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Aspergillus flavus

Alfred Mitema, Sheila Okoth, Mohamed S Rafudeen
Toxigenic Aspergillus species produce mycotoxins that are carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and teratogenic immunosuppressing agents in both human and animals. Kenya frequently experiences outbreaks of aflatoxicosis with the worst occurring in 2010, which resulted in 215 deaths. We examined the possible reasons for these frequent aflatoxicosis outbreaks in Kenya by studying Aspergillus flavus diversity, phenotypes and mycotoxin profiles across various agricultural regions. Using diagonal transect random sampling, maize kernels were collected from Makueni, Homa Bay, Nandi, and Kisumu counties...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Walid Korani, Ye Chu, C Corley Holbrook, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Post-harvest aflatoxin contamination is a challenging issue that affects peanut quality. Aflatoxin is produced by fungi belonging to the Aspergilli group, and is known as an acutely toxic, carcinogenic and immune-suppressing class of mycotoxins. Evidence for several host genetic factors that may impact aflatoxin contamination has been reported, e.g. , genes for lipoxygenase (PnLOX1 and PnLOX2/PnLOX3 that showed either positive or negative regulation with Aspergillus infection), ROS, and WRKY (highly associated with or differentially expressed upon infection of maize with A...
March 15, 2018: Genetics
Matthew K Gilbert, Rajtilak Majumdar, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Qijian Wei, Christine M Sickler, Matthew D Lebar, Jeffrey W Cary, Bronwyn R Frame, Kan Wang
Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus resulted in suppression of alpha-amylase (amy1) gene expression and decreased fungal growth during in situ infection resulting in decreased aflatoxin production. Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus and pathogen to several important food and feed crops, including maize. Once the fungus colonizes lipid-rich seed tissues, it has the potential to produce toxic secondary metabolites, the most dangerous of which is aflatoxin...
March 14, 2018: Planta
J Denis, M-P Ledoux, Y Nivoix, R Herbrecht
Triazoles compounds are first-line agents for the treatment of invasive fungal diseases. Isavuconazole is the most recent triazole compound, approved in 2015 by the FDA and the EMA to treat invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. We reviewed here the in vitro activity of isavuconazole against a vast spectrum of species. Isavuconazole MICs were evaluated using CLSI, EUCAST or Etest methods, with no significant differences between the technics. Low MIC50 and MIC90 (<1μg/mL) were described for isavuconazole against the majority of Candida spp...
March 10, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Yinghang Liu, Kunlong Yang, Qiuping Qin, Guinan Lin, Tianran Hu, Zhangling Xu, Shihua Wang
The heterotrimeric G proteins are critical for signal transduction and function in numerous biological processes including vegetative growth, asexual development and fungal virulence in fungi. Here, we identified four G protein alpha subunits (GanA, GpaB, FadA and GaoC) in the notorious Aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus . GanA, GpaB and FadA have homologues in other fungal species, while GaoC is a novel one. Here, we showed that the loss function of gpaB displayed a defect in conidiophore formation and considerably reduced expression levels of conidia-specific genes brlA and abaA ...
March 10, 2018: Toxins
Marcelo Valle Garcia, Gilson Parussolo, Camila Brombilla Moro, Angélica Olivier Bernardi, Marina Venturini Copetti
The aim of this study was to identify fungal species present in 200 samples of rosemary, fennel, cinnamon, clove, pepperoni, black and white pepper and oregano and evaluate the mycotoxigenic potential of the some Aspergilli isolated. Clove, black and white peppers were analyzed by direct plating. For rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano samples were used spread plate. Mycotoxigenic capacity was verified by the agar plug method. With the exception of clove, all the spices showed high fungal contamination, especially by Aspergillus sp...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Simone Decontardi, Célia Soares, Nelson Lima, Paola Battilani
Penicillium and Aspergillus genera, both including mycotoxin producing species, were reported as associated to cheese and cheese working environment, but never studied in an extensive way in Italian grana cheese (Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano). The aim of this work was to address the identification of Aspergilli and Penicillia associated to grana cheese in order to lay down the basis for risk assessment and safe processing for a high quality production. One hundred and four strains belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera were obtained from cheese crust and from ripening room air (with the latter largely dominant), and identified following a polyphasic approach, strongly required for the identification at the species level...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Geromy G Moore, Brian M Mack, Shannon B Beltz, Olivier Puel
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus arachidicola is an aflatoxigenic fungal species, first isolated from the leaves of a wild peanut species native to Argentina. It has since been reported in maize, Brazil nut and human sputum samples. This aflatoxigenic species is capable of secreting both B and G aflatoxins, similar to A. parasiticus and A. nomius. It has other characteristics that may result in its misidentification as one of several other section Flavi species. This study offers a preliminary analysis of the A...
March 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ping Hu, Zhicai Zuo, Fengyuan Wang, Xi Peng, Ke Guan, Hang Li, Jing Fang, Hengmin Cui, Gang Su, Ping Ouyang, Yi Zhou
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) is a naturally occurring secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, and is the most toxic form of aflatoxins. Selenium (Se) with antioxidant and detoxification functions is one of the essential trace elements for human beings and animals. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of Se on AFB1 -induced tissue damage and cell cycle arrest in bursa of Fabricius (BF) of chickens. The results showed that a dietary supplement of 0.4 mg·kg-1 Se alleviated the histological lesions induced by AFB1 , as demonstrated by decreasing vacuoles and nuclear debris, and relieving oxidative stress...
March 6, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Jun-Jin Deng, Wei-Qian Huang, Zhi-Wei Li, De-Lin Lu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiao-Chun Luo
The use of cell wall degrading enzymes of Trichoderma is a promising alternative for improving food storage. The aspartic protease P6281 secreted by the fungus Trichoderma harzianum plays an important role in mycoparasitism on phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, recombinant P6281 (rP6281) expressed in Pichia pastoris showed high activity of 321.8 U/mL. Maximum activity was observed at pH 2.5 and 40 °C, and the enzyme was stable in the pH range of 2.5-6.0. rP6281 significantly inhibited spore germination and growth of plant and animal pathogenic fungi such as Botrytis cinerea, Mucor circinelloides, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizoctonia solani, and Candida albicans...
May 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Laila Aldars-García, Sonia Marín, Vicente Sanchis, Naresh Magan, Angel Medina
Intraspecies variability in fungal growth and mycotoxin production has important implications for food safety. Using the Bioscreen C we have examined spectrophotometrically intraspecies variability of A. flavus using 10 isolates under different environments, including temperature shifts, in terms of growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) production. Five high and five low AFB1 producers were examined. The study was conducted at 5 isothermal conditions (from 15 to 37 °C) and 4 dynamic scenarios (between 15 and 30 °C)...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Huahui Lan, Lianghuan Wu, Ruilin Sun, Kunlong Yang, Yinghang Liu, Jiefei Wu, Longpo Geng, Chuanzhong Huang, Shihua Wang
Aspergillus flavus is a common fungal pathogen of plants, animals and humans. Recently, many genes of A. flavus have been reported involving in regulation of pathogenesis in crops, but whether these genes are involved in animal virulence is still unknown. Here, we used a previous easy-to-use infection model for A. flavus based on mouse model by intravenous inoculation of A. flavus conidia. The outcome of infections in mice model showed that A. flavus NRRL3357 and laboratory strain CA14 PTS were both in dose dependent manner and highly reproducible...
February 23, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Gargi Rai, Shukla Das, Mohammad Ahmad Ansari, Praveen Kumar Singh, Neelima Gupta, Sonal Sharma, Naseem Akhter, Vishnampettai G Ramachandran, Shafiul Haque, Sajad Ahmad Dar
Interleukin-17 producing T helper (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) cells have been identified to play a critical role in atopic inflammation. However, conflicting reports on the role of Th17/Treg cells in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) patients of different ethnicities has mystified its pathogenesis. To better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in AFRS, we conducted a prospective, analytical, case-control study involving 40 confirmed immunocompetent AFRS patients and 20 healthy controls...
February 20, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Hiroshi Kimura, Isamu Mitsuto, Ritsuyo Taguchi, Kazushi Anzawa, Takashi Mochizuki
Primary cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare, life-threatening fungal infection in premature infants. We report a case of primary cutaneous aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus tamarii in an extremely low birthweight infant. The infant was delivered by cesarean section with complications from an intrauterine infection, brain intraventricular hemorrhage, tension pneumothorax and cardiac tamponade. On the 12th day of life, he developed erythematous maceration with erosion on his back. Septate hyphae were detected on two occasions from specimens of the skin lesion...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Franqueline Reichert Lima, Luzia Lyra, Lais Pontes, Maria Luiza Moretti, Cau D Pham, Shawn R Lockhart, Angélica Zaninelli Schreiber
Aspergillus spp. are the most common invasive mold infection and are responsible for high mortality. A. fumigatus is currently of interest because resistance to azole antifungals has emerged. The Campinas University Hospital (HC-UNICAMP) receives high-risk patients susceptible to opportunistic infections but there have been no reports of resistant A. fumigatus. This study aimed to assess the susceptibility profile of Aspergillus isolates, specifically looking for azole resistance. ITS and β-tubulin DNA sequencing was performed on 228 sequential clinical isolates...
February 22, 2018: Mycoses
Abdulsamie Hanano, Mari Alkara, Ibrahem Almousally, Mouhnad Shaban, Farzana Rahman, Mehedi Hassan, Denis J Murphy
Aflatoxins (AF) are highly detrimental to human and animal health. We recently demonstrated that the Aspergillus flavus caleosin, AfPXG, had peroxygenase activity and mediated fungal development and AF accumulation. We now report the characterization of an AfPXG -deficient line using reference strain NRRL3357. The resulting fungal phenotype included a severe decrease in mycelium growth, failure to sporulate, and reduced AF production. Increasing cellular oxidative status by administration of hydrogen peroxide and cumene hydroperoxide did not restore the AfPXG -deficient phenotype, which suggests that AfPXG -deficiency is not directly related to oxidative stress...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jake C Fountain, Jin Koh, Liming Yang, Manish K Pandey, Spurthi N Nayak, Prasad Bajaj, Wei-Jian Zhuang, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Robert C Kemerait, R Dewey Lee, Sixue Chen, Rajeev K Varshney, Baozhu Guo
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of plants such as maize and peanut under conducive conditions such as drought stress resulting in significant aflatoxin production. Drought-associated oxidative stress also exacerbates aflatoxin production by A. flavus. The objectives of this study were to use proteomics to provide insights into the pathogen responses to H2 O2 -derived oxidative stress, and to identify potential biomarkers and targets for host resistance breeding. Three isolates, AF13, NRRL3357, and K54A with high, moderate, and no aflatoxin production, were cultured in medium supplemented with varying levels of H2 O2 , and examined using an iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification) approach...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sui Sheng T Hua, Dan E Parfitt, Siov Bouy L Sarreal, Bertram G Lee, Delilah F Wood
Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and cause toxin contamination in food chain worldwide. Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic and are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Fungal isolates were collected from a California orchard and a few were initially identified to be A...
February 20, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Donatien Kaboré, Mérilie Gagnon, Denis Roy, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Bréhima Diawara, Gisèle LaPointe
Forty Bacillus isolates obtained from maari (used as condiment in Burkina Faso) including 17 B. subtilis, 4 B. circulans, 7 B. pumilus and 6 B. licheniformis were investigated for use as starter cultures in maari production. The isolates were screened by PCR for the sfp gene responsible for the production of the lipopeptide biosurfactant, surfactin. The sfp gene was detected in all of the seventeen B. subtilis isolates, in 2 out of 7 B. pumilus, in 4 out of 6 B. licheniformis whereas no B. circulans was positive for the sfp gene by PCR screening...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Ifeoluwa Adekoya, Adewale Obadina, Cynthia Chilaka Adaku, Marthe De Boevre, Sheila Okoth, Sarah De Saeger, Patrick Njobeh
Beer, a beverage consumed throughout the world, is mainly derived from cereals. In this study, fungal and mycotoxin contamination, as well as the physicochemical properties of maize-based opaque beer (umqombothi) obtained from the Gauteng province of South Africa, was investigated. The mean water activity, pH and total titratable acidity of the analysed beer samples were 0.91, 3.76 and 1.20% lactic acid, respectively. The investigation revealed Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma and Saccharomyces as the predominant fungal genera with a mean fungal load of 3...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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