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Aspergillus flavus

Paul W Kachapulula, Juliet Akello, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J Cotty
Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus populations associated with aflatoxin contamination in Zambia have not been adequately detailed. Most of Zambia's arable land is non-cultivated and Aspergillus communities in crops may originate in non-cultivated soil...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Anuradha Chowdhary, Cheshta Sharma, Jacques F Meis
Aspergillus fumigatus remains the most common species in all pulmonary syndromes, followed by Aspergillus flavus which is a common cause of allergic rhinosinusitis, postoperative aspergillosis and fungal keratitis. The manifestations of Aspergillus infections include invasive aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and bronchitis. Allergic manifestations of inhaled Aspergillus include allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Triazoles are the mainstay of therapy against Aspergillus infections for treatment and prophylaxis...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Nikolett Baranyi, Sándor Kocsubé, Daniela Jakšić Despot, Maja Šegvić Klarić, András Szekeres, Ottó Bencsik, Anita Kecskeméti, Palanisamy Manikandan, Beáta Tóth, László Kredics, Jamal M Khaled, Naiyf S Alharbi, Csaba Vágvölgyi, János Varga
Aspergillus flavus is a filamentous fungus which is widespread on agricultural products and also able to cause various human diseases. This species is frequently isolated from indoor air as well, furthermore, it is known as a common causal agent of keratomycosis, particularly in subtropical and tropical areas. It is also able to produce aflatoxins, one of the most carcinogenic mycotoxins which are harmful to animals and humans. In this study, 59 A. flavus isolates from four different habitats and 1 A. minisclerotigenes isolate were investigated...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ajay Kumar Singh, Prashant Gupta, Nitya Verma, Vineeta Khare, Abrar Ahamad, Virendra Verma, S P Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: On the basis of histopathology Fungal Rhinosinusitis (FRS) is categorized into non-invasive (allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, fungal ball) and invasive (acute invasive, chronic invasive and granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis). This differentiation helps to decide the treatment. Role of latest molecular methods such as PCR and conventional methods such as KOH microscopy and culture also needs to be evaluated. Therefore, in this study we planned to categorise fungal rhinosinusitis on the basis of histopathology and compare it with other methods such as PCR, culture and KOH microscopy...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Youhuang Bai, Bin Chen, Mingzhu Li, Yincong Zhou, Silin Ren, Qin Xu, Ming Chen, Shihua Wang
Protein phosphorylation, one of the most classic post-translational modification, plays a critical role in diverse cellular processes including cell cycle, growth, and signal transduction pathways. However, the available information about phosphorylation in fungi is limited. Here, we provided a Fungi Phosphorylation Database (FPD) that comprises high-confidence in vivo phosphosites identified by MS-based proteomics in various fungal species. This comprehensive phosphorylation database contains 62 272 non-redundant phosphorylation sites in 11 222 proteins across eight organisms, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium graminearum, Magnaporthe oryzae, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Cryptococcus neoformans...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
Brandon T Pfannenstiel, Xixi Zhao, Jennifer Wortman, Philipp Wiemann, Kurt Throckmorton, Joseph E Spraker, Alexandra A Soukup, Xingyu Luo, Daniel L Lindner, Fang Yun Lim, Benjamin P Knox, Brian Haas, Gregory J Fischer, Tsokyi Choera, Robert A E Butchko, Jin-Woo Bok, Katharyn J Affeldt, Nancy P Keller, Jonathan M Palmer
The study of aflatoxin in Aspergillus spp. has garnered the attention of many researchers due to aflatoxin's carcinogenic properties and frequency as a food and feed contaminant. Significant progress has been made by utilizing the model organism Aspergillus nidulans to characterize the regulation of sterigmatocystin (ST), the penultimate precursor of aflatoxin. A previous forward genetic screen identified 23 A. nidulans mutants involved in regulating ST production. Six mutants were characterized from this screen using classical mapping (five mutations in mcsA) and complementation with a cosmid library (one mutation in laeA)...
September 5, 2017: MBio
Duraipandi Devipriya, Selvaraj Mohana Roopan
Recently, non-toxic source mediated synthesis of metal and a metal oxide nanoparticle attains more attention due to key applicational responsibilities. This present report stated that the eco-friendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) using Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis) plant extract. Further the eco-friendly synthesized CuO NPs were characterized using a number of analytical techniques. The observed results stated that the synthesized CuO NPs were spherical in shape with 30±2nm...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Sahira Nsayef Muslim, Israa M S Al Kadmy, Alaa Naseer Mohammed Ali, Batool Kadham Salman, Mohammad Ahmad, Saba Saadoon Khazaal, Nadheema Hammood Hussein, Sraa Nsayef Muslim
The biological methods for extraction of chitosan were used as alternative procedures for chemical methods In biological methods, the chitosan was extracted from A. flavus by using of Lactobacillus paracasei for demineralization and Bacillus subtilis for deproteinization. The yield of extracted chitosan reached to 53.8%, pH was 7.8 and complete solubility in 1% acitic acid. Purified chitosan had the ability to reduce the biofilm forming capacity of P. aeruginosa clearly visible in light microscopic staining and scanning electron microscopy...
August 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Katlego Siphamandla Mthethwa, Karin Kassier, Jennifer Engel, Selin Kara, Martha Sophia Smit, Diederik Johannes Opperman
FAD-dependent Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) have proven to be useful biocatalysts in the selective and specific oxygenation of various ketones. Despite the cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of close to 80 members of this enzyme family, some sub-groups of BVMOs still remain underrepresented and their evolutionary relationship uncertain. Until recently, very few fungal BVMOs have been described. Our previous investigations into BVMOs from the fungus Aspergillus flavus, yielded very little activity on simple cyclic ketones...
November 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Michael Dare Asemoloye, Rafiq Ahmad, Segun Gbolagade Jonathan
Fungi are usually involved in degradation/deterioration of many anthropogenic wastes due to their verse enzyme secretions and adaptive capabilities. In this study, five dominant fungal strains were isolated from an aged lindane polluted site, they were all mixed (100 mg each) together with pent mushroom compost (SMC) and applied to lindane polluted soil (5 kg) at 10, 20, 30, 40% and control 0% (soil with no treatment), these were used to grow M. maximus Jacq for 3 months. To establish lindane degradation, deductions such as Degradation rate (K1), Half-life (t1/2) and Degradation efficiency (DE) were made based on the analyzed lindane concentrations before and after the experiment...
2017: PloS One
Mohamed A Yassin, Abd El-Rahim M A El-Samawaty, Turki M Dawoud, Omar H Abd-Elkader, Khalid S Al Maary, Ashraf A Hatamleh, Abdallah M Elgorban
This work was conducted to evaluate the ability of grape molding fungus; Penicillium citrinum to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The potency of biosynthesized Ag NPs was checked against the aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris, isolated from sorghum grains. Biosynthesized Ag NPs were characterized and confirmed in different ways. X ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and optical absorption measurements confirmed the bio-synthesis of Ag NPs...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Spurthi N Nayak, Gaurav Agarwal, Manish K Pandey, Hari K Sudini, Ashwin S Jayale, Shilp Purohit, Aarthi Desai, Liyun Wan, Baozhu Guo, Boshou Liao, Rajeev K Varshney
Aflatoxin contamination, caused by fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus, is a major quality and health problem delimiting the trade and consumption of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) worldwide. RNA-seq approach was deployed to understand the host-pathogen interaction by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for resistance to in-vitro seed colonization (IVSC) at four critical stages after inoculation in J 11 (resistant) and JL 24 (susceptible) genotypes of groundnut. About 1,344.04 million sequencing reads have been generated from sixteen libraries representing four stages in control and infected conditions...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
M Kamal, S Apewokin, M Anand, B G Abu Jawdeh, A Govil, M M Sheikh, S Shah
Aspergillus infection of the allograft in renal transplant patients is rare and associated with a high mortality. We report a case of a 21-year-old, human immunodeficiency virus-positive, deceased-donor kidney recipient who presented 1 year after transplant with oliguric kidney injury. A nuclear medicine renal scan revealed absence of flow to the transplanted kidney, and a urine fungal culture was positive for Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was confirmed with the presence of fungal hyphae along with thrombosis in the vascular structures in renal allograft pathology...
September 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
Isaura Caceres, Rhoda El Khoury, Sylviane Bailly, Isabelle P Oswald, Olivier Puel, Jean-Denis Bailly
Aspergillus flavus, a soil-borne pathogen, represents a danger for humans and animals since it produces the carcinogenic mycotoxin Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Approaches aiming the reduction of this fungal contaminant mainly involve chemicals that may also be toxic. Therefore, identification and characterization of natural anti-aflatoxigenic products represents a sustainable alternative strategy. Piperine, a major component of black and long peppers, has been previously demonstrated asan AFB1-inhibitor; nevertheless its mechanism of action was yet to be elucidated...
October 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Prajna Lalitha, Sabyasachi Sengupta, Ravilla D Ravindran, Savitri Sharma, Joveeta Joseph, Vikas Ambiya, Taraprasad Das
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review the incidence and microbiology of acute postcataract surgery endophthalmitis in India. METHODS: Systematic review of English-language PubMed referenced articles on endophthalmitis in India published in the past 21 years (January 1992-December 2012), and retrospective chart review of 2 major eye care facilities in India in the past 5 years (January 2010-December 2014) were done. The incidence data were collected from articles that described "in-house" endophthalmitis and the microbiology data were collected from all articles...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Gerhard A Wiesmüller, Birger Heinzow, Ute Aurbach, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Albrecht Bufe, Walter Buzina, Oliver A Cornely, Steffen Engelhart, Guido Fischer, Thomas Gabrio, Werner Heinz, Caroline E W Herr, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ludger Klimek, Martin Köberle, Herbert Lichtnecker, Thomas Lob-Corzilius, Rolf Merget, Norbert Mülleneisen, Dennis Nowak, Uta Rabe, Monika Raulf, Hans Peter Seidl, Jens-Oliver Steiß, Regine Szewszyk, Peter Thomas, Kerttu Valtanen, Julia Hurraß
This article is an abridged version of the AWMF mould guideline "Medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure" presented in April 2016 by the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin, GHUP), in collaboration with the above-mentioned scientific medical societies, German and Austrian societies, medical associations and experts. Indoor mould growth is a potential health risk, even if a quantitative and/or causal relationship between the occurrence of individual mould species and health problems has yet to be established...
2017: Allergo Journal International
Yousseria M H Shetaia, Ashraf F El-Baz, Ahmed M ElMekawy
BACKGROUND: The review of literature and patents shows that enhancing the PG production and activity are still required to fulfill the increasing demands. METHODS: A dual optimization process, which involved Plackett-Burman design (PBD), with seven factors, and response surface methodology, was applied to optimize the production of extracellular polygalacturonase (PG) enzyme produced by a novel strain of Aspergillus flavus isolated from rotten orange fruit. The fungal PG was purified and biochemically characterized...
August 11, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Hala A M Ammar, Saeid M Ezzat, Asmaa M Houseny
Two wild-type (WT) Aspergillus strains, A. flavus HAk1 and A. oryzae HAk2, were selected for kojic acid (KA) biosynthesis. Malt extract sucrose culture medium (MES) was the best culture medium for maximum production of KA. The maximum production of KA has been estimated at pH 4 after 7 days of incubation at 30 °C. Overproduction of KA was attained by mutagenesis of both A. flavus HAk1 and A. oryzae HAk2 through their exposer to different doses of gamma irradiation. The mutant strains (MT) A. flavus HAk1-M2 and A...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Moufid El-Khoury, Rogine Ligot, Simon Mahoney, Colin M Stack, Gabriel G Perrone, C Oliver Morton
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies into the antifungal activity of NK-cells against the Aspergillus fumigatus have presented differing accounts on their mode of antifungal activity. One of these mechanisms proposed that NK-cells may kill the fungus via the direct effects of exposure to Interferon gamma (IFN-γ). RESULTS: In this study we investigated the direct antifungal effects of recombinant human IFN-γ against a range of pathogenic fungi by measuring cellular damage using an XTT-based assay and cell viability through plate counts...
August 1, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Jonathan Gressel, Guy Polturak
Liver-affecting, carcinogenic aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus spp. are a major problem, especially in the humid developing world where storage conditions are often optimal for the fungi. Peanuts and maize have been transformed with RNAi constructs targeting Aspergillus flavus polyketide-synthase, an early key enzyme in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Aflatoxin biosynthesis was suppressed in developing immature grain, less so in late maturing grain, and it is doubtful that the technology will be effective in near dry mature grain...
August 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
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