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Aspergillus flavus

Teresa A Castillo, Renata A Lemos, José Raimundo G Pereira, José Maria A Alves, Maria Francisca S Teixeira
The objective of this study was to analyze mycelial growth under different culture conditions and antimicrobial activity of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. (DPUA 1533) and P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. cv. Florida (DPUA 1534) against fungi and bacteria of medical importance. The growth of Pleurotus species was evaluated in natural and complex media, with and without light, at 25°C and 28°C for 8, 15, and 30 days. Candida albicans (DPUA 1336), Cryptococcus laurentii (DPUA 1501), Aspergillus flavus (DPUA 1836), Escherichia coli (DAUPE 224), and Mycobacterium smegmatis (ATCC 607) were used to test antibiosis...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Nada A Noureldin, Hend Kothayer, El-Sayed M Lashine, Mohamed M Baraka, Yanrong Huang, Bing Li, Qinggang Ji
A series of (2-(1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2-dihydroquinazolin-3(4H)-yl) acetamido) acids) (6 a-m), (7) has been designed to inhibit the action of fungus chitin synthase enzyme (CHS). The synthesis of the designed compounds was carried out in four steps starting from the reaction between 1-methylquinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione and ethyl chloroacetate to yield the ethyl acetate derivative. This ester was hydrolyzed to the corresponding carboxylic acid derivative that was then utilized to couple several amino acids getting the final designed compounds...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Xiaowei Zheng, Gaoqi Xu, Liqin Zhu, Luo Fang, Yiwen Zhang, Haiying Ding, Yinghui Tong, Jiao Sun, Ping Huang
The aim of this pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) study is to evaluate the efficacy of various isavuconazole dosing regimens for healthy individuals and patients with hepatic or renal impairment against Aspergillus spp. and Candida spp. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and pharmacodynamics (PD) data to determine the probabilities of target attainment and cumulative fractions of response in terms of area under the concentration curve/minimum inhibition concentration (AUC/MIC) targets of isavuconazole...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Roopam Jariwal, Arash Heidari, Ahana Sandhu, Janushe Patel, Kamelia Shoaepour, Piruthiviraj Natarajan, Everardo Cobos
Invasive fungal infections are commonly associated with some form of immunosuppression. On the nasal epithelial surface, Aspergillus flavus , under favorable conditions, can aggressively breach multiple cell lines invading the local tissues. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman with granulomatous invasive Aspergillus flavus infection involving the nasal sinuses and the brain. Antifungal agents administered in the previous episodes contained the infection; however, the infected site evolved over time surrounded with calcified tissues in the left maxillary sinus...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Lubna, Sajjad Asaf, Muhammad Hamayun, Abdul Latif Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Muhammad Aaqil Khan, Rahmatullah Jan, In-Jung Lee, Anwar Hussain
Abiotic stress resistance strategies are powerful approaches to sustainable agriculture because they reduce chemical input and enhance plant productivity. In current study, an endophytic fungus, Aspergillus flavus CHS1 was isolated from Chenopodium album Roots. CHS1 was initially screened for growth promoting activities like siderphore, phosphate solubilization, and the production of indole acetic acid and gibberellins and were further assayed for its ability to promote the growth of mutant Waito-C rice. The results revealed that different plant growth characteristic such as chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production were significantly promoted during CHS1 treatment...
May 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Joyce S F D de Almeida, Samir F de A Cavalcante, Rafael Dolezal, Kamil Kuca, Kamil Musilek, Daniel Jun, Tanos C C França
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Among them, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most frequent type in nature and also, the most carcinogenic for mammals. It can contaminate many kinds of food like seeds, oil, olives, milk, dairy products, corn and meat, causing acute and chronic damages to the organism, especially in the liver, being, for this reason, considered highly hepatotoxic. AFB1 is also a mixed inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This fact, together with its high toxicity and carcinogenicity, turns AFB1 into a potential chemical and biological warfare agent, as well as its metabolites...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Gary L Windham, William P Williams, J E Mylroie, Cedric X Reid, Erika D Womack
Aspergillus flavus colonization in developing kernels of maize single-cross hybrids resistant (Mp313E × Mp717) and susceptible (GA209 × T173) to aflatoxin accumulation was determined in the field over three growing seasons (2012-2014). Plants were hand pollinated, and individual kernels were inoculated with a needle dipped in a suspension of A. flavus conidia 21 days after pollination. Kernels were harvested at 1- to 2-day intervals from 1 to 21 days after inoculation (DAI). Kernels were placed in FAA fixative, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with toluidine blue...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Titilayo D O Falade, Panagiotis K Chrysanthopoulos, Mark P Hodson, Yasmina Sultanbawa, Mary Fletcher, Ross Darnell, Sam Korie, Glen Fox
Aflatoxin contamination is associated with the development of aflatoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on food grains. This study was aimed at investigating metabolites produced during fungal development on maize and their correlation with aflatoxin levels. Maize cobs were harvested at R3 (milk), R4 (dough), and R5 (dent) stages of maturity. Individual kernels were inoculated in petri dishes with four doses of fungal spores. Fungal colonisation, metabolite profile, and aflatoxin levels were examined...
May 7, 2018: Toxins
Haoyi Guo, Lutan Zhou, Yi He, Chuanwen Gao, Lei Han, Yan Xu
The interaction of natamycin-azithromycin combination against 60 ocular fungal isolates was tested in vitro The combination produced 100% synergistic interactions when natamycin added azithromycin at 20, 40, 50 μg/ml against Aspergillus flavus species complex (AFSC) isolates and added azithromycin at 50 μg/ml against Fusarium solani species complex isolates. The combination with 50 μg/ml azithromycin enhanced natamycin's effect against AFSC isolates by reducing natamycin MICs from MIC90 64μg/ml to MIC90 0...
May 7, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mohamed Mahmoud Deabes, Wagdy Khalil Bassaly Khalil, Ashraf Gamil Attallah, Tarek Ahmed El-Desouky, Khayria Mahmoud Naguib
AIM: In this study, we evaluated the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) through assessment the transcription activity of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes in Aspergillus flavus ATCC28542. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The mRNAs were quantitative by Real Time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of A. flavus grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium containing AgNPs. Specific primers that are involved in the AFB1 biosynthesis which highly specific to A...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Madoka Okurita, Nanami Suzuki, Noya Loew, Hiromi Yoshida, Wakako Tsugawa, Kazushige Mori, Katsuhiro Kojima, David C Klonoff, Koji Sode
Fungal FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenases (FADGDHs) are considered to be superior enzymes for glucose sensor strips because of their insensitivity to oxygen and maltose. One highly desirable mediator for enzyme sensor strips is hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride because of its low redox potential and high storage stability. However, in contrast to glucose oxidase (GOx), fungal FADGDH cannot utilize hexaammineruthenium(III) as electron acceptor. Based on strategic structure comparison between FADGDH and GOx, we constructed a mutant of Aspergillus flavus-derived FADGDH, capable of utilizing hexaammineruthenium(III) as electron acceptor: AfGDH-H403D...
April 10, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Guomin Han, Qian Shao, Cuiping Li, Kai Zhao, Li Jiang, Jun Fan, Haiyang Jiang, Fang Tao
Aspergillus flavus often invade many important corps and produce harmful aflatoxins both in preharvest and during storage stages. The regulation mechanism of aflatoxin biosynthesis in this fungus has not been well explored mainly due to the lack of an efficient transformation method for constructing a genome-wide gene mutant library. This challenge was resolved in this study, where a reliable and efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) protocol for A. flavus NRRL 3357 was established...
May 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Neda Radovanović, Milica Milutinović, Katarina Mihajlovski, Jelena Jović, Branislav Nastasijević, Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović, Suzana Dimitrijević-Branković
In the current study, the biocontrol potential of a novel strain Bacillus sp. PPM3 isolated from marine sediment from the Red Sea in Hurghada, Egypt is recognized. This novel strain was selected out of 32 isolates based on its ability to suppress the growth of four plant pathogenic fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium graminearum, Mucor sp. and Alternaria sp. The new marine strain was identified and characterized by phenotypic and molecular approaches. The culture filtrate of Bacillus sp. PPM3 suppressed the growth and spore germination of all tested fungi in vitro with the highest value of inhibition reported for Mucor sp...
April 27, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mohammad J Najafzadeh, Karim Jalaeian Samani, Jos Houbraken, Majid Alizadeh, Abdolmajid Fata, Ali Naseri, Hossein Zarrinfar, Mehdi Bakhshaee
Background and Purpose: Rhinosinusitis is a common disorder, influencing approximately 20% of the population at some time of their lives. It was recognized and reported with expanding recurrence over the past two decades worldwide. Undoubtedly, correct diagnosis of fungi in patients with fungal rhinosinusitis affects the treatment planning and prognosis of the patients. Identification of the causative agents using the standard mycological procedures remains difficult and time-consuming...
September 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
M Sisti, G F Schiavano, M DE Santi, G Brandi
We investigated the effect of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVI) from a low-pressure mercury lamp on several pathogenic Aspergillus spp. including A. flavipes, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. terreus, A. ustus and A. versicolor suspended in tap water under laboratory-scale conditions. It was shown that within 10 s of exposure, time species such as A. glaucus, A. niudulans and A. ustus were completely inactivated, while 40 s were needed for the elimination of all the species tested...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
N S El-Gohary, M I Shaaban
New pyrazolopyridine analogs were prepared and tested for antimicrobial efficacy toward Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Results revealed that compound 6 has prominent and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Compound 8 showed good antibacterial efficacy over the four tested bacterial strains. In addition, compounds 2-4 displayed interesting efficacy over S. aureus, B. cereus and P. aeruginosa as well as moderate efficacy toward E...
April 11, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Perng-Kuang Chang, Qi Zhang, Leslie Scharfenstein, Brian Mack, Akira Yoshimi, Ken Miyazawa, Keietsu Abe
Many glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) of fungi are membrane enzymes, organization components, and extracellular matrix adhesins. We analyzed eight Aspergillus flavus transcriptome sets for the GPI-AP gene family and identified AFLA_040110, AFLA_063860, and AFLA_113120 to be among the top 5 highly expressed genes of the 36 family genes analyzed. Disruption of the former two genes did not drastically affect A. flavus growth and development. In contrast, disruption of AFLA_113120, an orthologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ECM33, caused a significant decrease in vegetative growth and conidiation, promoted sclerotial production, and altered conidial pigmentation...
April 25, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ajay Kumar Yagati, Sachin Ganpat Chavan, Changyoon Baek, Min-Ho Lee, Junhong Min
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB₁) is produced by the Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus group of fungi which is most hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic and occurs as a contaminant in a variety of foods. AFB₁ is mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals and is mostly found in peanuts, corn, and food grains. Therefore, novel methodologies of sensitive and expedient strategy are often required to detect mycotoxins at the lowest level. Herein, we report an electrochemical impedance sensor that selectively detects AFB₁ at the lowest level by utilizing polyaniline nanofibers (PANI) coated with gold (Au) nanoparticles composite based indium tin oxide (ITO) disk electrodes...
April 24, 2018: Sensors
Muthamilarasan Mehanathan, Renesh Bedre, Venkata Mangu, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Deepak Bhatnagar, Niranjan Baisakh
A comparative transcriptome analysis was performed using the genes significantly differentially expressed in cotton, corn and peanut in response to aflatoxin producing fungus Aspergillus flavus with an objective of identifying candidate resistance genes in cotton. Two-way analyses identified 732 unique genes to be differentially regulated by the fungus with only 26 genes common across all three crops that were considered candidate A. flavus resistance genes with an assumption that these genes have specific roles in conferring the resistance trait...
May 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Elham Esmaeilishirazifard, Aliakbar Dariush, Sterghios A Moschos, Tajalli Keshavarz
Quorum sensing molecules (QSMs) regulate, through a chemical communication process, multiple complex systems in bacterial and some fungal populations on the basis of cell density. The bacterial QSMs involved in inter-kingdom cross-talk may exhibit antagonistic activity against fungi. This provides an important opportunity for biocontrol of fungal invasion in plants. It has been shown that cultures of Bacillus spp. inhibit fungal growth. Here, we explore the inhibitory potential of the industrial workhorse Bacillus licheniformis NCIMB-8874 and its QSM (ComX pheromone) on the growth of Aspergillus flavus, a cereal, legume, and nut crop pathogen...
April 23, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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