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Aflatoxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218508/use-of-huh6-and-other-human-derived-hepatoma-lines-for-the-detection-of-genotoxins-a-new-hope-for-laboratory-animals
#1
Monika Waldherr, Miroslav Mišík, Franziska Ferk, Jana Tomc, Bojana Žegura, Metka Filipič, Wolfgang Mikulits, Sören Mai, Oskar Haas, Wolfgang W Huber, Elisabeth Haslinger, Siegfried Knasmüller
Cell lines which are currently used in genotoxicity tests lack enzymes which activate/detoxify mutagens. Therefore, rodent-derived liver preparations are used which reflect their metabolism in humans only partly; as a consequence misleading results are often obtained. Previous findings suggest that certain liver cell lines express phase I/II enzymes and detect promutagens without activation; however, their use is hampered by different shortcomings. The aim of this study was the identification of a suitable cell line...
December 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217327/changes-of-adenosinergic-system-in-piglets-fed-a-diet-co-contaminated-by-mycotoxin-and-its-effects-on-the-regulation-of-adenosine
#2
Carine F Souza, Aleksandro S Da Silva, Lucieli K F Müller, Matheus D Baldissera, Nathieli B Bottari, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Janio M Santurio, Eduardo M Gloria, Gustavo Machado, Régis A Zanette, Diovani Paiano
The effects of diets co-contaminated with 300 μg/kg of aflatoxins and 8000 μg/kg of fumonisins on adenosinergic system of the pigs weaned at 15 days of age were studied. Piglets were inspected daily, and body weight measurement and blood collections were performed at every five days. Piglets intoxicated by mycotoxins presented lower weight gain (p < 0.001) in comparison to control. Intoxicated piglets also showed a reduction in the serum levels of zinc and adenosine and in adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity (p < 0...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214120/immobilized-aptamer-on-gold-electrode-senses-trace-amount-of-aflatoxin-m1
#3
Amit Kumar Pandey, Yudhishthir Singh Rajput, Rajan Sharma, Dheer Singh
An electrochemical aptasensor for detection of trace amounts of aflatoxin M1 was developed. This required immobilization of aptamer on screen printed gold electrode comprising of working electrode, counter electrode and reference electrode and was achieved by sequentially layering dithiodipropionic acid, streptavidin and biotinylated-tetraethylene glycol-aptamer. Immobilization of aptamer was monitored by cyclic voltammetry. Peak current in square wave voltammogram was inversely related to logarithmic concentration of aflatoxin M1...
2017: Applied Nanoscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211897/effect-of-yeast-cell-wall-on-the-growth-performance-and-gut-health-of-broilers-challenged-with-aflatoxin-b1-and-necrotic-enteritis
#4
N Liu, J Q Wang, S C Jia, Y K Chen, J P Wang
This study aimed to investigate the effect of yeast cell walls (YCW) on the growth performance, visceral lesions, intestinal integrity, enterotoxicity, and bacteria of broilers challenged with aflatoxin B1 (AF) and necrotic enteritis (NE) from 1 to 21 d of age. A total of 576 one-day-old broilers were assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 design for diets containing AFB1 (0 or 40 μg/kg), NE (challenged or unchallenged), or YCW (0 or 500 mg/kg). The main effect analysis showed that AF depressed (P < 0.01) average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily body weight gain (ADG), the mRNA profiles of polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), claudin-1, and occludin, but increased (P < 0...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209291/essential-apses-transcription-factors-for-mycotoxin-synthesis-fungal-development-and-pathogenicity-in-aspergillus-flavus
#5
Guangshan Yao, Feng Zhang, Xinyi Nie, Xiuna Wang, Jun Yuan, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
Aflatoxins are a potent carcinogenic mycotoxin and has become a research model of fungal secondary metabolism (SM). Via systematically investigating the APSES transcription factors (TFs), two APSES proteins were identified: AfRafA and AfStuA. These play central roles in the synthesis of mycotoxins including aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid, and fungal development and are consequently central to the pathogenicity of the aflatoxigenic A. flavus. Loss of AfRafA not only dramatically suppressed aflatoxin cluster expression, subsequently reducing toxin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo, but also impaired conidia and sclerotia development...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207242/suppression-of-aflatoxin-production-in-aspergillus-species-by-selected-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-stilbenoids
#6
Victor S Sobolev, Renée Silvia Arias, Kerestin Goodman, Travis Walk, Valerie Orner, Paola Faustinelli, Alicia Massa
Aspergillus flavus is a soil fungus that commonly invades peanut seeds and often produces the carcinogenic aflatoxins. Under favorable conditions, the fungus-challenged peanut plant produces and accumulates resveratrol and its prenylated derivatives in response to such invasion. These prenylated stilbenoids are considered peanut antifungal phytoalexins. However, the mechanism of peanut-fungus interaction has not been sufficiently studied. We used pure peanut stilbenoids, arachidin-1, arachidin-3, and chiricanine A to study their effect on the viability and metabolite production by several important toxigenic Aspergillus species...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199597/hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-possible-chemical-and-biological-causes-a-review
#7
Pinar Erkekoglu, Didem Oral, Ming-Wei Chao, Belmar Kocer-Gumusel
The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process. In HCC, progressive and morphologically distinct preneoplastic lesions/alterations associated with chronic liver injury, inflammation, hepatocellular degeneration/regeneration, necrosis, and small-cell dysplasia can be observed. The incidence of HCC exhibits regional and ethnic differences. Several cytotoxic and DNA-damaging chemicals are suggested to be the underlying causes of HCC-for example, acrylamide, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and dietary contaminants (aflatoxins, ochratoxins)...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193086/transfer-rates-of-aflatoxins-from-herbal-medicines-to-decoctions-determined-by-an-optimized-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-fluorescence-detection-method
#8
Yujiao Nian, Haiwei Wang, Guangyao Ying, Meihua Yang, Ze Wang, Weijun Kong, Shihai Yang
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the transfer rates of aflatoxins from several contaminated herbal medicines by fungi to their decoctions. METHODS: Five types of commonly used herbal medicines including Lilii Bulbus, Hordei Fructus Germinatus, Nelumbinis Semen, Polygalae Radix and Bombyx Batryticatus were selected as the examples. Raw herbal medicine samples were treated by ultrasonication-assisted extraction with 70% methanol and immunoaffinity column clean-up, and the decoctions were prepared following the commonly used boiling method with water for 2 h...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192510/aflatoxin-b1-detoxification-by-cell-free%C3%A2-extracts-of-rhodococcus-strains
#9
Anita Risa, Dalma Maja Divinyi, Erzsébet Baka, Csilla Krifaton
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus molds is a genotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. For the elimination of mycotoxins from food and feed, biodetoxification can be a successful tool. The aim of this study was to reveal biodetoxification with the cell-free extracts of Rhodococcus erythropolis NI1 and Rhodococcus rhodochrous NI2, which have been already proved to detoxify AFB1. Extracellular matrices of cultures and also intracellular extracts were applied for detoxification. In both cases, media containing constitutively produced and AFB1-induced enzymes were tested, respectively...
December 1, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189760/electrochemical-immunosensor-for-the-detection-of-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2-in-palm-kernel-cake-and-feed-samples
#10
Farah Asilah Azri, Jinap Selamat, Rashidah Sukor
Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the solid residue following oil extraction of palm kernels and useful to fatten animals either as a single feed with only minerals and vitamins supplementation, or mixed with other feedstuffs such as corn kernels or soy beans. The occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, and fumonisins) in feed samples affects the animal's health and also serves as a secondary contamination to humans via consumption of eggs, milk and meats. Of these, aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is the most toxically potent and a confirmed carcinogen to both humans and animals...
November 30, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186859/peanuts-aflatoxins-and-undernutrition-in-children-in-sub-saharan-africa
#11
REVIEW
Innocent Mupunga, Pamella Mngqawa, David R Katerere
Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) is an important and affordable source of protein in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and a popular commodity and raw material for peanut butter, paste and cooking oil. It is a popular ingredient for foods used at the point of weaning infants from mother's milk. It is at this critical point that childhood undernutrition occurs and the condition manifests as stunting, wasting and growth restriction and accounts for nearly half of all deaths in children under five years of age in SSA...
November 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185179/enniatin-b-and-ochratoxin-a-in-the-blood-serum-of-workers-from-the-waste-management-setting
#12
Susana Viegas, Bernd Osteresch, Ana Almeida, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Carla Viegas
The waste management occupational environment is recognized by the simultaneous presence of several substances and biologic agents. Therefore, workers are exposed simultaneously to multiple contaminants. Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 in one Portuguese waste sorting plant was already reported. However, besides this mycotoxin, data regarding fungal contamination showed that exposure to other mycotoxins could be expected. A study was developed to analyze if exposure to other mycotoxins besides aflatoxin B1 was occurring in the workers from the waste sorting plant previously assessed and to discuss how these findings need to be considered in the risk assessment process...
November 29, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183385/an-investigation-into-aflatoxin-m-1-in-slaughtered-fattening-pigs-and-awareness-of-aflatoxins-in-vietnam
#13
Hu Suk Lee, Johanna Lindahl, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Nguyen Viet Khong, Vuong Bui Nghia, Huyen Nguyen Xuan, Delia Grace
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite formed after aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is consumed by humans and animals; it can be detected in urine, milk and blood. It is well recognized that AFB1 is toxic to humans and other animals. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies aflatoxins as group 1 carcinogens and AFM1 as group 2B carcinogen. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure of pigs to aflatoxins as well as to assess the public awareness of aflatoxins among people in five provinces in Vietnam...
November 28, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175577/aflatoxin-exposure-in-nigerian-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition
#14
Amy McMillan, Justin B Renaud, Kevin M N Burgess, Adebola E Orimadegun, Olusegun O Akinyinka, Stephen J Allen, J David Miller, Gregor Reid, Mark W Sumarah
Aflatoxin exposure is an important public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa as well as parts of Latin America and Asia. In addition to hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic aflatoxin exposure is believed to play a role in childhood growth impairment. The most reliable biomarker of chronic aflatoxin exposure is the aflatoxin-albumin adduct, as measured by ELISA or isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In this report, we have used high resolution LC-MS/MS with IDMS to quantitate AFB1-lysine in an extremely vulnerable population of Nigerian children suffering from severe acute malnutrition...
November 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174133/optimization-for-quechers-extraction-of-mycotoxins-and-veterinary-drugs-by-response-surface-methodology-for-application-to-egg-and-milk
#15
Jian Zhou, Jiao-Jiao Xu, Jin-Mi Cong, Zeng-Xuan Cai, Jing-Shun Zhang, Jun-Lin Wang, Yi-Ping Ren
A multiclass method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of various classes of veterinary drugs (n = 65), mycotoxins and metabolites (n = 39) in egg and milk by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The contaminants were extracted by QuEChERS-based strategy including salt-out partitioning and dispersive solid-phase extraction for cleanup further. With the aim of maximizing throughput and extraction efficiency, Plackett-Burman design was employed initially for screening significant variables...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171757/impedimetric-sensor-of-ss-hsdna-reduced-graphene-oxide-aerogel-electrode-toward-aflatoxin-b1-detection-effects-of-redox-mediator-charges-and-hydrodynamic-diffusion
#16
Atiweena Krittayavathananon, Montree Sawangphruk
Here, an impedimetric biosensor for determination and quantifica-tion of an aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) level using a reduced graphene oxide aerogel labeled with a single strand DNA (ss-HSDNA/rGOae) modified on a rotating disk electrode (RDE) is presented. Owing to the large non-conductive biomolecule biding on the electrode, an electron transfer is interrupted and not easily accessible to a target molecule. To address this issue, we aim to study two effects; one considers electro-redox mediators and the other considers the hydrodynamic effect...
November 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168184/effect-of-ultra-superheated-steam-on-aflatoxin-reduction-and-roasted-peanut-properties
#17
Parawee Pukkasorn, Wannasawat Ratphitagsanti, Vichai Haruthaitanasan
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxins are carcinogenic toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that are found naturally in peanut. It requires extremely high temperatures for eliminating aflatoxins from the nuts. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of ultra superheated steam (USS) on the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) accompanying roasting process and to determine roasted peanut qualities that affected consumer acceptance. RESULTS: Whole peanut kernels were intentionally contaminated by AFB1 standard solution at the level of 50±10 μg kg(-1) before subjected to USS treatment at 300-400°C between 10 and 80 s...
November 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167773/prevalence-of-aflatoxin-contamination-in-herbs-and-spices-in-different-regions-of-iran
#18
Payam Khazaeli, Mitra Mehrabani, Mahmoud Reza Heidari, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Moslem Lari Najafi
Background: Mycotoxins are natural toxins, produced by several fungal species and are associated with morbidity or even mortality in animals, plants, and humans. In this study, 120 samples of herbs and spices in both bulk and packaged forms were prepared in order to measure aflatoxin level in different regions of Iran. Methods: The aflatoxin was extracted during Mar to May 2015, using 80% methanol and then purified via immunoaffinity column. Measurements were performed, using high-performance liquid chromatography, equipped with a fluorescence detection system at excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 and 435 nm, respectively...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163778/a-study-on-the-expression-of-apoptotic-molecules-related-to-death-receptor-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-pathways-in-the-jejunum-of-afb1-intoxicated-chickens
#19
Zhixiang Zheng, Zhicai Zuo, Panpan Zhu, Fengyuan Wang, Heng Yin, Xi Peng, Jing Fang, Hengmin Cui, Caixia Gao, Hetao Song, Ping Ouyang, Yi Zhou, Song Zhao
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common contaminant of poultry feeds in tropical and subtropical climates. Early researches have well established the hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, and immunotoxic effects of AFB1 on humans and animals. Recently, it has been shown that AFB1 could cause the up- or down-alteration of mitochondrial pathway molecule expression. However, the information on the expression of death receptor and endoplasmic reticulum molecules in the jejunal apoptosis induced by AFB1 were unavailable. So the present study was conducted to explore the expression of apoptotic molecules related to death receptor and endoplasmic reticulum in the jejunal cells of chickens exposed to AFB1 diet for 3 weeks...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157467/broad-spectrum-immunoaffinity-cleanup-for-the-determination-of-aflatoxins-b1-b2-g1-g2-m1-m2-in-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-and-its-pharmaceutical-preparations-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Shujuan Sun, Jie Xie, Tao Peng, Bing Shao, Kui Zhu, Yuanze Sun, Kai Yao, Qiang Gu, Jing Zhang, Chunlin Fan, Ying Chen, Haiyang Jiang
An ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1 and AFM2) in Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its pharmaceutical preparations. A rapid and reliable immunoaffinity column containing a broad-spectrum monoclonal antibody for six aflatoxins was used for sample cleanup. Under the optimized conditions, the home-made immunoaffinity column capacity were about 315, 319, 292, 102, 444 and 369ng/mL gel for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1 and AFM2, respectively...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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