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Aspergillus flavus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907048/chemical-defence-in-a-millipede-evaluation-and-characterization-of-antimicrobial-activity-of-the-defensive-secretion-from-pachyiulus-hungaricus-karsch-1881-diplopoda-julida-julidae
#1
Slaviša Stanković, Ivica Dimkić, Ljubodrag Vujisić, Sofija Pavković-Lučić, Zvezdana Jovanović, Tatjana Stević, Ivana Sofrenić, Bojan Mitić, Vladimir Tomić
The chemical defence of the millipede Pachyiulus hungaricus is reported in the present paper, in which a chemical characterization is given and antimicrobial activity is determined. In total, independently of sex, 44 compounds were identified. All compounds belong to two groups: quinones and pentyl and hexyl esters of long-chain fatty acids. The relative abundances of quinones and non-quinones were 94.7% vs. 5.3% (males) and 87.3% vs. 12.7% (females), respectively. The two dominant quinones in both sexes were 2-methyl-1,4,-benzoquinone and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905064/a-mini-survey-of-moulds-and-mycotoxins-in-locally-grown-and-imported-wheat-grains-in-nigeria
#2
Ayotokunbo O Egbontan, Clement G Afolabi, Iyabode A Kehinde, Ololade A Enikuomehin, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Benedikt Warth, Rudolf Krska
A preliminary survey involving limited sample size was conducted to determine the spectrum of moulds and mycotoxins in wheat grains from flour mills and local markets in Nigeria. Fourteen wheat samples were analyzed for moulds using standard mycological methods and for toxic fungal metabolites using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Fusarium (range of incidence 12.5-61.7%) dominated in the wheat grains though species of Aspergillus (range of incidence 2.24-3.86%) were also recovered from the samples...
November 30, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904060/causative-agents-of-aspergillosis-including-cryptic-aspergillus-species-and-a-fumigatus
#3
Takahito Toyotome
Aspergillosis is an important deep mycosis. The causative agents are Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus terreus, of which A. fumigatus is the most prevalent. Cryptic Aspergillus spp., which morphologically resemble representative species of each Aspergillus section, also cause aspergillosis. Most of the cryptic species reveal different susceptibility patterns and/or different secondary metabolite profiles, also called exometabolome in this manuscript, from those representative species...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899241/effects-of-nitrogen-metabolism-on-growth-and-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-flavus
#4
Bin Wang, Xiaoyun Han, Youhuang Bai, Zhenguo Lin, Mengguang Qiu, Xinyi Nie, Sen Wang, Feng Zhang, Zhenhong Zhuang, Jun Yuan, Shihua Wang
Aflatoxins (AFs), produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are strongly toxic and carcinogenic. Here, we showed that glutamine is the optimal nitrogen source for AF-production in A. flavus grown in Czapek Dox medium. Additionally, 4mM glutamine was the threshold for high production of aflatoxin B1. However, no significant impact of glutamine synthetase inhibitor was detected for on AF biosynthesis. In contrast, rapamycin could significantly suppress the glutamine inducing effect on AFs production, simultaneously inhibiting the fungal growth and conidiation...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888464/mycobiota-of-ground-red-pepper-and-their-aflatoxigenic-potential
#5
Hyeonheui Ham, Sosoo Kim, Min-Hee Kim, Soohyung Lee, Sung Kee Hong, Jae-Gee Ryu, Theresa Lee
To investigate contamination of ground red pepper with fungi and mycotoxin, we obtained 30 ground red pepper samples from 15 manufacturers in the main chili-pepper-producing areas in Korea. Fungal contamination was evaluated by spreading diluted samples on potato dextrose agar plates. The total fungi counts ranged from 0 to 7.3 × 10(3) CFU/g. In the samples, the genus Aspergillus had the highest incidence, while Paecilomyces was isolated most frequently. The next most frequent genera were Rhizopus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Alternaria...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881119/antibacterial-and-antifungal-potentials-of-the-solvents-extracts-from-eryngium-caeruleum-notholirion-thomsonianum-and-allium-consanguineum
#6
Abdul Sadiq, Sadiq Ahmad, Rahmat Ali, Fawad Ahmad, Sajjad Ahmad, Anwar Zeb, Muhammad Ayaz, Farhat Ullah, Abu Nasar Siddique
BACKGROUND: Herbal medicines have long been used for various ailments in various societies and natural bioactive compounds are gaining more and more importance due to various factors. In this context, three plant species i.e., Eryngium caeruleum, Notholirion thomsonianum and Allium consanguineum have been aimed for the scientific verification of their purported traditional uses against various infectious diseases. METHODS: In this study, three plants were assayed for antibacterial and antifungal potentials...
November 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878528/development-of-a-dot-blot-assay-for-the-detection-of-mould-specific-ige-in-the-belgian-population
#7
Muriel Vincent, Marta Romano, Francis Corazza, Kris Huygen, Olivier Michel, Olivier Denis
BACKGROUND: Data on mould sensitization in the general population are scarce and mostly on Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum. OBJECTIVES: To validate a dot-blot assay for the detection of specific IgE and evaluate the prevalence of mould sensitization in a healthy population. METHODS: The dot-blot assay was validated against the CAP test. Sensitization rate to ten common indoor and outdoor mould species in 344 serum samples was calculated...
November 22, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872886/data-set-of-aspergillus-flavus-induced-alterations-in-tear-proteome-understanding-the-pathogen-induced-host-response-to-fungal-infection
#8
Jeyalakshmi Kandhavelu, Naveen Luke Demonte, Venkatesh Prajna Namperumalsamy, Lalitha Prajna, Chitra Thangavel, Jeya Maheshwari Jayapal, Dharmalingam Kuppamuthu
Fungal keratitis is one of the leading causes of blindness in the tropical countries affecting individuals in their most productive age. The host immune response during this infection is poorly understood. We carried out comparative tear proteome analysis of Aspergillus flavus keratitis patients and uninfected controls. Proteome was separated into glycosylated and non-glycosylated fractions using lectin column chromatography before mass spectrometry. The data revealed the major processes activated in the human host in response to fungal infection and reflected in the tear...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872569/new-antimicrobial-anthraquinone-6-6-1-bis-1-5-7-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylanthraquinone-isolated-from-streptomyces-sp-isolate-eri-26
#9
V Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, S Ignacimuthu
The present report is about Streptomyces sp. isolate ERI-26 isolated from the soil sample of Nilgiri forest, Western Ghats. The methanol extract of ERI-26 showed good antimicrobial activity against tested microbes. The antimicrobial novel anthraquinones were purified by bioactivity-guided fractionation using a silica gel column and preparative HPLC. The compound was characterized and identified by UV, IR, NMR and MASS spectral data. The compound named as 6,6(1)-bis (1,5,7-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylanthraquinone), showed significant antimicrobial activities against tested microbes...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856270/characterization-of-non-aflatoxigenic-strains-of-aspergillus-flavus-as-potential-biocontrol-agent-for-the-management-of-aflatoxin-contamination-in-groundnut
#10
Navya Hulikunte Mallikarjunaiah, Naveen Jayapala, Hariprasad Puttaswamy, Niranjana Siddapura Ramachandrappa
In the present study, nine non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains were evaluated for their potential to reduce A. flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination in groundnut. Genetic characterization of these strains revealed six different deletion patterns (A-F) for thirteen examined genes from the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway. Strain AFGS5 recorded maximum number of gene deletion (F) which included 12 out of 13 tested genes. Our findings indicated that aflR was the most frequently absent gene among the observed deletion patterns...
November 14, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855875/mechanisms-of-antifungal-and-anti-aflatoxigenic-properties-of-essential-oil-derived-from-turmeric-curcuma-longa-l-on-aspergillus-flavus
#11
Yichen Hu, Jinming Zhang, Weijun Kong, Gang Zhao, Meihua Yang
The antifungal activity and potential mechanisms in vitro as well as anti-aflatoxigenic efficiency in vivo of natural essential oil (EO) derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) against Aspergillus flavus was intensively investigated. Based on the previous chemical characterization of turmeric EO by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the substantially antifungal activities of turmeric EO on the mycelial growth, spore germination and aflatoxin production were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, these antifungal effects were related to the disruption of fungal cell endomembrane system including the plasma membrane and mitochondria, specifically i...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848109/monitoring-of-aflatoxin-g1-b1-g2-and-b2-occurrence-in-some-samples-of-walnut
#12
Reza Habibipour, Parisa Rahimi Tamandegani, Abbas Farmany
This research was conducted to monitor the aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of walnut in the Hamedan province. For this purpose, 40 samples were analyzed. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, yeast, and some different bacteria were isolated from walnuts. Aspergillus is the most frequent genus. Aspergillus flavus was predominantly isolated. HPLC was used for evaluation of aflatoxin contamination of walnut samples. Aflatoxins G1 (AFG1), B1 (AFB1), G2 (AFG2), and B2 (AFB2) were produced by 20 isolates...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842453/aflatoxigenic-aspergillus-flavus-and-aspergillus-parasiticus-strains-in-hungarian-maize-fields
#13
Flóra Sebők, Csaba Dobolyi, Dóra Zágoni, Anita Risa, Csilla Krifaton, Mátyás Hartman, Mátyás Cserháti, Sándor Szoboszlay, Balázs Kriszt
Due to the climate change, aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and strains have appeared in several European countries, contaminating different agricultural commodities with aflatoxin. Our aim was to screen the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi in maize fields throughout the seven geographic regions of Hungary. Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated in the ratio of 26.9% and 42.3% from soil and maize samples in 2013, and these ratios decreased to 16.1% and 34.7% in 2014. Based on morphological characteristics and the sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene, all isolates proved to be Aspergillus flavus, except four strains, which were identified as Aspergillus parasiticus...
November 14, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829814/quinoline-based-furanones-and-their-nitrogen-analogues-docking-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation
#14
Sukhbir Lal Khokra, Jyoti, Chetan, Pawan Kaushik, M M Alam, M S Zaman, Aftab Ahmad, Shah Alam Khan, Asif Husain
A small library of twenty-four quinoline based butenolides also known as furanones and their nitrogen analogues was prepared by using two different aroylpropionic acids, viz. 3-(2-naphthoyl)propionic acid (3) and 3-(biphenyl-4-yl)propionic acid (4), as starting materials. The 3-aroylpropionic acids were reacted with different 6-substituted-2-chloroquinolin-3-carbaldehydes (2a-d) to obtain the corresponding furan-2(3H)-ones (5a-h). The purified and characterized furanones were then converted into their corresponding 2(3H)-pyrrolones (6a-h) and N-benzyl-pyrrol-2(3H)-ones (7a-h)...
November 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827875/rna-sequencing-of-contaminated-seeds-reveals-the-state-of-the-seed-permissive-for-pre-harvest-aflatoxin-contamination-and-points-to-a-potential-susceptibility-factor
#15
Josh Clevenger, Kathleen Marasigan, Vasileios Liakos, Victor Sobolev, George Vellidis, Corley Holbrook, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) is a major problem facing peanut production worldwide. Produced by the ubiquitous soil fungus, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin is the most naturally occurring known carcinogen. The interaction between fungus and host resulting in PAC is complex, and breeding for PAC resistance has been slow. It has been shown that aflatoxin production can be induced by applying drought stress as peanut seeds mature. We have implemented an automated rainout shelter that controls temperature and moisture in the root and peg zone to induce aflatoxin production...
November 3, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827543/cuspidate-a-new-anti-fungal-triterpenoid-saponin-from-lepidagathis-cuspidata
#16
Rajeev Rattan, Bharat Inder Fozdar, Veena Gautam, Ritika Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Upendra Sharma
One new triterpenoid saponin named cuspidate A (1) along with a known oleanane-based triterpenoid saponin clemontanoside-C were isolated from the roots of Lepidagathis cuspidata. The structure of new compound (1) was established after detailed analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR spectra. This is the first report on clemontanoside-C from this genus. These saponins were found to be effective against the selected fungal strains Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolinifer, Penicillum nodatum, Aspergillus fumigates...
November 9, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826683/aspergillus-flavus-keratitis-experience-of-a-tertiary-eye-clinic-in-turkey
#17
Elif Erdem, Meltem Yagmur, Hazal Boral, Macit Ilkit, Reha Ersoz, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
We investigated the clinical and mycological characteristics of four cases of mycotic keratitis caused by Aspergillus flavus that occurred from July 2014 to May 2015 at Çukurova University Hospital, Adana, Turkey. In a 10-month period, a total of 64 corneal smear/scrapings were examined from patients with suspected mycotic keratitis. Fungal cultures were positive in six of these patients, indicating a 9.4% incidence of mycotic keratitis in this region, including four cases of A. flavus and two cases of Fusarium spp...
November 8, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821453/pharmacodynamics-of-voriconazole-against-wild-type-and-azole-resistant-aspergillus-flavus-isolates-in-a-non-neutropenic-murine-model-of-disseminated-aspergillosis
#18
Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Manpreet Dhaliwal, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Jacques F Meis, Johan W Mouton
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) due to Aspergillus flavus is associated with a high mortality. Though voriconazole (VRC) is widely recommended as first-line treatment for IA, emergence of azole resistance in Aspergillus spp. is translating to treatment failure. We evaluated the efficacy of voriconazole in a non-neutropenic murine model of disseminated A. flavus infection using two voriconazole-resistant isolates (one harboring the Y319H substitution in the cyp51C-gene) and two wild-type isolates without mutations...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817189/aflatoxin-b1-detoxification-by-aspergillus-oryzae-from-meju-a-traditional-korean-fermented-soybean-starter
#19
Kyu Ri Lee, Sun Min Yang, Sung Min Cho, Myunghee Kim, Sung-Yong Hong, Soo Hyun Chung
Aflatoxins are classified as Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In this study, a total of 134 fungal strains were isolated from 65 meju samples, and two fungal isolates were selected as potential aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁)-biodetoxification fungi. These fungi were identified as Aspergillus oryzae MAO103 and A. oryzae MAO104 by sequencing the beta-tubulin gene. The two A. oryzae strains were able to degrade more than 90% of AFB1 (initial concentration: 40 µg/L) in a culture broth in 14 days...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816987/aspergillus-flavus-growth-inhibition-by-lactobacillus-strains-isolated-from-traditional-fermented-kenyan-milk-and-maize-products
#20
Sara Ahlberg, Vesa Joutsjoki, Sini Laurikkala, Pekka Varmanen, Hannu Korhonen
Certain strains of lactic acid bacteria have been reported to inhibit fungal growth and may so be potential as biocontrol agents. In this study, 171 LAB strains were isolated from traditional fermented Kenyan milk and maize products and tested against aflatoxin-producing A. flavus fungi. The three LAB strains showing highest antifungal activity were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. None of the strains were able to completely inhibit fungal growth under conditions favorable for fungi and suboptimal for LAB...
November 5, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
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