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Aspergillus flavus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330883/comparative-evaluation-of-sensititre-yeastone%C3%A2-and-clsi-m38-a2-reference-method-for-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-of-aspergillus-spp-against-echinocandins
#1
Maria Siopi, Spyros Pournaras, Joseph Meletiadis
Sensititre YeastOne® (YO) panels were assessed for in vitro susceptibility testing of echinocandins against 39 isolates of A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. terreus, including two echinocandin-resistant A. fumigatus, using different inocula (10(3), 10(4) and 10(5) cfu/mL), incubation times (16-48h) and endpoints (first blue or purple) and compared with CLSI M38-A2. The best agreement was found with inoculum of 10(4) cfu/mL, incubation time of 20h for A. flavus and 30h for A. fumigatus and A. terreus and reading the first purple well...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330231/prevalence-of-toxigenic-fungi-in-common-medicinal-herbs-and-spices-in-india
#2
Visenuo Aiko, Alka Mehta
Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of food grains, feeds, medicinal herbs, and spices, posing as health threat to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to screen medicinal herbs and spices for fungi and mycotoxin contamination and evaluate their safety. Sixty-three samples were examined for fungal contamination and fungal load determined using standard microbiological method. Aflatoxin and citrinin were detected using thin layer chromatography and high-performance chromatography technique...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330212/paper-wasp-nest-mediated-biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-for-antimicrobial-catalytic-anticoagulant-and-thrombolytic-applications
#3
Agbaje Lateef, Monsurat A Akande, Sunday A Ojo, Bolaji I Folarin, Evariste B Gueguim-Kana, Lorika S Beukes
Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using nest extract of paper wasp (Polistes sp) was investigated in this work. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, dye degradation, blood anticoagulation, and blood clot dissolution (thrombolytic) activities. The crystalline polydispersed AgNPs with size range of 12.5-95.55 nm absorbed maximally at 428 nm and showed anisotropic structures of sphere, triangle, hexagon, rod, and rhombus...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330199/optimization-of-fermentation-media-and-growth-conditions-for-microbial-xylanase-production
#4
Bushra Kalim, Nazish Mazhar Ali
Efficiency of cellulase-free xylanases is one of the determining factors in paper and pulp industries. Use of microbes which can produce cellulase-free xylanases may help to overcome the current challenges in kraft pulp processing. Isolation and screening of microorganisms from local samples offers a possibility for obtaining the potential microbes for this purpose. This research was therefore aimed to collect, screen, characterize and identify potential cellulase-free xylanase producers. A total of 313 microbial isolates were collected while using selective media (EBAM and XAM) to determine the xylanolytic potential of microbes...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326846/stonebrood-and-chalkbrood-in-apis-mellifera-causing-fungi-in-vitro-sensitivity-to-some-essential-oils
#5
Simona Nardoni, Carlo D'Ascenzi, Guido Rocchigiani, Roberto Amerigo Papini, Luisa Pistelli, Giovanni Formato, Basma Najar, Francesca Mancianti
Aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antimycotic activity of 17 chemically defined essential oils (EOs) both alone and as a mixture, against agents responsible for stonebrood caused by Aspergillus flavus, and chalkbrood caused by Ascosphaera apis in European honeybees. Cinnamomum zeylanicum yielded the lowest MIC value against A. flavus, but was not effective against A. apis, while Litsea cubeba and Pelargonium graveolens appeared to be effective against all checked fungi. Aspergillus niger showed the lower sensitivity...
March 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316626/evaluation-of-phenolic-compounds-and-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-some-common-herbs
#6
Muhammad Abdul Qadir, Syeda Kiran Shahzadi, Asad Bashir, Adil Munir, Shabnam Shahzad
The study was designed to evaluate the phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum), mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), oak (Quercus), aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller), and ginger (Zingiber officinale). All extracts showed a wide range of total phenolic contents, that is, 4.96 to 98.37 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalents, and total flavonoid contents, that is, 0.41 to 17.64 mg/100 g catechin equivalents. Antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by measuring reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity...
2017: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290359/the-biodiversity-of-aspergillus-section-flavi-and-aflatoxins-in-the-brazilian-peanut-production-chain
#7
Ligia Manoel Martins, Anderson S Sant'Ana, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Josué José Silva, Maristela da Silva do Nascimento, Jens Christian Frisvad, Marta Hiromi Taniwaki
A total of 119 samples of peanut were collected throughout the peanut production chain in São Paulo State, Brazil. The peanut samples were directly plated for determination of percentages of infection and a polyphasic approach was used to identify Aspergillus section Flavi species. Further, the potential for aflatoxin production by the isolates was tested using the agar plug technique and the presence of aflatoxins in peanuts was assessed using an immunoaffinity column followed by quantification using HPLC with reverse phase column and fluorescence detection...
April 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285035/development-of-aflatoxin-b1-aptasensor-based-on-wide-range-fluorescence-detection-using-graphene-oxide-quencher
#8
Minyoung Joo, Seung Hoon Baek, Seon Ah Cheon, Hyang Sook Chun, Sung-Wook Choi, Tae Jung Park
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogenic substance produced by fungi of genus Aspergillus, especially Aspergillus flavus. Few nanograms of AFB1 that permeated through the skin is sufficient to cause liver cancer and stunted growth. In this study, a rapid aptamer-based assay for AFB1 was developed using the fluorescence quenching property of graphene oxide (GO) and a fluorescein amidite (FAM)-modified aptamer specific to AFB1. The aptamer, modified with the fluorescence dye FAM on its 5'-end, was used as a probe...
March 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274230/appraisal-of-phytochemical-and-in-vitro-biological-attributes-of-an-unexplored-folklore-rhus-punjabensis-stewart
#9
Saira Tabassum, Madiha Ahmed, Bushra Mirza, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Zia, Zabta Khan Shanwari, Gul Majid Khan
BACKGROUND: The role of plants for discovery of therapeutic potential accentuates the need to know their biological attributes. The present study aims to comprehend the biological attributes of Rhus punjabensis, an unexplored traditional medicinal plant. METHODS: Leaf and stem extracts of R. punjabensis prepared in 11 different organic solvents are evaluated for multimode antioxidant potential, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined through colorimetric assays, HPLC-DAD analysis was carried out for quantification of various polyphenols in extracts...
March 9, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264849/genetic-diversity-and-in-vitro-antifungal-susceptibility-of-200-clinical-and-environmental-aspergillus-flavus-isolates
#10
Mojtaba Taghizadeh-Armaki, Mohammad Taghi Hedayati, Saham Ansari, Saeed Mahdavi Omran, Sasan Saber, Haleh Rafati, Jan Zoll, Henrich A van der Lee, Willem J G Melchers, Paul E Verweij, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
Aspergillus flavus has been frequently reported as the leading cause of invasive aspergillosis in certain tropical and sub-tropical countries.Two hundred A. flavus strains originating from clinical and environmental sources and collected between 2008 and 2015 were phylogenetically identified at the species level by analyzing partial β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against antifungals using the EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) broth microdilution method...
March 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262118/in-vitro-cytotoxicity-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-talaromyces-flavus-sp5-inhabited-in-the-marine-sediment-of-southern-coast-of-india
#11
Bibin G Anand, C K Navin Thomas, S Prakash
Marine sediment samples were collected from the coastal areas of Southern India, particularly in Kanyakumari District. Twenty-eight different fungal strains were isolated. The screening of fungi from marine sediment was done to isolate a potent fungus that can produce bioactive compounds for biomedical applications. Only three strains viz Trichoderma gamsii SP4, Talaromyces flavus SP5 and Aspergillus oryzae SP6 were screened for further studies. The intracellular bioactive compounds were extracted using solvent extraction method...
December 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257049/identification-of-the-anti-aflatoxinogenic-activity-of-micromeria-graeca-and-elucidation-of-its-molecular-mechanism-in-aspergillus-flavus
#12
Rhoda El Khoury, Isaura Caceres, Olivier Puel, Sylviane Bailly, Ali Atoui, Isabelle P Oswald, André El Khoury, Jean-Denis Bailly
Of all the food-contaminating mycotoxins, aflatoxins, and most notably aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), are found to be the most toxic and economically costly. Green farming is striving to replace fungicides and develop natural preventive strategies to minimize crop contamination by these toxic fungal metabolites. In this study, we demonstrated that an aqueous extract of the medicinal plant Micromeria graeca-known as hyssop-completely inhibits aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus without reducing fungal growth...
March 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229207/engineering-rtca-pathway-and-c4-dicarboxylate-transporter-for-l-malic-acid-production
#13
Xiulai Chen, Yuancai Wang, Xiaoxiang Dong, Guipeng Hu, Liming Liu
L-Malic acid is an important component of a vast array of food additives, antioxidants, disincrustants, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Here, we presented a pathway optimization strategy and a transporter modification approach to reconstruct the L-malic acid biosynthesis pathway and transport system, respectively. First, pyruvate carboxylase (pyc) and malate dehydrogenase (mdh) from Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus oryzae were combinatorially overexpressed to construct the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) pathway for L-malic acid biosynthesis...
February 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224915/characterization-of-small-rna-populations-in-non-transgenic-and-aflatoxin-reducing-transformed-peanut
#14
Imana L Power, Phat M Dang, Victor S Sobolev, Valerie A Orner, Joseph L Powell, Marshall C Lamb, Renee S Arias
Aflatoxin contamination is a major constraint in food production worldwide. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), these toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus Link and A. parasiticus Speare. The use of RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising method to reduce or prevent the accumulation of aflatoxin in peanut seed. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNA populations in a control line and in two transformed peanut lines that expressed an inverted repeat targeting five genes involved in the aflatoxin-biosynthesis pathway and that showed up to 100% less aflatoxin B1 than the controls...
April 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220134/genome-wide-dissection-of-the-heat-shock-transcription-factor-family-genes-in-arachis
#15
Pengfei Wang, Hui Song, Changsheng Li, Pengcheng Li, Aiqin Li, Hongshan Guan, Lei Hou, Xingjun Wang
Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are important transcription factors (TFs) in protecting plants from damages caused by various stresses. The released whole genome sequences of wild peanuts make it possible for genome-wide analysis of Hsfs in peanut. In this study, a total of 16 and 17 Hsf genes were identified from Arachis duranensis and A. ipaensis, respectively. We identified 16 orthologous Hsf gene pairs in both peanut species; however HsfXs was only identified from A. ipaensis. Orthologous pairs between two wild peanut species were highly syntenic...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213013/time-course-of-germination-initiation-of-mycelium-proliferation-and-probability-of-visible-growth-and-detectable-afb1-production-of-an-isolate-of-aspergillus-flavus-on-pistachio-extract-agar
#16
Laila Aldars-García, Vicente Sanchis, Antonio J Ramos, Sonia Marín
The aim of this work was to assess the temporal relationship among quantified germination, mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production from colonies coming from single spores, in order to find the best way to predict as accurately as possible the presence of AFB1 at the early stages of contamination. Germination, mycelial growth, probability of growth and probability of AFB1 production of an isolate of Aspergillus flavus were determined at 25 °C and two water activities (0.85 and 0.87) on 3% Pistachio Extract Agar (PEA)...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212851/the-high-affinity-phosphodiesterase-pdeh-regulates-development-and-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-flavus
#17
Kunlong Yang, Yinghang Liu, Linlin Liang, Zhenguo Li, Qiuping Qin, Xinyi Nie, Shihua Wang
Cyclic AMP signaling controls a range of physiological processes in response to extracellular stimuli in organisms. Among the signaling cascades, cAMP, as a second messenger, is orchestrated by adenylate cyclase (biosynthesis) and cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) (hydrolysis). In this study, we investigated the function of the high-affinity (PdeH) and low-affinity (PdeL) cAMP phosphodiesterase from the carcinogenic aflatoxin producing fungus Aspergillus flavus, and found that instead of PdeL, inactivation of PdeH exhibited a reduction in conidiation and sclerotia formation...
February 14, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197828/coinfection-with-lichtheimia-corymbifera-and-aspergillus-flavus-in-an-immune-competent-patient-mimicking-as-pulmonary-renal-syndrome
#18
Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Farah Idrees, Kauser Jabeen, Saima Kamal, Afia Zafar
Lichtheimia corymbifera and Aspergillus flavus pulmonary coinfection has been rarely reported in immune-competent patients. We report case of a young male who presented with clinical features of pulmonary-renal syndrome and was later diagnosed to have bilateral polymicrobial fungal lung infection.
February 14, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158222/comparative-analysis-of-nbs-lrr-genes-and-their-response-to-aspergillus-flavus-in-arachis
#19
Hui Song, Pengfei Wang, Changsheng Li, Suoyi Han, Chuanzhi Zhao, Han Xia, Yuping Bi, Baozhu Guo, Xinyou Zhang, Xingjun Wang
Studies have demonstrated that nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes respond to pathogen attack in plants. Characterization of NBS-LRR genes in peanut is not well documented. The newly released whole genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaënsis have allowed a global analysis of this important gene family in peanut to be conducted. In this study, we identified 393 (AdNBS) and 437 (AiNBS) NBS-LRR genes from A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis, respectively, using bioinformatics approaches...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132403/tulbaghia-violacea-harv-plant-extract-affects-cell-wall-synthesis-in-aspergillus-flavus
#20
V Belewa, H Baijnath, C Frost, B M Somai
AIMS: This study investigates the effect that aqueous extracts of Tulbaghia violacea Harv. harbouring plant saponins, phenolics and tannins have on Aspergillus flavus β-(1,3) glucan and chitin synthesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aspergillus flavus was treated with various subinhibitory concentrations of an aqueous T. violacea plant extract and the β-(1,3) glucan and chitin content was determined together with glucan synthase and chitin synthase production respectively...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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