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Aspergillus flavus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080986/clinical-implications-of-globally-emerging-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#1
REVIEW
Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary, Johanna L Rhodes, Matthew C Fisher, Paul E Verweij
Aspergillus fungi are the cause of an array of diseases affecting humans, animals and plants. The triazole antifungal agents itraconazole, voriconazole, isavuconazole and posaconazole are treatment options against diseases caused by Aspergillus However, resistance to azoles has recently emerged as a new therapeutic challenge in six continents. Although de novo azole resistance occurs occasionally in patients during azole therapy, the main burden is the aquisition of resistance through the environment. In this setting, the evolution of resistance is attributed to the widespread use of azole-based fungicides...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075512/alkyl-formate-ester-synthesis-by-a-fungal-baeyer-villiger-monooxygenase
#2
Felix Martin Ferroni, Carmien Tolmie, Martha Sophia Smit, Diederik Johannes Opperman
Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) mediated synthesis of alkyl formate esters, important flavour and fragrance products, was investigated. A recombinant fungal BVMO from Aspergillus flavus was found to transform a selection of aliphatic aldehydes to alkyl formates with high regioselectivity. Near complete conversion of 10 mM octanal was achieved within 8 h with a regiomeric excess of ~80%. Substrate concentration was found to affect specific activity and regioselectivity of the BVMO as well as the rate of product autohydrolysis to the primary alcohol...
January 11, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053655/an-investigation-of-fungal-contamination-on-the-surface-of-medicinal-herbs-in-china
#3
Run-Sheng Zheng, Wen-Li Wang, Jing Tan, Hui Xu, Ruo-Ting Zhan, Wei-Wen Chen
BACKGROUND: The dried parts of medicinal herbs are susceptible to the infection of fungi during pre- or post-harvest procedure. This study aimed to investigate the presence of fungi and their metabolites mycotoxins on the surface of medicinal herbs collected from China. METHODS: Forty-five retail samples of 15 different medicinal herbs were collected from 3 different regions in China. Then the potential fungi were immediately washed off from the surface of each sample with 0...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043539/invasive-forms-of-candida-and-aspergillus-in-sputum-samples-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-attending-the-tuberculosis-reference-laboratory-in-ghaemshahr-northern-iran-an-analysis-of-samples-collected-during-the-past-10years
#4
Mohammad Reza Jabbari Amiri, Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Mohammad Taghi Hedayati, Mahdi Abastabar, Masoud Aliyali, Masoumeh Jabbari Amiri, Hamid Hasanpour
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. This is especially true in Northern Iran, which has high TB prevalence. The chronic nature of this disease is further exacerbated if it is accompanied by fungal infection, which usually remains undiagnosed and thus untreated. Thus, mycotic infections add fatal dimensions to pulmonary TB. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of invasive forms of fungal elements in sputum samples collected from patients with pulmonary TB at a reference laboratory in Ghaemshahr, Northern Iran, during the past 10years...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042000/mycotoxigenic-potentials-of-the-genera-aspergillus-fusarium-and-penicillium-isolated-from-houseflies-musca-domestica-l
#5
J Z Phoku, T G Barnard, N Potgieter, M F Dutton
A study on the potential of houseflies (Musca domestica L.) to spread fungal spores in Gauteng Province, South Africa proved that houseflies are vectors for fungal spores. Therefore, there is a need to determine the toxigenic potentials and to identify the mycotoxins produced by fungal isolates derived from this study. In total 377 potentially toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus (186), Fusarium (85) and Penicillium (106) species (spp.) were isolated. These isolates were further tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) [aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2], deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1) ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) respectively...
December 29, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040569/thermal-and-optical-characterization-of-biologically-synthesized-zns-nanoparticles-synthesized-from-an-endophytic-fungus-aspergillus-flavus-a-colorimetric-probe-in-metal-detection
#6
Priyanka Uddandarao, Raj Mohan Balakrishnan
Nanostructured semiconductor materials are of great importance for several technological applications due to their optical and thermal properties. The design and fabrication of metal sulfide nanoparticles with tunable properties for advanced applications have drawn a great deal of attention in the field of nanotechnology. ZnS is a potential II-IV group material which is used in hetero-junction solar cells, light emitting diodes, optoelectronic devices, electro luminescent devices and photovoltaic cells. Due to their multiple applications, there is a need to elucidate their thermal and optical properties...
December 18, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030812/aflatoxin-b1-invokes-apoptosis-via-death-receptor-pathway-in-hepatocytes
#7
Muhammad Jameel Mughal, Xi Peng, Yi Zhou, Jing Fang
The fungal metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus cause detrimental health effects on humans and animals. Particularly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most studied and a well-known global carcinogen, producing hepatotoxic, genotoxic and immunotoxic effects in multiple species. AFB1 is shown to provoke liver dysfunctioning by causing hepatocytes apoptosis and disturbing cellular enzymatic activities. In liver, AFB1 causes apoptosis via extrinsic mechanism because of high expression of death receptor pathway...
December 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018316/leveraging-the-attributes-of-mucor-hiemalis-derived-silver-nanoparticles-for-a-synergistic-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-platform
#8
Nafe Aziz, Rishikesh Pandey, Ishan Barman, Ram Prasad
Driven by the need to engineer robust surface coatings for medical devices to prevent infection and sepsis, incorporation of nanoparticles has surfaced as a promising avenue to enhance non-fouling efficacy. Microbial synthesis of such nanoscale metallic structures is of substantive interest as this can offer an eco-friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable route for further development. Here we present a Mucor hiemalis-derived fungal route for synthesis of silver nanoparticles, which display significant antimicrobial properties when tested against six pathological bacterial strains (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas brassicacearum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus) and three pathological fungal strains (Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, and Aspergillus flavus)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006667/alkaline-technosol-contaminated-by-former-mining-activity-and-its-culturable-autochthonous-microbiota
#9
A Šimonovičová, P Ferianc, H Vojtková, D Pangallo, P Hanajík, L Kraková, Z Feketeová, S Čerňanský, L Okenicová, M Žemberyová, M Bujdoš, E Pauditšová
Technosols or technogenic substrates contaminated by potentially toxic elements as a result of iron mining causes not only contamination of the surrounding ecosystem but may also lead to changes of the extent, abundance, structure and activity of soil microbial community. Microbial biomass were significantly inhibited mainly by exceeding limits of potentially toxic metals as arsenic (in the range of 343-511 mg/kg), copper (in the range of 7980-9227 mg/kg), manganese (in the range of 2417-2670 mg/kg), alkaline and strong alkaline pH conditions and minimal contents of organic nutrients...
December 19, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002842/efficacy-of-antibody-to-pnag-against-keratitis-caused-by-fungal-pathogens
#10
Ge Zhao, Tanweer S Zaidi, Cagla Bozkurt-Guzel, Tauqeer H Zaidi, James A Lederer, Gregory P Priebe, Gerald B Pier
Purpose: Developing immunotherapies for fungal eye infections is a high priority. We analyzed fungal pathogens for expression of the surface polysaccharide, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG), and used a mouse model of ocular keratitis caused by Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, or Fusarium solani to determine if PNAG was an immunotherapy target and requirements for ancillary cellular and molecular immune effectors. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescence was used to detect PNAG on fungal cells...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997595/seedborne-pathogenic-fungi-in-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-cv-inta-rojo-in-nicaragua
#11
Delfia Marcenaro, Jari P T Valkonen
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977554/neonatal-cutaneous-invasive-aspergillosis-accompanied-by-hemophagocytic-lymphohistocytosis
#12
Zhuanggui Chen, Lifen Yang, Yating Li, Li Pan, Meirong Li, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Jacques F Meis, Wei Lai, Peiying Feng
We describe a 6-week-old female infant with cutaneous invasive aspergillosis accompanied with hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from biopsies of necrotic skin lesions on the forehead and scalp; morphologic identification was confirmed by molecular analysis. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing showed that amphotericin B and triazoles had potent activity. The patient responded well to treatment with intravenous amphotericin B combined with oral posaconazole, and local wound care...
December 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965710/new-biofunctional-loading-of-natural-antimicrobial-agent-in-biodegradable-polymeric-films-for-biomedical-applications
#13
Bakhtawar Ghafoor, Murtaza Najabat Ali, Umar Ansari, Muhammad Faraz Bhatti, Mariam Mir, Hafsah Akhtar, Fatima Darakhshan
The study focuses on the development of novel Aloe vera based polymeric composite films and antimicrobial suture coatings. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), a synthetic biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, was combined with Aloe vera, a natural herb used for soothing burning effects and cosmetic purposes. The properties of these two materials were combined together to get additional benefits such as wound healing and prevention of surgical site infections. PVA and Aloe vera were mixed in a fixed quantity to produce polymer based films...
2016: International Journal of Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960261/a-concise-history-of-mycotoxin-research
#14
John I Pitt, J David Miller
Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins entered human food supplies about the time when mankind first began to cultivate crops and to store them from one season to the next, perhaps 10,000 years ago. The storage of cereals probably initiated the transition by mankind from hunter-gatherer to cultivator, at the same time providing a vast new ecological niche for fungi pathogenic on grain crops or saprophytic on harvested grain, many of which produced mycotoxins. Grains have always been the major source of mycotoxins in the diet of man and his domestic animals...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951483/synthesis-and-bioactivity-investigation-of-quinone-based-dimeric-cationic-triazolium-amphiphiles-selective-against-resistant-fungal-and-bacterial-pathogens
#15
Jaya P Shrestha, Coleman Baker, Yukie Kawasaki, Yagya P Subedi, Nzuwah Nziko Vincent de Paul, Jon Y Takemoto, Cheng-Wei Tom Chang
A series of synthetic dimeric cationic anthraquinone analogs (CAAs) with potent antimicrobial activities against a broad range of fungi and bacteria were developed. These compounds were prepared in 2-3 steps with high overall yield and possess alkyl chain, azole, quinone, and quaternary ammonium complexes (QACs). In vitro biological evaluations reveal prominent inhibitory activities of lead compounds against several drug-susceptible and drug-resistant fungal and bacterial strains, including MRSA, VRE, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus...
December 5, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941917/oxidative-stress-and-carbon-metabolism-influence-aspergillus-flavus-transcriptome-composition-and-secondary-metabolite-production
#16
Jake C Fountain, Prasad Bajaj, Manish Pandey, Spurthi N Nayak, Liming Yang, Vinay Kumar, Ashwin S Jayale, Anu Chitikineni, Weijian Zhuang, Brian T Scully, R Dewey Lee, Robert C Kemerait, Rajeev K Varshney, Baozhu Guo
Contamination of crops with aflatoxin is a serious global threat to food safety. Aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus is exacerbated by drought stress in the field and by oxidative stress in vitro. We examined transcriptomes of three toxigenic and three atoxigenic isolates of A. flavus in aflatoxin conducive and non-conducive media with varying levels of H2O2 to investigate the relationship of secondary metabolite production, carbon source, and oxidative stress. We found that toxigenic and atoxigenic isolates employ distinct mechanisms to remediate oxidative damage, and that carbon source affected the isolates' expression profiles...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940413/single-vs-multiple-spore-inoculum-effect-on-growth-kinetic-parameters-and-modeled-probabilities-of-growth-and-aflatoxin-b1-production-of-aspergillus-flavus-on-pistachio-extract-agar
#17
Laila Aldars-García, Vicente Sanchis, Antonio J Ramos, Sonia Marín
The objective of the present study was to assess the differences in modeled growth/AFB1 production probability and kinetic growth parameters for Aspergillus flavus inoculated as single spores or in a concentrated inoculation point (~500 spores). The experiment was carried out at 25°C and at two water activities (0.85 and 0.87) on pistachio extract agar (3%). Binary data obtained from growth and AFB1 studies were modeled using linear logistic regression analysis. The radial growth curve for each colony was fitted to a linear model for the estimation of the lag phase for growth and the mycelial growth rate...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939550/invited-review-microbe-mediated-aflatoxin-decontamination-of-dairy-products-and-feeds
#18
Sejeong Kim, Heeyoung Lee, Soomin Lee, Jeeyeon Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Yukyung Choi, Yohan Yoon, Kyoung-Hee Choi
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus nomius contaminate corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, tree nuts, figs, ginger, nutmeg, and milk. They produce aflatoxins, especially aflatoxin B1, which is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Many studies have focused on aflatoxin removal from food or feed, especially via microbe-mediated mechanisms-either adsorption or degradation. Of the lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG efficiently binds aflatoxin B1, and a peptidoglycan in the bacterium cell wall plays an important role...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936070/attraction-oviposition-and-larval-survival-of-the-fungus-gnat-lycoriella-ingenua-on-fungal-species-isolated-from-adults-larvae-and-mushroom-compost
#19
Kevin R Cloonan, Stefanos S Andreadis, Haibin Chen, Nina E Jenkins, Thomas C Baker
We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934837/high-fungal-spore-burden-with-predominance-of-aspergillus-in-hospital-air-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-chandigarh
#20
S M Rudramurthy, G Singh, V Hallur, S Verma, A Chakrabarti
The prevalence of fungal spores in the hospital air is essential to understand the hospital-acquired fungal infections. Air conditioners (ACs) used in hospitals may either reduce spores in air or be colonised by fungi and aid in its dissemination. The present study was conducted to assess the fungal spore burden in AC and non-AC areas. We found a high fungal spore count in air irrespective of whether the area was AC or non-AC. The most predominant species isolated were Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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