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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719742/integrated-smartphone-app-chip-system-for-on-site-ppb-level-colorimetric-quantitation-of-aflatoxins
#1
Xiaochun Li, Fan Yang, Jessica X H Wong, Hua-Zhong Yu
We demonstrate herein an integrated, smartphone-app-chip (SPAC) system for on-site quantitation of food toxins, as demonstrated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), at parts-per-billion (ppb) level in food products. The detection is based on an indirect competitive immunoassay fabricated on a transparent plastic chip with the assistance of a microfluidic channel plate. A 3D-printed optical accessory attached to a smartphone is adapted to align the assay chip and to provide uniform illumination for imaging, with which high-quality images of the assay chip are captured by the smartphone camera and directly processed using a custom-developed Android app...
July 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717178/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-adults-with-liver-function-injury-in-rural-area-of-southwest-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Hui Zeng, Hui Lin, Wenyi Liu, Jia Wang, Lingqiao Wang, Chuanfen Zheng, Yao Tan, Yujing Huang, Lixiong He, Jiaohua Luo, Chaowen Pu, Renping Zhang, Xiaohong Yang, Yingqiao Tian, Zhiqun Qiu, Ji-An Chen, Yang Luo, Xiaobin Feng, Guosheng Xiao, Liping Wu, Weiqun Shu
Abnormal liver function (ALF) plays a key role in metabolic syndrome (MetS), but only few data on the relationship between MetS and the risk factors for ALF (e.g., biotoxins) are available. We aimed to provide the prevalence of MetS and its association with the risk factors for ALF in rural area of Southwest China. A cross-sectional study within the hepatocellular carcinoma cohort was conducted, and included 5493 people with age from 30 to 85 years old. MetS was defined according to the Joint Scientific Statement...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715485/characterization-of-the-maize-lipoxygenase-gene-family-in-relation-to-aflatoxin-accumulation-resistance
#3
Oluwaseun F Ogunola, Leigh K Hawkins, Erik Mylroie, Michael V Kolomiets, Eli Borrego, Juliet D Tang, W Paul Williams, Marilyn L Warburton
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a globally important staple food crop prone to contamination by aflatoxin, a carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. An efficient approach to reduce accumulation of aflatoxin is the development of germplasm resistant to colonization and toxin production by A. flavus. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a group of non-heme iron containing dioxygenase enzymes that catalyze oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). LOX derived oxylipins play critical roles in plant defense against pathogens including A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711264/the-growth-and-aflatoxin-production-of-aspergillus-flavus-strains-on-a-cheese-model-system-are-influenced-by-physicochemical-factors
#4
Rocío Casquete, María José Benito, María de Guía Córdoba, Santiago Ruiz-Moyano, Alberto Martín
Traditional cheeses may be contaminated by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus during the ripening process, which has not been sufficiently taken into account. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of water activity (aw), pH, and temperature on the lag phases, growth, and aflatoxin production of 3 A. flavus strains (CQ7, CQ8, and CG103) on a cheese-based medium. The results showed that the behavior of A. flavus strains was influenced by pH, aw, and temperature conditions. The CQ7 strain showed the maximum growth at pH 5...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711253/the-capacity-of-silage-inoculant-bacteria-to-bind-aflatoxin-b1-in-vitro-and-in-artificially-contaminated-corn-silage
#5
Z X Ma, F X Amaro, J J Romero, O G Pereira, K C Jeong, A T Adesogan
The objectives were to examine the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-binding capacity of silage bacteria and factors affecting the responses. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effects of bacterial strain and population on the AFB1-binding capacity of 10 bacteria. When applied at 10(6) cfu/mL to an in vitro medium, only Lactobacillus plantarum PT5B bound the AFB1 and the binding capacity was low (4%). When applied at 10(9) cfu/mL, all 10 bacteria bound AFB1, but L. plantarum R2014 (Lp) and EQ12, Lactobacillus buchneri R1102 (Lb), and Pediococcus acidilactici R2142 and EQ01 (Pa) had the greatest capacity (23...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708032/comparison-of-a-newly-developed-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-and-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-detection-of-multiple-mycotoxins-in-red-pepper-powder
#6
Sunyoung Kim, Sanghee Lee, Tae-Gyu Nam, Dongwon Seo, Miyoung Yoo
In this study, we aimed to establish a method for determination of multiple mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone in red pepper powder samples based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) approach for extraction and cleanup, with detection and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in both positive- and negative-ion modes. The developed LC-MS/MS analytical method was compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to improve the reliability of our developed method...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704974/genotypic-regulation-of-aflatoxin-accumulation-but-not-aspergillus-fungal-growth-upon-post-harvest-infection-of-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l-seeds
#7
Walid Ahmed Korani, Ye Chu, Corley Holbrook, Josh Clevenger, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) analyses...
July 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704973/the-mode-of-action-of-cyclo-l-ala-l-pro-in-inhibiting-aflatoxin-production-of-aspergillus-flavus
#8
Kurin Iimura, Tomohiro Furukawa, Toshiyoshi Yamamoto, Lumi Negishi, Michio Suzuki, Shohei Sakuda
Cyclo(l-Ala-l-Pro) inhibits aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic fungi without affecting fungal growth. The mode of action of cyclo(l-Ala-l-Pro) in inhibiting aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. A glutathione S-transferase (GST) of the fungus, designated AfGST, was identified as a binding protein of cyclo(l-Ala-l-Pro) in an experiment performed using cyclo(l-Ala-l-Pro)-immobilized Sepharose beads. Cyclo(l-Ala-l-Pro) specifically bound to recombinant AfGST and inhibited its GST activity...
July 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701823/innovative-technologies-to-manage-aflatoxins-in-foods-and-feeds-and-the-profitability-of-application-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Patchimaporn Udomkun, Alexander Nimo Wiredu, Marcus Nagle, Joachim Müller, Bernard Vanlauwe, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay
Aflatoxins are mainly produced by certain strains of Aspergillus flavus, which are found in diverse agricultural crops. In many lower-income countries, aflatoxins pose serious public health issues since the occurrence of these toxins can be considerably common and even extreme. Aflatoxins can negatively affect health of livestock and poultry due to contaminated feeds. Additionally, they significantly limit the development of international trade as a result of strict regulation in high-value markets. Due to their high stability, aflatoxins are not only a problem during cropping, but also during storage, transport, processing, and handling steps...
June 2017: Food Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698862/antimutagenic-and-antioxidant-activities-of-thai-rice-brans
#10
Orapin Insuan, Arpamas Chariyakornkul, Yuwada Rungrote, Rawiwan Wongpoomchai
BACKGROUND: Rice bran is the outer layer of the rice grain, and contains high amounts of bioactive phytochemicals. Here, we investigated and compared chemopreventive properties of purple and white rice bran extracts. METHODS: Rice bran was extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. Chemical constituents in the extracts were analyzed by colorimetric assay and high performance liquid chromatography. The mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of the extracts were determined via the Salmonella mutation assay...
June 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698507/risk-assessment-of-mycotoxins-in-stored-maize-grains-consumed-by-infants-and-young-children-in-nigeria
#11
Modupeade C Adetunji, Olusegun O Atanda, Chibundu N Ezekiel
Maize is a major complimentary food for infants (0-4years) and young children (5-12years) in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the risk of exposure of infants and young children (IYC) to some major mycotoxins in stored maize grains from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The probable daily intake approach was employed to determine exposure to five mycotoxins while the margin of exposure (MOE) and population at risk of primary hepatocellular carcinoma approaches were used to characterize the risk of consuming aflatoxin contaminated maize...
July 10, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697933/a-simple-method-for-point-of-need-extraction-concentration-and-rapid-multi-mycotoxin-immunodetection-in-feeds-using-aqueous-two-phase-systems
#12
Ruben R G Soares, Ana M Azevedo, Pedro Fernandes, Virginia Chu, João P Conde, M Raquel Aires-Barros
The rapid detection of mycotoxins in feed samples is becoming an increasingly relevant challenge for the food production sector, in order to effectively enforce current regulations and assure food and feed safety. To achieve rapid mycotoxin detection, several biosensing strategies have been published, many reaching assay times of the order of a few minutes. However, the vast majority of these rely on sample preparation based on volatile organic solvents, often comprising complex multi-step procedures and devoid of clean-up and/or concentration effects...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697586/quality-evaluation-of-alpinia-oxyphylla-after-aspergillus-flavus-infection-for-storage-conditions-optimization
#13
Xiangsheng Zhao, Jianhe Wei, Yakui Zhou, Weijun Kong, Meihua Yang
In the storage of Alpinia oxyphylla, growth of mildew (especially toxic fungi, such as Aspergillus flavus) is a potential safety risk. Few reports have investigated how A. oxyphylla storage conditions impact mold growth or how mold growth impacts the bioactive components of A. oxyphylla. In this study, sterilized A. oxyphylla samples were contaminated by artificial inoculation of A. flavus spores. The main chemical components and aflatoxin levels in the infected A. oxyphylla samples were characterized. Central composite design-response surface methodology was used to study the effects of different temperature and humidity of storage conditions on the fungal growth in A...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690095/evolution-of-polyketide-synthesis-in-a-dothideomycete-forest-pathogen
#14
I Kutay Ozturk, Pranav Chettri, Pierre-Yves Dupont, Irene Barnes, Rebecca L McDougal, Geromy G Moore, Andre Sim, Rosie E Bradshaw
Fungal secondary metabolites have many important biological roles and some, like the toxic polyketide aflatoxin, have been intensively studied at the genetic level. Complete sets of polyketide synthase (PKS) genes can now be identified in fungal pathogens by whole genome sequencing and studied in order to predict the biosynthetic potential of those fungi. The pine needle pathogen Dothistroma septosporum is predicted to have only three functional PKS genes, a small number for a hemibiotrophic fungus. One of these genes is required for production of dothistromin, a polyketide virulence factor related to aflatoxin, whose biosynthetic genes are dispersed across one chromosome rather than being clustered...
July 6, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687999/use-of-yeast-pichia-kudriavzevii-as-a-novel-feed-additive-to-ameliorate-the-effects-of-aflatoxin-b1-on-broiler-chicken-performance
#15
A P Magnoli, M C Rodriguez, M L González Pereyra, V L Poloni, M F Peralta, A J Nilson, R D Miazzo, G Bagnis, S M Chiacchiera, L R Cavaglieri
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii as a novel bioadsorbent for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The selection of this yeast was based on the AFB1 adsorption capacity previously demonstrated in vitro (Magnoli et al. 2016). One-day-old Cobb broilers (n = 160) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (T1: basal diet (B); T2: B + 0.1% yeast; T3: B + AFB1, 100 μg/kg; T4: B + 0.1% yeast + AFB1, 100 μg/kg). Performance parameters (average daily weight gain body, average daily consumption, feed conversion ratio, carcass weight, and dead weight), biochemical parameters (albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin), liver pathological changes, and AFB1 residual levels in the liver and excreta were evaluated...
July 8, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681026/a-seasonal-study-for-determination-of-aflatoxin-m1-level-in-dairy-products-in-iranshahr-iran
#16
N Sohrabi, H Gharahkoli
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aflatoxin M1, in milk and dairy products, is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as human carcinogens (class 2B). The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin M1 contamination level in dairy products from Iranshahr city, Iran, using ELISA technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, 87 samples of milk, white cheese, yoghurt, and butter were collected in different seasons and after preparation, were analyzed by ELISA technique...
September 2016: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675475/fumigation-of-brazil-nuts-with-allyl-isothiocyanate-to-inhibit-the-growth-of-aspergillus-parasiticus-and-aflatoxin-production
#17
Lucas F Lopes, Keliani Bordin, Gabriel H C de Lara, Federica Saladino, Juan M Quiles, Giuseppe Meca, Fernando B Luciano
BACKGROUND: Brazil produces approximately 40,000 tons of Brazil nuts annually, which is commonly contaminated with fungi and mycotoxins. Gaseous allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) was used to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and its production of aflatoxins (AFs) in Brazil nuts. RESULTS: Nuts were inoculated with 10(4) spores g(-1) of A. parasiticus and placed in airtight glass jars with controlled relative humidity (RH = 95 or 85 %). Samples were treated with 0, 0...
July 4, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671585/probing-the-characterization-of-the-interaction-of-aflatoxins-b1-and-g1-with-calf-thymus-dna-in-vitro
#18
Liang Ma, Jiaman Wang, Yuhao Zhang
The binding characterization of aflatoxins with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) under physiological conditions was investigated. Multispectroscopic techniques, ctDNA melting, viscosity measurements, and molecular docking techniques were employed to elucidate the binding mechanism of the aflatoxins with DNA. The fluorescence results indicated that both aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) bound to the ctDNA, forming complexes through hydrogen bonding. The binding constants of AFB1 and AFG1 with ctDNA reached up to 10³ L·mol(-1) and 10⁴ L·mol(-1), respectively, and AFG1 exhibited a higher binding propensity than that of AFB1...
July 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671318/eu-3-labeled-igg-based-time-resolved-fluoroimmunoassay-for-high-sensitive-detection-of-aflatoxins-b1-in-feed
#19
Xiaofei Hu, Jingjing Yao, Fangyu Wang, Mengqi Yin, Yaning Sun, Mei Hu, Qiaoqiao Shi, Gaiping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) is a kind of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. A time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) was established for quantitative detection of AFB1 in feed using Eu(3+) -labled IgG as the tracer. RESULTS: Monoclonal antibody (McAb) against AFB1 (9B11 - D7) was prepared through immunization and cell fusion and was identified as high affinity, specificity and sensibility by ELISA. The 50% inhibition values (IC50 ) was 0.81 ng mL(-1) , the limits of detection (LOD) was 0...
July 3, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671306/yeast-probiotic-coctile-strains-supplemented-babies-cerelac-induce-highly-potential-aflatoxins-detoxification-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-in-mother-and-babies-albino-rats
#20
Gamal M Hamad, Tarek H Taha, Elsayed E Hafez, Sobhy A El Sohaimy, Safwat H Ali
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxins (AFs) are a group of toxic, nephrototoxic, hepatotoxic and carcinogenic fungal metabolites. Thus, using of heat acid treated; Yeasts, Probiotic bacteria and their combination were used to remove AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 from human and animal food. RESULTS: The in vitro study revealed that the highest removal percentage of AF in PBS was recorded after 72 h with the yeast-probiotic coctile reached to 95.59%. Therefore, this coctile was added to Cerelac contaminated with AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 and the removal percentage were; 8...
July 3, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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