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Aspergillus flavus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442441/aspergillus-flavus-aswa-a-gene-homolog-of-aspergillus-nidulans-oefc-regulates-sclerotial-development-and-biosynthesis-of-sclerotium-associated-secondary-metabolites
#1
Perng-Kuang Chang, Leslie L Scharfenstein, Robert W Li, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Sarah De Saeger, José Diana Di Mavungu
Aspergillus flavus aswA (AFLA_085170) is a gene encoding a Zn(II)2Cys6 DNA-binding domain and a transcriptional activation domain, DUF3468. Disruption of aswA yielded strains that made a truncated gene transcript and generated a fungus that produced a greatly increased number of sclerotia. These sclerotia were odd-shaped and non-pigmented (white) and different from oval and pigmented (dark brown to black) mature sclerotia. Transcriptomic analysis of the ΔaswA strain grown on potato dextrose agar plates and Wickerham agar plates showed that expression of clustering genes involved in the biosynthesis of three sclerotium-associated secondary metabolites was down-regulated...
April 22, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433057/low-cost-humic-acid-bonded-silica-as-an-effective-solid-phase-extraction-sorbent-for-convenient-determination-of-aflatoxins-in-edible-oils
#2
Neng-Zhi Zhou, Ping Liu, Xiao-Chuan Su, Yan-Hua Liao, Ning-Sheng Lei, Yong-Hong Liang, Shao-Huan Zhou, Wen-Si Lin, Jie Chen, Yu-Qi Feng, Yang Tang
Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic secondary metabolites produced by the toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. AFs tend to contaminate a wide range of foods which is a serious and recurring food safety problem worldwide. Currently, immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) has become the most conventional sample clean-up method for determining AFs in foodstuffs. However, IAC method is limited in the large-scale food analysis because it requires the use of expensive disposable cartridges and the IA procedure is time-consuming...
June 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428796/expression-profiling-coupled-with-in-silico-mapping-identifies-candidate-genes-for-reducing-aflatoxin-accumulation-in-maize
#3
Ramesh Dhakal, Chenglin Chai, Ratna Karan, Gary L Windham, William P Williams, Prasanta K Subudhi
Aflatoxin, produced by Aspergillus flavus, is hazardous to health of humans and livestock. The lack of information about large effect QTL for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation is a major obstacle to employ marker-assisted selection for maize improvement. The understanding of resistance mechanisms of the host plant and the associated genes is necessary for improving resistance to A. flavus infection. A suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was made using the developing kernels of Mp715 (resistant inbred) and B73 (susceptible inbred) and 480 randomly selected cDNA clones were sequenced to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to A...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428686/aflatoxins-implications-on-health
#4
REVIEW
Usha P Sarma, Preetida J Bhetaria, Prameela Devi, Anupam Varma
Environmental occurrence of Aspergillus and other fungal spores are hazardous to humans and animals. They cause a broad spectrum of clinical complications. Contamination of aflatoxins in agri-food and feed due to A. flavus and A. parasiticus result in toxicity in humans and animals. Recent advances in aspergillus genomics and aflatoxin management practices are encouraging to tackle the challenges posed by important aspergillus species.
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425876/characterization-of-the-translation-elongation-factor-1-%C3%AE-gene-in-a-wide-range-of-pathogenic-aspergillus-species
#5
Sadegh Nouripour-Sisakht, Bahram Ahmadi, Koichi Makimura, Sybren de Hoog, Yoshiko Umeda, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Hossein Mirhendi
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the resolving power of the translation elongation factor (TEF)-1α gene for phylogenetic analysis of Aspergillus species. METHODOLOGY: Sequences of 526 bp representing the coding region of the TEF-1α gene were used for the assessment of levels of intra- and inter-specific nucleotide polymorphism in 33 species of Aspergillus, including 57 reference, clinical and environmental strains. RESULTS: Analysis of TEF-1α sequences indicated a mean similarity of 92...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420231/biological-control-of-aflatoxin-contamination-in-us-crops-and-the-use-of-bioplastic-formulations-of-aspergillus-flavus-biocontrol-strains-to-optimize-application-strategies
#6
Hamed K Abbas, Cesare Accinelli, W Thomas Shier
Aflatoxin contamination has a major economic impact on crop production in southern USA. Reduction of aflatoxin contamination in harvested crops has been achieved by applying non-aflatoxigenic biocontrol Aspergillus flavus strains that can out-compete wild aflatoxigenic A. flavus, reducing their numbers at the site of application. Currently, the standard method for applying biocontrol A. flavus strains to soil is using a nutrient-supplying carrier (e.g., pearled barley for Afla-Guard®). Granules of bioplastic (partially acetylated corn starch) have been investigated as an alternative nutritive carrier for biocontrol agents...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400781/seed-derived-ethylene-facilitates-colonization-but-not-aflatoxin-production-by-aspergillus-flavus-in-maize
#7
Shi Wang, Yong-Soon Park, Yang Yang, Eli J Borrego, Tom Isakeit, Xiquan Gao, Michael V Kolomiets
Ethylene (ET) emitted by plant tissues has been broadly reported to play important roles in plant development, response to environmental stresses and defense against certain pathogens. Recent evidence obtained from using in vitro fungal cultures exposed to ET suggested that exogenous ET may regulate the production of aflatoxin by Aspergilli. However, the function of endogenous, seed-derived ET has not been explored. In this study, we found that the maize lipoxygenase lox3 mutant, previously reported to be susceptible to Aspergillus spp...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400284/transcriptome-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-and-histopathology-analysis-of-hepatopancreas-from-the-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-fed-with-aflatoxin-b1-afb1
#8
Wei Zhao, Lei Wang, Mei Liu, Keyong Jiang, Mengqiang Wang, Guang Yang, Cancan Qi, Baojie Wang
Aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus parasiticus fungi during grain and feed processing and storage. Aflatoxins cause severe health problems reducing the yield and profitability of shrimp cultures. We sought to understand the interaction between shrimp immunity and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), analyzing transcriptome expression, antioxidant enzyme activity, and histological features of the hepatopancreas of shrimp fed with AFB1. From over 4 million high-quality reads, de novo unigene assembly produced 103,644 fully annotated genes...
April 8, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399711/effects-of-microwaves-on-the-reduction-of-aspergillus-flavus-and-aspergillus-parasiticus-on-brown-rice-oryza-sativa-l-and-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#9
Seung-Hun Lee, Shin Young Park, Kye-Hwan Byun, Hyang Sook Chun, Sang-Do Ha
Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are primary pathogen molds on brown rice and barley. This study investigated the effects of microwave irradiation (MWI) (2,450 MHz, 700 W, 10-50 sec) on inactivation of A. flavus and A. parasiticus (7-8 log) on brown rice and barley and the quality of these samples. The counts of both strains were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by the stepwise increase in MWI treatment time. The log reductions of A. flavus on brown rice and barley were 0.05 and 0.04 after 10 sec; 1...
April 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398103/endophytic-fungi-associated-with-monarda-citriodora-an-aromatic-and-medicinal-plant-and-their-biocontrol-potential
#10
Meenu Katoch, Shipra Pull
CONTEXT: The Food and Agriculture Organization has estimated that every year considerable losses of the food crops occur due to plant diseases. Although fungicides are extensively used for management of plant diseases, they are expensive and hazardous to the environment and human health. Alternatively, biological control is the safe way to overcome the effects of plant diseases and to sustain agriculture. Since Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. (Lamiaceae/Labiatae) is known for its antifungal properties, it was chosen for the study...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390507/a-cytosine-methyltransferase-ortholog-dmta-is-involved-in-the-sensitivity-of-aspergillus-flavus-to-environmental-stresses
#11
Qing-Qing Zhi, Jie-Ying Li, Qiu-Yun Liu, Zhu-Mei He
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that depends on DNA methyltransferases (DMT). However, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus has no detectable methylation, and role of a DMT homologue, DmtA, is undefined. Here we describe the role of the dmtA gene responding to changes in the environment by comparing knockout, point mutation, over-expression and wild type strains. Deletion of dmtA differentially affected conidia development in a media-dependent fashion, which suggests that dmtA plays an important role in conidiation...
May 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384860/fungal-opportunistic-pneumonias-in-hiv-aids-patients-an-indian-tertiary-care-experience
#12
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Preena Bhalla, Richa Dewan
INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic pneumonias are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) reactive patients. Despite the significant role that fungi play in causation of this opportunistic mycoses, very few Indian studies have attempted to investigate the burden and aetiological spectrum of HIV/AIDS-associated fungal pneumonias. AIM: To document the prevalence of fungal aetiology in HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic pneumonias in an Indian setting; and to elucidate the various fungal opportunists responsible for the same...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382601/pre-harvest-aflatoxins-and-aspergillus-flavus-contamination-in-variable-germplasms-of-red-chillies-from-kunri-pakistan
#13
Shaista Akhund, Abida Akram, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Farah Naz, Brian Gagosh Nayyar
Various cultivars of red chilli were collected from a small town named Kunri, located in the province Sindh, Pakistan. This town is a hub of red chilli production in Asia. A total of 69 samples belonging to 6 cultivars were obtained and analysed for the occurrence of aflatoxins and Aspergillus flavus, to explore the potential of resistant and susceptible germplasm. Aflatoxins were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while A. flavus was isolated and identified using agar plate, blotter paper, deep freezing and dilution techniques...
April 5, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380344/mycotoxin-risk-assessment-for-consumers-of-groundnut-in-domestic-markets-in-nigeria
#14
Oluwawapelumi A Oyedele, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Modupeade C Adetunji, Benedikt Warth, Olusegun O Atanda, Rudolf Krska
The fungal and multi-mycotoxin profiles of groundnuts sold in domestic markets in Nigeria as well as the associated risk to consumers were assessed in the present study. Four hundred fungal isolates representing mainly Aspergillus [58.6%: Aspergillus section Flavi (37.1%) and A. niger-clade (21.5%)], Penicillium (40.9%) and Fusarium (0.5%) were isolated from 82 (97.6%, n=84) groundnut samples collected from four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Nigeria. The incidence of aflatoxin-producing A. flavus isolates (71%) was significantly (p<0...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379558/orientation-of-navel-orangeworm-lepidoptera-pyralidae-larvae-and-adults-toward-volatiles-associated-with-almond-hull-split-and-aspergillus-flavus
#15
Daniel S Bush, Allen Lawrance, Joel P Siegel, May R Berenbaum
The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker, 1863, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California tree nuts, is associated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus, and previous research suggests these species are facultative mutualists. Because navel orangeworm larvae exhibit improved performance on diets containing this fungus, orientation toward hostplants infected with A. flavus may be adaptive. We conducted behavioral assays to determine if larvae respond to chemical cues produced by almond hull split and fungal infection...
March 31, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378232/detection-of-cyclopiazonic-acid-cpa-in-maize-by-immunoassay
#16
C M Maragos, K K Sieve, J Bobell
Cyclopiazonic acid (α-CPA) is a tremorgenic mycotoxin that is commonly produced by certain species of the aspergilli, in particular Aspergillus flavus, which is more widely known for production of the aflatoxins. Despite the fact that α-CPA may co-occur with aflatoxins, immunoassay-based methods for monitoring for CPA have not been widely developed. We report the development and evaluation of several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for α-CPA. Two mAbs in particular were very sensitive, with IC50s of 1.1 and 1 ng/mL (clones 1418 and 1231, respectively)...
April 5, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373148/evaluation-of-the-in-vitro-activity-of-isavuconazole-and-comparator-voriconazole-against-2635-contemporary-clinical-candida-and-aspergillus-isolates
#17
K M T Astvad, R K Hare, M C Arendrup
OBJECTIVE: The in vitro activity of isavuconazole was determined for 1677 Candida and 958 Aspergillus isolates from 2012-2014 with voriconazole as comparator. METHODS: Aspergillus isolates were screened for resistance using azole-agar. Screening positive Aspergillus and all Candida isolates underwent EUCAST broth-microdilution testing. Isolates were categorised as wild-type (wt) or non-wt, adopting EUCAST ECOFFs (where available) or wt upper limits (wtULs; two 2-fold dilutions above the MIC50)...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367868/inhibitory-effects-of-thai-essential-oils-on-potentially-aflatoxigenic-aspergillus-parasiticus-and-aspergillus-flavus
#18
Kittika Jantapan, Amnart Poapolathep, Kanjana Imsilp, Saranya Poapolathep, Phanwimol Tanhan, Susumu Kumagai, Usuma Jermnak
 The antiaflatoxigenic and antifungal activities of essential oils (EOs) of finger root (Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.), pine (Pinus pinaster), rosewood (Aniba rosaedora), Siam benzoin (Styrax tonkinensis), Thai moringa (Moringa oleifera), and ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) were tested for Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in potato dextrose broth. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was extracted from culture using a QuEChERS-based extraction procedure and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector...
2017: Biocontrol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366953/occurrence-of-fungi-and-cytotoxicity-of-the-species-aspergillus-ochraceus-aspergillus-niger-and-aspergillus-flavus-isolated-from-the-air-of-hospital-wards
#19
Agnieszka Gniadek, Paweł Krzyściak, Magdalena Twarużek, Anna B Macura
OBJECTIVES: The basic care requirement for patients with weakened immune systems is to create the environment where the risk of mycosis is reduced to a minimum. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2013 air samples were collected from various wards of a number of hospitals in Kraków, Poland, by means of the collision method using MAS-100 Iso MH Microbial Air Sampler (Merck Millipore, Germany). The air mycobiota contained several species of fungi, and almost 1/3 of it was made up of the species of the <i>Aspergillus genus</i>...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365677/antifungal-and-antiaflatoxigenic-activities-of-coumarinyl-thiosemicarbazides-against-aspergillus-flavus-nrrl-3251
#20
Tihomir Kovač, Marija Kovač, Ivica Strelec, Ante Nevistić, Maja Molnar
The antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic effects of two series of coumarinyl thiosemicarbazides on Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3251 were studied. Fungi were grown in YES medium for 72 h at 29 °C in the presence of 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 μg mL-1 of coumarinyl thiosemicarbazides: one series with substitution in position 7 and another with substitution in position 4 of the coumarin core. Dry mycelia weight determination was used for antifungal activity estimation, while the aflatoxin B1 content in YES media, determined by the dilute and shoot LC-MS/MS technique, was used for the antiaflatoxigenic effect estimation...
March 1, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
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