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Aflatoxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338636/survey-on-urinary-levels-of-aflatoxins-in-professionally-exposed-workers
#1
Fulvio Ferri, Carlo Brera, Barbara De Santis, Giorgio Fedrizzi, Tiziana Bacci, Lorena Bedogni, Sauro Capanni, Giorgia Collini, Enrica Crespi, Francesca Debegnach, Patrizia Ferdenzi, Angelo Gargano, Daniela Gattei, Ferdinando Luberto, Ines Magnani, Massimo Giuseppe Magnani, Pamela Mancuso, Simonetta Menotta, Stefania Mozzanica, Milva Olmi, Giuseppe Ombrini, Orietta Sala, Sabina Soricelli, Massimo Vicentini, Paolo Giorgi Rossi
Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs). This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts in two mills. From March to April 2014, blood and urine samples were collected, on Monday and Friday morning of the same working week from 29 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. AFs (M₁, G₂, G₁, B₁, B₂) and aflatoxicol (AFOH) A were analyzed...
March 24, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335412/ameliorative-effects-of-neutral-electrolyzed-water-on-growth-performance-biochemical-constituents-and-histopathological-changes-in-turkey-poults-during-aflatoxicosis
#2
Denise Gómez-Espinosa, Francisco Javier Cervantes-Aguilar, Juan Carlos Del Río-García, Tania Villarreal-Barajas, Alma Vázquez-Durán, Abraham Méndez-Albores
Different in vitro and in silico approaches from our research group have demonstrated that neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) can be used to detoxify aflatoxins. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the ability of NEW to detoxify B-aflatoxins (AFB₁ and AFB₂) in contaminated maize and to confirm detoxification in an in vivo experimental model. Batches of aflatoxin-contaminated maize were detoxified with NEW and mixed in commercial feed. A total of 240 6-day-old female large white Nicholas-700 turkey poults were randomly divided into four treatments of six replicates each (10 turkeys per replicate), which were fed ad libitum for two weeks with the following dietary treatments: (1) control feed containing aflatoxin-free maize (CONTROL); (2) feed containing the aflatoxin-contaminated maize (AF); (3) feed containing the aflatoxin-contaminated maize detoxified with NEW (AF + NEW); and (4) control feed containing aflatoxin-free maize treated with NEW (NEW)...
March 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334872/hplc-dad-fld-method-for-simultaneous-determination-of-mycotoxins-in-wheat-bran
#3
Maria N Irakli, Adriana Skendi, Maria D Papageorgiou
Aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone are the most important mycotoxins that everyone on its own, in groups or simultaneously contaminate cereals. The external layers of cereal grains (bran) apart from health promoting ingredients are also the most contaminated part with reference to mycotoxin's presence. Therefore, consumption of a high fiber wheat-based diet represent an increased risk to consumer's health. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of these mycotoxins in wheat bran (WB)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332414/determination-of-mycotoxins-in-biscuits-dried-fruits-and-fruit-jams-assessment-of-human-exposure
#4
Biljana Škrbić, Igor Antić, Jelena Cvejanov
A reliable, fast and simple method using UHPLC-MS/MS was developed for the determination of aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), G1 (AFG1), B2 (AFB2) and G2 (AFg2), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), HT-2 toxin and T-2 toxin in crude extracts of biscuits with fruit filling, cookies, dried fruits and fruit jams. The method was successfully demonstrated on 39 samples of biscuits with fruit filling, 34 cookies, 14 dried fruits and 10 fruit jams. The mycotoxins detected in biscuits samples were ZEA, OTA, T-2, and AFB1 with average concentration of positive samples of 2...
March 23, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330231/prevalence-of-toxigenic-fungi-in-common-medicinal-herbs-and-spices-in-india
#5
Visenuo Aiko, Alka Mehta
Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of food grains, feeds, medicinal herbs, and spices, posing as health threat to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to screen medicinal herbs and spices for fungi and mycotoxin contamination and evaluate their safety. Sixty-three samples were examined for fungal contamination and fungal load determined using standard microbiological method. Aflatoxin and citrinin were detected using thin layer chromatography and high-performance chromatography technique...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326608/dnazyme-aptamer-or-aptamer-dnazyme-paradigm-biochemical-approach-for-aflatoxin-analysis
#6
Marzieh Jafari, Mohsen Rezaei, Heibatullah Kalantari, Maryam Tabarzad, Bahram Daraei
DNAzyme and aptamer conjugations have already been used for sensitive and accurate detection of several molecules. In this study, we tested the relationship between conjugation orientation of DNAzyme and Aflatoxin B1 aptamer and their subsequent peroxidase activity. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and biochemical analysis were used here to difference between these two conjugation patterns. Results showed that DNAzyme-aptamer has more catalytic activity and efficiency than aptamer-DNAzyme. Thereby, DNAzyme-aptamer with its superior efficiency can be used for design and development of more sensitive Aflatoxin B1 DNA based biosensors...
March 22, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326001/the-role-of-plant-processing-for-the-cancer-preventive-potential-of-ethiopian-kale-brassica-carinata
#7
Grace Akinyi Odongo, Nina Schlotz, Corinna Herz, Franziska S Hanschen, Susanne Baldermann, Susanne Neugart, Bernhard Trierweiler, Lara Frommherz, Charles M A P Franz, Benard Ngwene, Abraham Wahid Luvonga, Monika Schreiner, Sascha Rohn, Evelyn Lamy
Background: Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata) is a horticulturally important crop used as leafy vegetable in large parts of East and Southern Africa. The leaves are reported to contain high concentrations of health-promoting secondary plant metabolites. However, scientific knowledge on their health benefits is scarce. Objective: This study aimed to determine the cancer preventive potential of B. carinata using a human liver in vitro model focusing on processing effects on the pattern of secondary plant metabolites and bioactivity...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322500/liquid-chromatography-with-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-mycotoxins-in-food-samples-using-silica-hydride-based-stationary-phases
#8
Joseph P Pesek, Maria T Matyska, Jessica F Hoffmann, Nathalia A Madruga, Rosane L Crizel, Moacir C Elias, Nathan L Vanier, Fabio C Chaves
Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis of selected food samples using silica hydride stationary phases allowed for the identification and quantification of common mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxin A, and fumosinin B1. Phenyl and C18 columns showed relatively similar selectivity based on hydrophobicity but the phenyl phase provides and additional mechanism, π-π interaction. The most hydrophobic of the analyzed compounds was more strongly retained on the C18 column and also has fewer unsaturated sites, which limited the interaction with the phenyl phase...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319905/a-new-amplified-%C3%AF-shape-electrochemical-aptasensor-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-aflatoxin-b1
#9
Khalil Abnous, Noor Mohammad Danesh, Mona Alibolandi, Mohammad Ramezani, Ahmad Sarreshtehdar Emrani, Reza Zolfaghari, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi
There is a prompt need for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in food products to avoid distribution and consumption of contaminated food products. In this study, an accurate electrochemical sensing strategy was presented for detection of AFB1 based on aptamer (Apt)-complementary strands of aptamer (CSs) complex which forms a π-shape structure on the surface of electrode and exonuclease I (Exo I). The presence of π-shape structure as a double-layer physical barrier allowed detection of AFB1 with high sensitivity...
March 17, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316474/determination-of-aflatoxin-m1-and-heavy-metals-in-infant-formula-milk-brands-available-in-pakistani-markets
#10
Saeed Akhtar, Muhammad Arif Shahzad, Sang-Ho Yoo, Amir Ismail, Aneela Hameed, Tariq Ismail, Muhammad Riaz
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) after its bioconversion from aflatoxin B1 in animal liver becomes the part of milk while heavy metals get entry into milk and milk products during handling in the supply chain. Aflatoxin M1 and heavy metals being toxic compounds are needed to be monitored continuously to avoid any ailments among consumers of foods contaminated with such toxicants. Thirteen commercially available infant formula milk (IFM) brands available in Pakistani markets were analyzed for the quantitative determination of AFM1 and heavy metals through ELISA and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302680/genomic-and-epigenomic-heterogeneity-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
De-Chen Lin, Anand Mayakonda, Huy Q Dinh, Pinbo Huang, Lehang Lin, Xiaoping Liu, Ling-Wen Ding, Jie Wang, Benjamin Berman, Erwei Song, Dong Yin, H Phillip Koeffler
Understanding the intratumoral heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is instructive for developing personalized therapy and identifying molecular biomarkers. Here we applied whole-exome sequencing to 69 samples from 11 patients to resolve the genetic architecture of subclonal diversification. Spatial genomic diversity was found in all 11 HCC cases, with 29% of driver mutations being heterogeneous, including TERT, ARID1A, NOTCH2, and STAG2. Similar with other cancer types, TP53 mutations were always shared between all tumor regions i...
February 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301710/aflatoxin-contamination-of-groundnut-and-maize-in-zambia-observed-and-potential-concentrations
#12
Paul W Kachapulula, Juliet Akello, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J Cotty
AIMS: Quantify aflatoxins, the potent carcinogens associated with stunting and immune suppression, in maize and groundnut across Zambia's three agroecologies and determine vulnerability to aflatoxin increases after purchase. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aflatoxin concentrations were determined for 334 maize and groundnut samples from 27 districts using lateral-flow immunochromatography. Seventeen percent of crops from markets contained aflatoxin concentrations above allowable levels in Zambia (10 μg kg(-1) )...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300780/simultaneous-determination-of-multi-mycotoxins-in-cereal-grains-collected-from-south-korea-by-lc-ms-ms
#13
Dong-Ho Kim, Sung-Yong Hong, Jea Woo Kang, Sung Min Cho, Kyu Ri Lee, Tae Kyung An, Chan Lee, Soo Hyun Chung
An improved analytical method compared with conventional ones was developed for simultaneous determination of 13 mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetylnivalenol, aflatoxin B₁, aflatoxin B₂, aflatoxin G₁, aflatoxin G₂, fumonisin B₁, fumonisin B₂, T-2, HT-2, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A) in cereal grains by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) after a single immunoaffinity column clean-up. The method showed a good linearity, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in mycotoxin determination by LC/MS/MS...
March 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299415/multi-mycotoxin-analysis-using-dried-blood-spots-and-dried-serum-spots
#14
Bernd Osteresch, Susana Viegas, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
In this study, a rapid multi-mycotoxin approach was developed for biomonitoring and quantification of 27 important mycotoxins and mycotoxin metabolites in human blood samples. HPLC-MS/MS detection was used for the analysis of dried serum spots (DSS) and dried blood spots (DBS). Detection of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, DON; DON-3-glucoronic acid, DON-3-GlcA; T-2; HT-2; and HT-2-4-GlcA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxins (OTA and its thermal degradation product 2'R-OTA; OTα; 10-hydroxychratoxin A, 10-OH-OTA), citrinin (CIT and its urinary metabolite dihydrocitrinone, DH-CIT), zearalenone and zearalanone (ZEN, ZAN), altenuene (ALT), alternariols (AOH; alternariol monomethyl ether, AME), enniatins (EnA, EnA1, EnB, EnB1) and beauvericin (Bea) was validated for two matrices, serum (DSS), and whole blood (DBS)...
March 15, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298240/interstrain-differences-in-the-expression-and-activity-of-cyp2a5-in-the-mouse-liver
#15
Katia S Poça, Thiago E M Parente, Lucas F Chagas, Bruna S Leal, Hellen S Leal, Francisco J R Paumgartten, Ana C A X De-Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 2A5 (Cyp2a5), a mouse enzyme orthologous of human CYP2A6, catalyzes a number of toxicologically important reactions, including the metabolism of nicotine, aflatoxin B1, and several other xeno- and endobiotics. Cyp2a5 expression is complex and not yet fully understood. We investigated inter-strain differences in the activity and mRNA expression of hepatic Cyp2a5. Cyp1a1/2 and Cyp2b9/10 activities were evaluated for comparative purposes. Data on the interstrain differences in the expression and activity of Cyp2a5 are important to select a suitable mouse model for studying CYP2A6-mediated metabolism...
March 15, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291386/occurrence-of-toxigenic-fungi-and-aflatoxin-potential-of-aspergillus-spp-strains-associated-with-subsistence-farmed-crops-in-haiti
#16
Junior Aristil, Giovanni Venturini, Alberto Spada
Subsistence farming and poor storage facilities favor toxigenic fungal contamination and mycotoxin accumulation in staple foods from tropical countries such as Haiti. The present preliminary study was designed to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic fungi in Haitian foodstuffs to define the mycotoxin risk associated with Haitian crops. The objectives of this research were to determine the distribution of toxigenic fungi in the Haitian crops maize, moringa, and peanut seeds and to screen Aspergillus section Flavi (ASF) isolates for production of aflatoxins B1 and G1 in vitro...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290359/the-biodiversity-of-aspergillus-section-flavi-and-aflatoxins-in-the-brazilian-peanut-production-chain
#17
Ligia Manoel Martins, Anderson S Sant'Ana, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Josué José Silva, Maristela da Silva do Nascimento, Jens Christian Frisvad, Marta Hiromi Taniwaki
A total of 119 samples of peanut were collected throughout the peanut production chain in São Paulo State, Brazil. The peanut samples were directly plated for determination of percentages of infection and a polyphasic approach was used to identify Aspergillus section Flavi species. Further, the potential for aflatoxin production by the isolates was tested using the agar plug technique and the presence of aflatoxins in peanuts was assessed using an immunoaffinity column followed by quantification using HPLC with reverse phase column and fluorescence detection...
April 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285519/selenomethionine-alleviates-afb1-induced-damage-in-primary-chicken-hepatocytes-by-inhibiting-cyp450-1a5-expression-via-upregulated-selw-expression
#18
Xingxiang Chen, Chaoping Che, Viktor I Korolchuk, Fang Gan, Cuiling Pan, Kehe Huang
This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of selenomethionine (SeMet) on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatotoxicity in primary chicken hepatocytes. Cell viability and lactic dehydrogenase activity assays revealed the dose dependence of AFB1 toxicity to chicken hepatocytes. AFB1 concentrations of >0.05 μg/mL significantly reduced glutathione and total superoxide dismutase levels and increased the malondialdehyde concentration and cytochrome P450 enzyme 1A5 (CYP450 1A5) mRNA levels (P < 0.05)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285035/development-of-aflatoxin-b1-aptasensor-based-on-wide-range-fluorescence-detection-using-graphene-oxide-quencher
#19
Minyoung Joo, Seung Hoon Baek, Seon Ah Cheon, Hyang Sook Chun, Sung-Wook Choi, Tae Jung Park
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogenic substance produced by fungi of genus Aspergillus, especially Aspergillus flavus. Few nanograms of AFB1 that permeated through the skin is sufficient to cause liver cancer and stunted growth. In this study, a rapid aptamer-based assay for AFB1 was developed using the fluorescence quenching property of graphene oxide (GO) and a fluorescein amidite (FAM)-modified aptamer specific to AFB1. The aptamer, modified with the fluorescence dye FAM on its 5'-end, was used as a probe...
March 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283091/cyp1a1-i462v-polymorphism-is-associated-with-reduced-genotoxicity-in-yeast-despite-positive-association-with-increased-cancer-risk
#20
Julian Freedland, Cinzia Cera, Michael Fasullo
CYP1A1 functions in detoxifying xenobiotics but occasionally converts compounds into potent genotoxins. CYP1A1 activates polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a]pyrene 7,8 dihydrodiol (BaP-DHD), rendering them genotoxic. Particular alleles of CYP1A1, such as CYP1A1 I462V have been correlated with a higher incidence of breast and lung cancer, but it is unknown whether these variants express enzymes in vivo that are more potent in generating genotoxins. We individually expressed CYP1A1 (CYP1A1.1), CYP1A1 T461N (CYP1A1...
March 2017: Mutation Research
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