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Aflatoxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442441/aspergillus-flavus-aswa-a-gene-homolog-of-aspergillus-nidulans-oefc-regulates-sclerotial-development-and-biosynthesis-of-sclerotium-associated-secondary-metabolites
#1
Perng-Kuang Chang, Leslie L Scharfenstein, Robert W Li, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Sarah De Saeger, José Diana Di Mavungu
Aspergillus flavus aswA (AFLA_085170) is a gene encoding a Zn(II)2Cys6 DNA-binding domain and a transcriptional activation domain, DUF3468. Disruption of aswA yielded strains that made a truncated gene transcript and generated a fungus that produced a greatly increased number of sclerotia. These sclerotia were odd-shaped and non-pigmented (white) and different from oval and pigmented (dark brown to black) mature sclerotia. Transcriptomic analysis of the ΔaswA strain grown on potato dextrose agar plates and Wickerham agar plates showed that expression of clustering genes involved in the biosynthesis of three sclerotium-associated secondary metabolites was down-regulated...
April 22, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442411/evaluation-of-the-bioactive-extract-of-actinomyces-isolated-from-the-egyptian-environment-against-aflatoxin-b1-induce-cytotoxicity-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-liver-of-rats
#2
Aziza A El-Nekeety, Asmaa S Salman, Amal S Hathout, Bassem A Sabry, Sekena H Abdel-Aziem, Nabila S Hassan, Mosaad A Abdel-Wahhab
This study aimed to determine the bioactive compounds of actinomyces (ACT) isolated from the Egyptian environment (D-EGY) and to evaluate their protective activity against AFB1 in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Six groups of animals were treated orally for 3 weeks included: C, the control group, T1, AFB1-treated group (80 μg/kg b.w), T2 and T3, the groups received ACT extract at low (25 mg/kg b.w) or high (50 mg/kg b.w) doses, T4 and T5, the groups received AFB1 plus the low or high dose of ACT extract. Blood, bone marrow and tissue samples were collected for different analyses and histological examination...
April 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436563/an-in-vitro-system-for-measuring-genotoxicity-mediated-by-human-cyp3a4-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Michael Fasullo, Julian Freedland, Nicholas St John, Cinzia Cera, Patricia Egner, Matthew Hartog, Xinxin Ding
P450 activity is required to metabolically activate many chemical carcinogens, rendering them highly genotoxic. CYP3A4 is the most abundantly expressed P450 enzyme in the liver, accounting for most drug metabolism and constituting 50% of all hepatic P450 activity. CYP3A4 is also expressed in extrahepatic tissues, including the intestine. However, the role of CYP3A4 in activating chemical carcinogens into potent genotoxins is unclear. To facilitate efforts to determine whether CYP3A4, per se, can activate carcinogens into potent genotoxins, we expressed human CYP3A4 in the DNA-repair mutant (rad4 rad51) strain of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tested the novel, recombinant yeast strain for ability to report CYP3A4-mediated genotoxicity of a well-known genotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 )...
April 24, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434149/solvent-dependent-transformation-of-aflatoxin-b1-in-soil
#4
James M Starr, Blake R Rushing, Mustafa I Selim
To date, all studies of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) transformation in soil or in purified mineral systems have identified aflatoxins B2 (AFB2) and G2 (AFG2) as the primary transformation products. However, identification in these studies was made using thin layer chromatography which has relatively low resolution, and these studies did not identify a viable mechanism by which such transformations would occur. Further, the use of methanol as the solvent delivery vehicle in these studies may have contributed to formation of artifactual transformation products...
April 22, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433057/low-cost-humic-acid-bonded-silica-as-an-effective-solid-phase-extraction-sorbent-for-convenient-determination-of-aflatoxins-in-edible-oils
#5
Neng-Zhi Zhou, Ping Liu, Xiao-Chuan Su, Yan-Hua Liao, Ning-Sheng Lei, Yong-Hong Liang, Shao-Huan Zhou, Wen-Si Lin, Jie Chen, Yu-Qi Feng, Yang Tang
Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic secondary metabolites produced by the toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. AFs tend to contaminate a wide range of foods which is a serious and recurring food safety problem worldwide. Currently, immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) has become the most conventional sample clean-up method for determining AFs in foodstuffs. However, IAC method is limited in the large-scale food analysis because it requires the use of expensive disposable cartridges and the IA procedure is time-consuming...
June 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430148/a-rapid-magnetic-solid-phase-extraction-method-followed-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis-for-the-determination-of-mycotoxins-in-cereals
#6
Giorgia La Barbera, Anna Laura Capriotti, Chiara Cavaliere, Patrizia Foglia, Carmela Maria Montone, Riccardo Zenezini Chiozzi, Aldo Laganà
Mycotoxins can contaminate various food commodities, including cereals. Moreover, mycotoxins of different classes can co-contaminate food, increasing human health risk. Several analytical methods have been published in the literature dealing with mycotoxins determination in cereals. Nevertheless, in the present work, the aim was to propose an easy and effective system for the extraction of six of the main mycotoxins from corn meal and durum wheat flour, i.e., the main four aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and the mycoestrogen zearalenone...
April 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430142/initial-spore-density-has-an-influence-on-ochratoxin-a-content-in-aspergillus-ochraceus-cgmcc-3-4412-in-pdb-and-its-interaction-with-seeds
#7
Caiyan Li, Yanmin Song, Lu Xiong, Kunlun Huang, Zhihong Liang
The morphology and secondary metabolism of Aspergillus spp. are associated with initial spore density (ISD). Fatty acids (FA) are involved in the biosynthesis of aflatoxins (AF) through Aspergillus quorum sensing (QS). Here, we studied how ochratoxin A (OTA) was regulated by spore density in Aspergillus ochraceus CGMCC 3.4412. The results contribute to understanding the role of spore density in morphogenesis, OTA biosynthesis, and host-pathogen interactions. When A. ochraceus was grown in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) media at different spore densities (from 10¹ to 10⁶ spores/mL), more OTA was produced when ISD were increased, but a higher level of ISD inhibited OTA biosynthesis...
April 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428796/expression-profiling-coupled-with-in-silico-mapping-identifies-candidate-genes-for-reducing-aflatoxin-accumulation-in-maize
#8
Ramesh Dhakal, Chenglin Chai, Ratna Karan, Gary L Windham, William P Williams, Prasanta K Subudhi
Aflatoxin, produced by Aspergillus flavus, is hazardous to health of humans and livestock. The lack of information about large effect QTL for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation is a major obstacle to employ marker-assisted selection for maize improvement. The understanding of resistance mechanisms of the host plant and the associated genes is necessary for improving resistance to A. flavus infection. A suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was made using the developing kernels of Mp715 (resistant inbred) and B73 (susceptible inbred) and 480 randomly selected cDNA clones were sequenced to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to A...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428686/aflatoxins-implications-on-health
#9
REVIEW
Usha P Sarma, Preetida J Bhetaria, Prameela Devi, Anupam Varma
Environmental occurrence of Aspergillus and other fungal spores are hazardous to humans and animals. They cause a broad spectrum of clinical complications. Contamination of aflatoxins in agri-food and feed due to A. flavus and A. parasiticus result in toxicity in humans and animals. Recent advances in aspergillus genomics and aflatoxin management practices are encouraging to tackle the challenges posed by important aspergillus species.
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428144/association-of-aflatoxin-and-gallbladder-cancer
#10
Jill Koshiol, Yu-Tang Gao, Michael Dean, Patricia Egner, Chirag Nepal, Kristine Jones, Bingsheng Wang, Asif Rashid, Wen Luo, Alison Van Dyke, Catterina Ferreccio, Michael Malasky, Ming-Chang Shen, Bin Zhu, Jesper B Andersen, Allan Hildesheim, Ann W Hsing, John Groopman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aflatoxin, which causes hepatocellular carcinoma, may also cause gallbladder cancer. We investigated whether patients with gallbladder cancer have higher exposure to aflatoxin than patients with gallstones. METHODS: We measured aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-lysine adducts in plasma samples from the Shanghai Biliary Tract Cancer case-control study, conducted from 1997 through 2001. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs and the population-attributable fraction for 209 patients with gallbladder cancer and gallstones vs 250 patients with gallstones without cancer (controls)...
April 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423689/diagnostic-and-prognostic-potential-of-serum-microrna-4651-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-related-to-aflatoxin-b1
#11
Xue-Min Wu, Zhi-Feng Xi, Pinhu Liao, Hong-Dong Huang, Xiao-Ying Huang, Chao Wang, Yun Ma, Qiang Xia, Jin-Guang Yao, Xi-Dai Long
BACKGROUND: The serum microRNAs have been reported as potential biomarkers for hepatitis virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, their role in aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-related HCC to has not yet been evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study, including 366 HCC cases and 662 controls without any evidence of tumors, to identify and assess diagnostic and prognostic potential of serum microRNAs for AFB1-related HCC. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to elucidate diagnostic performance, and to compare the microRNAs with α-fetoprotein (AFP) at a cutoff of 20 ng/mL (AFP20) and 400 ng/mL (AFP400)...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422127/differential-control-of-asexual-development-and-sterigmatocystin-biosynthesis-by-a-novel-regulator-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#12
Yong Jin Kim, Yu Yeong Man, Pil Jae Maeng
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans primarily reproduces by forming asexual spores called conidia and produces the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST), the penultimate precursor of aflatoxins. It has been known that asexual development and ST production are tightly co-regulated by various regulatory inputs. Here, we report that the novel regulator AslA with a C2H2 domain oppositely regulates development and ST biosynthesis. Nullifying aslA resulted in defective conidiation and reduced expression of brlA encoding a key activator of asexual development, which indicates that AslA functions as an upstream activator of brlA expression...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421981/validation-of-max-aqueous-extraction-on-veratox-%C3%A2-for-total-aflatoxin-elisa-test-kit
#13
Brooke E Roman, Dana Driksna, Mohamed M Abouzied, Frank Klein, Jennifer Rice
Neogen Corp. (Lansing, MI) has developed a common aqueous extraction method for the detection of mycotoxins in the ELISA or lateral flow format. The Veratox(®) for Total Aflatoxin ELISA extraction method uses a MAX 2 extraction packet and water in replacement of traditionally used organic solvents. Veratox for Total Aflatoxin has a detection range of 5–50 ppb neat or up to 300 ppb with dilution. The kit development focused on superior cross-reactivity, ability to accurately detect naturally contaminated samples, and utilization of an aqueous extraction method...
April 18, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420231/biological-control-of-aflatoxin-contamination-in-us-crops-and-the-use-of-bioplastic-formulations-of-aspergillus-flavus-biocontrol-strains-to-optimize-application-strategies
#14
Hamed K Abbas, Cesare Accinelli, W Thomas Shier
Aflatoxin contamination has a major economic impact on crop production in southern USA. Reduction of aflatoxin contamination in harvested crops has been achieved by applying non-aflatoxigenic biocontrol Aspergillus flavus strains that can out-compete wild aflatoxigenic A. flavus, reducing their numbers at the site of application. Currently, the standard method for applying biocontrol A. flavus strains to soil is using a nutrient-supplying carrier (e.g., pearled barley for Afla-Guard®). Granules of bioplastic (partially acetylated corn starch) have been investigated as an alternative nutritive carrier for biocontrol agents...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419131/aflatoxin-levels-in-sunflower-seeds-and-cakes-collected-from-micro-and-small-scale-sunflower-oil-processors-in-tanzania
#15
Juma A Mmongoyo, Felicia Wu, John E Linz, Muraleedharan G Nair, Jovin K Mugula, Robert J Tempelman, Gale M Strasburg
Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin found commonly in maize and peanuts worldwide, is associated with liver cancer, acute toxicosis, and growth impairment in humans and animals. In Tanzania, sunflower seeds are a source of snacks, cooking oil, and animal feed. These seeds are a potential source of aflatoxin contamination. However, reports on aflatoxin contamination in sunflower seeds and cakes are scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine total aflatoxin concentrations in sunflower seeds and cakes from small-scale oil processors across Tanzania...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413229/quality-of-maize-for-sale-in-markets-in-benin-and-niger
#16
O N Bakoye, I B Baoua, H Seyni, L Amadou, L L Murdock, D Baributsa
A follow-up study on the quality of maize for sale in West African public markets was carried out in Benin and Niger from August 15-28, 2013. Complementing the earlier study, this present assessment included not only retailers but also wholesalers and maize producers. Samples were evaluated for parameters related to the physical quality of the maize and for aflatoxin contamination. Most maize value chain actors process their offered grain using traditional methods for threshing, winnowing and drying. Maize for sale in the markets surveyed had an average moisture content ranging between 12 and 14%...
March 2017: Journal of Stored Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409636/signal-on-photoelectrochemical-immunoassay-for-aflatoxin-b1-based-on-enzymatic-product-etching-mno2-nanosheets-for-dissociation-of-carbon-dots
#17
Youxiu Lin, Qian Zhou, Dianping Tang, Reinhard Niessner, Dietmar Knopp
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) monitoring has attracted extensive attention because food safety is a worldwide public health problem. Herein, we design a novel simultaneously visual and photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensing system for rapid sensitive detection of AFB1 in foodstuff. The immunoreaction was carried out on anti-AFB1 antibody-modified magnetic beads by using glucose oxidase (GOx)-labeled AFB1-bovine serum albumin (AFB1-BSA) conjugates as the tags with a competitive-type immunoassay format, while the visual and PEC evaluation was performed via carbon quantum dots (CQDs)-functionalized MnO2 nanosheets...
April 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408095/scale-up-and-inhibitory-studies-on-productivity-of-lipase-from-acinetobacter-radioresistens-pr8
#18
Krishna Kant Gupta, Anshul Nigam, Sharmili Jagtap, Ramadas Krishna
Acinetobacter radioresistens PR8 produces extracellular lipase depending upon growth media. In present work we not only screened the nutrient sources but also investigated the causes for variation in productivity. The nutrient sources investigated are, groundnut oil, groundnut cake and fresh groundnut. Lower lipase productivity was observed on fresh ground nut in contrast to groundnut oil and groundnut cake. The lipase productivity was examined in the batch and parameters monitored were bacterial growth, enzyme activity, pH, lipids and protein concentration...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407972/determination-of-aflatoxin-m1-in-milk-samples-by-means-of-an-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-based-immunoassay
#19
Emma Pérez, Pascual Martínez-Peinado, Francisco Marco, Luis Gras, José Miguel Sempere, Juan Mora, Guillermo Grindlay
An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)-based immunoassay has been developed to quantify aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at ultra-trace levels in milk samples. AFM1 detection is carried out by means of a competitive immunoassay using secondary biotinylated antibodies and streptavidin-conjugated Au nanoparticles. After acid addition, nanoparticles are decomposed and Au signal is registered by means of ICP-MS. Results demonstrate that, under optimum conditions, the limit of detection of the immunoassay (0...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406451/an-on-site-ultra-sensitive-quantitative-sensing-method-for-the-determination-of-total-aflatoxin-in-peanut-and-rice-based-on-quantum-dot-nanobeads-strip
#20
Suiyan Ouyang, Zhaowei Zhang, Ting He, Peiwu Li, Qi Zhang, Xiaomei Chen, Du Wang, Hui Li, Xiaoqian Tang, Wen Zhang
An on-site, ultra-sensitive, and quantitative sensing method was developed based on quantum dot nanobeads (QDNBs) and a test strip for the determination of total aflatoxins (AFTs) in rice and peanuts. The monoclonal antibody against AFT (mAbAFT) was homemade and labeled with QDNB. After the pre-coating of the AFT antigen on the test line (T line), the competitive immunoreactions were conducted between AFT and AFT antigen on the T line with QDNBs-mAbAFT. Under optimal conditions, this approach allowed a rapid response towards AFT with a considerable sensitivity of 1...
April 13, 2017: Toxins
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