Bhanu Prakash, Nawal Kishore Dubey
The study reports efficacy of Illicium verum essential oil (IvEO) against food borne moudls and its nanoencapsulation for enhancing antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic potency. Chemical characterization of the IvEO showed anethole (89.12%) as major compound followed by estragole (4.859%). The IvEO showed broad fungitoxic spectrum against common food borne moulds. It's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum aflatoxin B1 inhibitory concentration (MAIC) against aflatoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus LHP-PV-1 were 0...
November 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121496/properties-of-two-fungal-endo-%C3%AE-1-3-galactanases-and-their-synergistic-action-with-an-exo-%C3%AE-1-3-galactanase-in-degrading-arabinogalactan-proteins
#7
Yoshihisa Yoshimi, Kaori Yaguchi, Satoshi Kaneko, Yoichi Tsumuraya, Toshihisa Kotake
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are plant proteoglycans, which are widely encountered in the plant kingdom, usually localized on the cell surface. The carbohydrate moieties of AGPs consist of β-1,3-galactan main chains and β-1,6-galactan side chains, to which other auxiliary sugars are attached. To date, FvEn3GAL isolated from Flammulina velutipes is the sole β-1,3-galactanase acting on β-1,3-galactan in an endo-manner. Here we cloned two homologous genes, designated Af3G and NcEn3GAL, possibly encoding endo-β-1,3-galactanase from Aspergillus flavus and Neurospora crassa, respectively...
October 25, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119563/impact-of-infrared-treatment-on-quality-and-fungal-decontamination-of-mung-bean-vigna-radiata-l-inoculated-with-aspergillus-spp
#8
Maninder Meenu, Paramita Guha, Sunita Mishra
BACKGROUND: Mung bean is a rich source of protein, carbohydrates and fiber content. It also exhibits a high level of antioxidant activity due to the presence of phenolic compounds. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger are the two major fungal strains associated with stored mung bean that lead to post-harvest losses of grains and also cause serious health risks to human beings. So there is a need to explore an economical decontamination method that can be used without affecting the biochemical parameters of grains...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110335/correlation-between-fungal-sensitization-in-childhood-persistent-asthma-and-disease-severity
#9
Aman Gupta, Meenu Singh, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Joseph L Mathew, Amit Rawat
BACKGROUND: Fungal sensitization in adults is associated with severe asthma but prevalence and clinical significance of fungal sensitization remains unclear in paediatric population. OBJECTIVE: To study association of fungal sensitization with disease severity in children with persistent asthma PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred children with persistent asthma in age group 7-15 years, symptom duration >2 years and forced expiratory volume in first second >50% of expected were enrolled...
November 6, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107194/anti-aflatoxigenic-effect-of-organic-acids-produced-by-lactobacillus-plantarum
#10
Ana Guimarães, Ana Santiago, José A Teixeira, Armando Venâncio, Luís Abrunhosa
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are commonly used in the production of fermented foods, have been gaining attention for their antifungal and antimycotoxin properties. In this work, the strain Lactobacillus plantarum UM55 was selected among other LAB for inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus flavus. Further, it is shown that cell-free supernatant (CFS) of this strain inhibits the production of aflatoxins (AFLs) by 91%. This inhibition was dependent on CFS pH, increased with increasing concentrations of CFS, and was independent of fungal growth, which was inhibited only by 32%...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100947/evaluation-of-pcr-reverse-line-blot-hybridization-assay-for-simultaneous-identification-of-medically-important-saprophytic-fungi
#11
S Agha Kuchak Afshari, H Rahimi, S J Hashemi, R Daie Ghazvini, H Badali, S Aghaei Gharehbolagh, S Rezaie
BACKGROUND: In immunocompromised patients suffering from invasive fungal infections, rapid identification of fungal species is important since the appropriate treatment is usually related to the responsible species. We describe here, an assay based on combination of PCR and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) for differentiation causative agent of fungal infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed PCR/RLB assay on 10 reference strains, which include Aspergillus species (A...
October 31, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097466/genome-sequences-of-three-strains-of-aspergillus-flavus-for-the-biological-control-of-aflatoxin
#12
Mark A Weaver, Brian E Scheffler, Mary Duke, Linda Ballard, Hamed K Abbas, Michael J Grodowitz
Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic contaminant of many commodities that are infected by Aspergillus flavus Nonaflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus have been utilized as biological control agents. Here, we report the genome sequences from three biocontrol strains. This information will be useful in developing markers for postrelease monitoring of these fungi.
November 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089952/the-pathogenesis-related-maize-seed-prms-gene-plays-a-role-in-resistance-to-aspergillus-flavus-infection-and-aflatoxin-contamination
#13
Rajtilak Majumdar, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Christine Sickler, Matthew Lebar, Bryan M Musungu, Ahmad M Fakhoury, Gary A Payne, Matt Geisler, Carol Carter-Wientjes, Qijian Wei, Deepak Bhatnagar, Jeffrey W Cary
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic plant pathogen that colonizes and produces the toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites, aflatoxins, in oil-rich crops such as maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.). Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins serve as an important defense mechanism against invading pathogens by conferring systemic acquired resistance in plants. Among these, production of the PR maize seed protein, ZmPRms (AC205274.3_FG001), has been speculated to be involved in resistance to infection by A. flavus and other pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068590/vitamin-e-%C3%AE-tocopherol-attenuates-toxicity-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-aflatoxin-in-rats
#14
Seval Yılmaz, Emre Kaya, Selim Comakli
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and are classified as group I carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible preventive role of vitamin E (Vit E) on aflatoxin (AF) induced toxicity by using biochemical and histopathological approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: control group, Vit E group (Vit E was administered), AFB1 group (a single dose of AFB1 was administered), AF + Vit E group (AF and Vit E were administered)...
September 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063883/standardization-of-a-two-step-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-method-for-species-specific-detection-of-medically-important-aspergillus-species
#15
P Das, P Pandey, A Harishankar, M Chandy, S Bhattacharya, A Chakrabarti
PURPOSE: Standardization of Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) poses two technical challenges (a) standardization of DNA extraction, (b) optimization of PCR against various medically important Aspergillus species. Many cases of aspergillosis go undiagnosed because of relative insensitivity of conventional diagnostic methods such as microscopy, culture or antigen detection. The present study is an attempt to standardize real-time PCR assay for rapid sensitive and specific detection of Aspergillus DNA in EDTA whole blood...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051754/a-cellular-fusion-cascade-regulated-by-laea-is-required-for-sclerotial-development-in-aspergillus-flavus
#16
Xixi Zhao, Joseph E Spraker, Jin Woo Bok, Thomas Velk, Zhu-Mei He, Nancy P Keller
Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic soil fungus that poses a serious threat worldwide as it contaminates many food and feed crops with the carcinogenic mycotoxin called aflatoxin. This pathogen persists as sclerotia in the soil which enables fungal survival in harsh environmental conditions. Sclerotia formation by A. flavus depends on successful cell communication and hyphal fusion events. Loss of LaeA, a conserved developmental regulator in fungi, abolishes sclerotia formation in this species whereas overexpression (OE) of laeA results in enhanced sclerotia production...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050883/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-potential-of-successive-extracts-of-ulmus-wallichiana-planch
#17
Kundan Singh Bora, Akhilesh Kumar, Gajraj Bisht
BACKGROUND: The plant Ulmus wallichiana Planch. is found in hills of Uttarakhand, India. Bark of U. wallichiana is commonly used as traditional healer for bone fracture of animals as well as human beings and also used as wound healer remedy. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate antimicrobial potential of various extracts of U. wallichiana bark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Soxhlet extraction method was used for preparation of different extracts viz...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041787/a-comparative-analysis-of-mycotoxin-contamination-of-supermarket-and-premium-brand-pelleted-dog-food-in-durban-south-africa
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sanil D Singh, Anil A Chuturgoon
Dry pelleted dog food in the South African market is available via supermarkets, pet stores (standard brands [SBs]) and veterinary channels (premium brands [PBs]). For the purpose of this study, the supermarket channel included the cheaper quality foods and PBs were sold via the veterinary channel (n = 20). These feeds were analysed for four main mycotoxins (aflatoxins [AF], fumonisin [FB], ochratoxin A [OTA] and zearalenone [ZEA]) using standard welldescribed extraction, characterisation and quantitation processes...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034201/evaluation-of-zanthoxylum-armatum-roxb-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-biological-activities
#19
Fiaz Alam, Qazi Najam Us Saqib
Zanthoxylum armatum fruits are used traditionally as a spice in various food preparations. The aim of this study was analysis of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, and anti-leishmanial activity. The crude extract showed 86 ± 10% antifungal activity (Agar tube dilution method) against Trichophyton longifusis while n-hexane, chloroform, and aqueous-methanol fractions inhibited this pathogen by 90 ± 7, 85 ± 10 and 70 ± 9% respectively. The n-hexane and aqueous-methanol fraction also, respectively, showed 40 ± 10 and 87 ± 9% inhibition of Microsporum canis...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029758/aspergillus-flavus-infection-in-an-aortic-graft-imaging-findings
#20
E Moya-Sánchez, E Ruiz-Carazo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: Radiología
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