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Aspergillus flavus

Aman Khan, Gul Jan, Afsar Khan, Farzana Gul Jan, Muhammad Danish
Biologically, screening of medicinal plants extracts have been since pre-historic to determine the antioxidants and antimicrobial profile. The present study was aimed to investigate and evaluate crude extract and different fractions of Bergenia ciliata Sternb (rhizome) for bioactivity which is most considerable medicinal plants. The chloroform fraction was found to be highly anti-oxidative with the IC50 value (4.15±0.82) as compare to ethyl acetate and n-hexane fraction. In addition, neither crude extract nor any fraction showed inhibition against fungal strains, i...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
José Vicente Gómez, Andrea Tarazona, Rufino Mateo-Castro, José Vicente Gimeno-Adelantado, Misericordia Jiménez, Eva M Mateo
Recent research has showed that Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are aflatoxigenic species that can become very competitive in the framework of climate change. Aflatoxins show carcinogenic, mutagenic, immunotoxic and teratogenic effects on human and animals. Effective and sustainable measures to inhibit these species and aflatoxins in food are required. Origanum vulgare and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils (EOs) and their major active constituents, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde, respectively, were assayed for inhibiting these species and aflatoxin production in maize extract medium under different environmental conditions...
January 17, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Ramesh S Pal, Sonam Spalgais, Amit Kumar Murar, Umesh Chandra Ojha
A 19 year female, presented with life threatening haemoptysis and cough with minimum expectoration for 3 months. Bronchoscopy showed multiple nodules in airway. The direct microscopy and culture of sputum revealed fungal elements and Aspergillus flavus respectively. Serum Galactomannan was positive. Thus diagnosis of invasive aspergillus tracheo-bronchitis made. She responded to voriconazole. Aspergillus tracheo-bronchitis is a rare form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immuno-competent host. Aspergillus spp in respiratory samples should not be routinely discarded as colonization...
November 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Hala A Amin, Francesco Secundo, Hassan Amer, Faten A Mostafa, Wafaa A Helmy
Soyasapogenol B (SB) is known to have many biological activities such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, antiviral and anticancer activities. Enzymatic conversion of soyasaponins to SB was carried out using saponin hydrolase (SH) extracted from Aspergillus flavus. The partially purified enzyme was immobilized on different carriers by physical adsorption, covalent binding or entrapment. Among the investigated carriers, Eupergit C and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) activated by DIC and NHS were the most suitable two carriers for immobilization (the immobilized forms recovered 46...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Cheshta Sharma, Rakesh Kumar, Nitin Kumar, Aradhana Masih, Dinesh Gupta, Anuradha Chowdhary
Invasive and allergic infections by Aspergillus flavus are more common in tropical and subtropical countries. The emergence of voriconazole (VRC) resistance in A. flavus impacts the management of aspergillosis as azoles are used as the first line and empiric therapy. We screened molecularly confirmed 120 A. flavus isolates obtained from respiratory and sino-nasal specimens in a chest hospital in Delhi for azole resistance using CLSI BMD method. Overall, 2.5% (n=3/120) of A. flavus isolates had VRC MICs above epidemiological cutoff values (>1μg/ml)...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Madher N AlFindee, Qian Zhang, Yagya Prasad Subedi, Jaya P Shrestha, Yukie Kawasaki, Michelle Grilley, Jon Y Takemoto, Cheng-Wei Tom Chang
Carbohydrate esters are biodegradable, and the degraded adducts are naturally occurring carbohydrates and fatty acids which are environmentally friendly and non-toxic to human. A simple one-step regioselective acylation of mono-carbohydrates has been developed that leads to the synthesis of a wide range of carbohydrate esters. Screening of these acylated carbohydrates revealed that several compounds were active against a panel of bacteria and fungi, including Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum...
December 26, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Antonio Mauro, Esther Garcia-Cela, Amedeo Pietri, Peter J Cotty, Paola Battilani
Since 2003, non-compliant aflatoxin concentrations have been detected in maize produced in Italy. The most successful worldwide experiments in aflatoxin prevention resulted from distribution of atoxigenic strains of Aspergillusflavus to displace aflatoxin-producers during crop development. The displacement results in lower aflatoxin concentrations in harvested grain. The current study evaluated in field performances of two atoxigenic strains of A. flavus endemic to Italy in artificially inoculated maize ears and in naturally contaminated maize...
January 5, 2018: Toxins
Cheng Ning, Li Qingyun, Tang Aixing, Su Wei, Liu Youyan
Aspergillus flavus: fungal strain A5p1 is reported here to decolorize a variety of dyes under broad environmental conditions. For the 15 dyes tested, the decolorization efficiencies ranged from 61.7 to 100.0% at an initial concentration of 100 mg/L. Direct Blue 71 (DB71), Direct Blue 86 (DB86), and Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) were selected as models for comparing decolorization performance. The results show that biosorption and biodegradation work together in the strain to remove the pigments; the effect of biosorption was stronger for DB71 and DB86, whereas the effect of biodegradation was stronger for RB19...
January 3, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Silin Ren, Mingkun Yang, Yuewei Yue, Feng Ge, Yu Li, Xiaodong Guo, Jia Zhang, Feng Zhang, Xinyi Nie, Shihua Wang
Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) is a ubiquitous saprophytic and pathogenic fungus that produces the aflatoxin carcinogen, and A. flavus can have tremendous economic and health impacts worldwide. Increasing evidence demonstrates that lysine succinylation plays an important regulatory role in metabolic processes in both bacterial and human cells. However, little is known about the extent and function of lysine succinylation in A. flavus Here, we performed a global succinylome analysis of A. flavus using high accuracy nano-LC-MS/MS in combination with the enrichment of succinylated peptides from digested cell lysates and subsequent peptide identification...
January 3, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Parul Punia, Nidhi Goel, Ishwar Singh, Uma Chaudhary
INTRODUCTION: Immunocompetent individuals are rarely affected by Aspergillus species and its prime importance lies in immunocompromised patients where it can cause disease, ranging from primarily pulmonary infections to dissemination anywhere in the body. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) occurs in patients with risk factors including prolonged neutropenia, neutrophil dysfunction, patient on cytotoxic drugs, steroid therapy, hematological malignancy, AIDS or in patients with bone marrow transplantation...
December 28, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Michael Dare Asemoloye, Rafiq Ahmad, Segun Gbolagade Jonathan
Fungi are well associated with the degradation of hydrocarbons by the production of different enzymes, among which catalases (CBH), laccases (LCC) and peroxidases (LiP and MnP) are of immense importance. In this study, crude oil tolerance and enzyme secretions were demonstrated by rhizospheric fungal strains. Four most abundant strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of grasses growing in aged oil spill sites and identified through morphological characterization and molecular PCR-amplification of 5.8-28S ribosomal rRNA using ITS1 and ITS4 primers...
December 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Shawn A Christensen, Alisa Huffaker, James Sims, Charles T Hunter, Anna Block, Martha M Vaughan, Denis Willett, Maritza Romero, J Erik Mylroie, W Paul Williams, Eric A Schmelz
Chemical isolation and NMR-based structure elucidation revealed a novel keto-acidic sesquiterpenoid, termed zealexin A4 (ZA4). ZA4 is elicited by pathogens and herbivory, but attenuated by heightened levels of CO 2 . The identification of the labdane-related diterpenoids, termed kauralexins and acidic sesquiterpenoids, termed zealexins, demonstrated the existence of at least ten novel stress-inducible maize metabolites with diverse antimicrobial activity. Despite these advances, the identity of co-occurring and predictably related analytes remains largely unexplored...
December 19, 2017: Planta
Kiran Aftab, Kalsoom Akhtar, Razia Noreen, Faiza Nazir, Umme Kalsoom
The present investigation aimed to study and compare the efficiency of non-viable fungal isolates to remove divalent lead (Pb(II)) from aqueous streams. The selected fungal isolates showed identity with Aspergillus caespitosus, Aureobasidium sp. RBSS-303 and Aspergillus flavus HF5 as confirmed using gene sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The obtained equilibrium data for Pb(II) biosorption of A. caespitosus fitted better to Langmuir isotherm with maximum sorption capacity of 351.0 mg/g and A...
December 20, 2017: Chemistry Central Journal
Aline M Katsurayama, Ligia M Martins, Beatriz T Iamanaka, Maria Helena P Fungaro, Josué J Silva, Jens C Frisvad, John I Pitt, Marta H Taniwaki
The guarantee of the high quality of rice is of utmost importance because any toxic contaminant may affect consumer health, especially in countries such as Brazil where rice is part of the daily diet. A total of 187 rice samples, from field, processing and market from two different production systems, wetland from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, dryland, from the state of Maranhão and market samples from the state of São Paulo, were analyzed for fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi and the presence of aflatoxins...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Beatriz A Ibarra, Jessica M Lohmar, Timothy Satterlee, Taylor McDonald, Jeffrey W Cary, Ana M Calvo
The opportunistic plant pathogenic fungus Aspergillus flavus produces carcinogenic mycotoxins termed aflatoxins (AFs). Aflatoxin contamination of agriculturally important crops such as maize, peanut, sorghum and tree nuts is responsible for serious adverse health and economic impacts worldwide. In order to identify possible genetic targets to reduce AF contamination, we have characterized the artA gene, encoding a putative 14-3-3 homolog in A. flavus The artA deletion mutant presents a slight decrease in vegetative growth and alterations in morphological development and secondary metabolism...
December 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Sung-Yeon Cho, Dong-Gun Lee, Jae-Ki Choi, Hyo-Jin Lee, Si-Hyun Kim, Sun Hee Park, Su-Mi Choi, Jung-Hyun Choi, Jin-Hong Yoo, Yeon-Joon Park, Jong-Wook Lee
While the epidemiology and clinical differences of various Candida spp. has been relatively well-identified, data regarding invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by different Aspergillus spp. are insufficient.We aimed to determine the epidemiology of culture-positive invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and to compare the characteristics and outcomes of Aspergillus fumigatus IPA with those of non-fumigatus IPA in patients with hematologic diseases. All consecutive cases of IPA from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Meena Shekhar, Nirupma Singh, Ram Dutta, Shrvan Kumar, Vinay Mahajan
An attempt was made to compare between easy and inexpensive qualitative method (ammonia vapour test) and analytical methods (thin layer chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identification of aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus in maize. In this comparative study the toxicity level of A. flavus isolates exhibited 100% agreement among ammonia vapour test, ELISA and TLC for highly toxigenic (>2000 ppb) and toxigenic (501-2000 ppb) isolates while 88.5% agreement observed for least toxic (<20 ppb) isolates...
2017: PloS One
Enass Y A Salih, Pia Fyhrquist, Ashraf M A Abdalla, Abdelazim Y Abdelgadir, Markku Kanninen, Marketta Sipi, Olavi Luukkanen, Mustafa K M Fahmi, Mai H Elamin, Hiba A Ali
Decoctions and macerations of the stem bark and wood of Terminalia brownii Fresen. are used in traditional medicine for fungal infections and as fungicides on field crops and in traditional granaries in Sudan. In addition, T. brownii water extracts are commonly used as sprays for protecting wooden houses and furniture. Therefore, using agar disc diffusion and macrodilution methods, eight extracts of various polarities from the stem wood and bark were screened for their growth-inhibitory effects against filamentous fungi commonly causing fruit, vegetable, grain and wood decay, as well as infections in the immunocompromised host...
December 13, 2017: Antibiotics
Luis A Ramírez-Camejo, Génesis Maldonado-Morales, Paul Bayman
Drosophila melanogaster has become a model system to study interactions between innate immunity and microbial pathogens, yet many aspects regarding its microbial community and interactions with pathogens remain unclear. In this study wild D. melanogaster were collected from tropical fruits in Puerto Rico to test how the microbiota is distributed and to compare the culturable diversity of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, we investigated whether flies are potential vectors of human and plant pathogens. Eighteen species of fungi and twelve species of bacteria were isolated from wild flies...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
Pasquale Russo, Clara Fares, Angela Longo, Giuseppe Spano, Vittorio Capozzi
Bread is a staple food consumed worldwide on a daily basis. Fungal contamination of bread is a critical concern for producers since it is related to important economic losses and safety hazards due to the negative impact of sensorial quality and to the potential occurrence of mycotoxins. In this work, Lactobacillus plantarum UFG 121, a strain with characterized broad antifungal activity, was analyzed as a potential protective culture for bread production. Six different molds belonging to Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp...
December 11, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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