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Aflatoxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213013/time-course-of-germination-initiation-of-mycelium-proliferation-and-probability-of-visible-growth-and-detectable-afb1-production-of-an-isolate-of-aspergillus-flavus-on-pistachio-extract-agar
#1
Laila Aldars-García, Vicente Sanchis, Antonio J Ramos, Sonia Marín
The aim of this work was to assess the temporal relationship among quantified germination, mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production from colonies coming from single spores, in order to find the best way to predict as accurately as possible the presence of AFB1 at the early stages of contamination. Germination, mycelial growth, probability of growth and probability of AFB1 production of an isolate of Aspergillus flavus were determined at 25 °C and two water activities (0.85 and 0.87) on 3% Pistachio Extract Agar (PEA)...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212851/the-high-affinity-phosphodiesterase-pdeh-regulates-development-and-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-flavus
#2
Kunlong Yang, Yinghang Liu, Linlin Liang, Zhenguo Li, Qiuping Qin, Xinyi Nie, Shihua Wang
Cyclic AMP signaling controls a range of physiological processes in response to extracellular stimuli in organisms. Among the signaling cascades, cAMP, as a second messenger, is orchestrated by adenylate cyclase(biosynthesis) and cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs)(hydrolysis). In this study, we investigated the function of the high-affinity (PdeH) and low-affinity (PdeL) cAMP phosphodiesterase from the carcinogenic aflatoxin producing fungus Aspergillus flavus, and found that instead of PdeL, inactivation of PdeH exhibited a reduction in conidiation and sclerotia formation...
February 14, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212554/afb1-hepatocarcinogenesis-is-via-lipid-peroxidation-that-inhibits-dna-repair-sensitizes-mutation-susceptibility-and-induces-aldehyde-dna-adducts-at-p53-mutational-hotspot-codon-249
#3
Mao-Wen Weng, Hyun-Wook Lee, Bongkun Choi, Hsiang-Tsui Wang, Yu Hu, Manju Mehta, Dhimant Desai, Shantu Amin, Yi Zheng, Moon-Shong Tang
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination in the food chain is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). More than 60% of AFB1 related HCC carry p53 codon 249 mutations but the causal mechanism remains unclear. We found that 1) AFB1 induces two types of DNA adducts in human hepatocytes, AFB1-8,9-epoxide-deoxyguanosine (AFB1-E-dG) induced by AFB1-E and cyclic α-methyl-γ-hydroxy-1,N2-propano-dG (meth-OH-PdG) induced by lipid peroxidation generated acetaldehyde (Acet) and crotonaldehyde (Cro); 2) the level of meth-OH-PdG is >30 fold higher than the level of AFB1-E-dG; 3) AFB1, Acet, and Cro, but not AFB1-E, preferentially induce DNA damage at codon 249; 4) methylation at -CpG- sites enhances meth-OH-PdG formation at codon 249; and 5) repair of meth-OH-PdG at codon 249 is poor...
February 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212415/aflatoxin-exposure-during-the-first-36-months-of-life-was-not-associated-with-impaired-growth-in-nepalese-children-an-extension-of-the-mal-ed-study
#4
Nicole J Mitchell, Hui-Husan Hsu, Ram Krishna Chandyo, Binob Shrestha, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Yu-Kang Tu, Yun-Yun Gong, Patricia A Egner, Manjeswori Ulak, John D Groopman, Felicia Wu
Exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin common in many foods, has been associated with child growth impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. To improve our understanding of growth impairment in relation to aflatoxin and other risk factors, we assessed biospecimens collected in Nepalese children at 15, 24, and 36 months of age for aflatoxin exposure. Children (N = 85) enrolled in the Bhaktapur, Nepal MAL-ED study encompassed the cohort analysed in this study. Exposure was assessed through a plasma biomarker of aflatoxin exposure: the AFB1-lysine adduct...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208797/multi-mycotoxin%C3%A2-analysis%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-durum%C3%A2-wheat%C3%A2-pasta%C3%A2-by%C3%A2-liquid%C3%A2-chromatography%C3%A2-coupled%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-quadrupole%C3%A2-orbitrap%C3%A2-mass%C3%A2-spectrometry
#5
Josefa Tolosa, Giulia Graziani, Anna Gaspari, Donato Chianese, Emilia Ferrer, Jordi Mañes, Alberto Ritieni
A simple and rapid multi-mycotoxin method for the determination of 17 mycotoxins  simultaneously  is  described  in  the  present  survey  on  durum  and  soft  wheat  pasta  samples.  Mycotoxins included in the study were those mainly reported in cereal samples: ochratoxin-A  (OTA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol  (3-AcDON and 15-AcDON), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), fusarenon-X, (FUS-X), T-2 toxin  (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2), and four emerging mycotoxins:  three  enniatins  (ENA,  ENA1,  and  ENB),  and  beauvericin  (BEA)...
February 9, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199961/proteomic-analysis-of-laser-capture-microdissected-focal-lesions-in-a-rat-model-of-progenitor-marker-positive-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Adeola O Adebayo Michael, Nagib Ahsan, Valerie Zabala, Heather Francois-Vaughan, Stephanie Post, Kate E Brilliant, Arthur R Salomon, Jennifer A Sanders, Philip A Gruppuso
We have shown previously that rapamycin, the canonical inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1, markedly inhibits the growth of focal lesions in the resistant hepatocyte (Solt-Farber) model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the rat. In the present study, we characterized the proteome of persistent, pre-neoplastic focal lesions in this model. One group was administered rapamycin by subcutaneous pellet for 3 weeks following partial hepatectomy and euthanized 4 weeks after the cessation of rapamycin...
February 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199065/rapid-characterization-of-trace-aflatoxin-b1-on-groundnuts-wheat-and-maize-by-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-followed-by-direct-electrospray-probe-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Thiphol Satarpai, Atitaya Siripinyanond, Hung Su, Jentaie Shiea
RATIONALE: Aflatoxins are poisonous and cancer-related chemical compounds commonly existed in crops and plants. Aflatoxin B1 is the most toxic compound among aflatoxins and has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to human, especially on liver cancer. Herein, an ambient mass spectrometric method was developed for rapid characterization of trace aflatoxin B1 on peanuts. METHODS: Direct electrospray probe tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect aflatoxin B1 on peanuts...
February 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198655/study-of-an-educational-hand-sorting-intervention-for-reducing-aflatoxin-b1-in-groundnuts-in-rural-gambia
#8
Y A Xu, Andrew Doel, Sinead Watson, Michael N Routledge, Christopher T Elliott, Sophie E Moore, Yun Yun Gong
Aflatoxin, a human liver carcinogen, frequently contaminates groundnuts, maize, rice, and other grains, especially in Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention that involved training rural Gambian women on how to identify and remove moldy groundnuts to reduce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination. In total, 25 women, recruited from the West Kiang region of The Gambia, were trained on how to recognize and remove moldy groundnuts. Market-purchased groundnuts were hand sorted by the women...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198024/interaction-of-mammary-bovine-abcg2-with-afb1-and-its-metabolites-and-regulation-by-pcb-126-in-a-mdckii-in-vitro-model
#9
L Manzini, S Halwachs, F Girolami, P Badino, W Honscha, C Nebbia
The ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 plays a key role in the mammary excretion of drugs and toxins in humans and animals. Aflatoxins (AF) are worldwide contaminants of food and feed commodities, while PCB 126 is a dioxin-like PCB which may contaminate milk and dairy products. Both compounds are known human carcinogens. The interactions between AF and bovine ABCG2 (bABCG2) as well as the effects of PCB 126 on its efflux activity have been investigated by means of the Hoechst H33342 transport assay in MDCKII cells stably expressing mammary bABCG2...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195330/positive-and-negative-aspects-of-green-coffee-consumption-antioxidant-activity-vs-mycotoxins
#10
Magdalena Jeszka-Skowron, Agnieszka Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Łukasz Stępień, Ewa Stanisz
BACKGROUND: The quality of coffee depends not only on the contents of healthy compounds but also on its contamination with microorganisms which can produce mycotoxins during development, harvesting, preparation, transport and storage. RESULTS: Antioxidant activity of green coffee brews measured in this study by ABTS, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu assays showed that coffee extracts from Robusta beans possessed highest activity in all assays than extracts from Arabica coffee...
February 13, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190563/pathological-and-biochemical-evaluation-of-coumarin-and-chlorophyllin-against-aflatoxicosis-in-rat
#11
Mohamed S Abdel-Latif, Khaled M Elmeleigy, Tahany A A Aly, Marwa S Khattab, Sara M Mohamed
Aflatoxin contamination of animal diet has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. This study was performed to investigate the effect of using coumarin and/or chlorophyllin in rat diet against aflatoxicosis. Fifty-four rats were assigned into 7 groups (6 rats each). G1 was a negative control. G2 received water with coumarin 0.5%. G3 received water with chlorophyllin 0.5%. G4 received water with coumarin 0.5% and chlorophyllin 0.5%. G5-8 fed aflatoxin B1 1000ppb in diet. Group 6-8 were administered similar treatments as G2-4...
February 9, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190349/a-dual-color-quantum-dots-encoded-frit-based-immunoassay-for-visual-detection-of-aflatoxin-m1-and-pirlimycin-residues-in-milk
#12
Wenxiao Jiang, Natalia V Beloglazova, Pengjie Luo, Ping Guo, Guimiao Lin, Xiaomei Wang
Mycotoxins and antibacterial agents are the main chemical hazards that lead to several health problems. Nowadays, multiplex immunoassay is a primary goal throughout the world. Here, aflatoxin M1 and pirlimycin were selected as models, and a novel dual colorimetric encoded frit-based immunoassay was developed for simultaneously screening of aflatoxin M1 and pirlimycin residues in milk. This multiplex frit-based immunoassay combined two monoclonal antibodies in order to extend the spectrum of analytes, and to enable detection of two classes of analytes in a single test...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181396/the-aflatoxin-b1-fumonisin-b1-toxicity-in-brl-3a-hepatocytes-is-associated-to-induction-of-cytochrome-p450-activity-and-arachidonic-acid-metabolism
#13
Verónica S Mary, Silvina L Arias, Santiago N Otaiza, Pilar A Velez, Héctor R Rubinstein, Martín G Theumer
Human oral exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) and fumonisin B1 (FB1 ) is associated with increased hepatocellular carcinoma. Although evidence suggested interactive AFB1 -FB1 hepatotoxicity, the underlying mechanisms remain mostly unidentified. This work was aimed at evaluating the possible AFB1 -FB1 interplay to induce genetic and cell cycle toxicities in BRL-3A rat hepatocytes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) involvement, and the AFB1 metabolizing pathways cytochrome P450 (CYP) and arachidonic acid (ArAc) metabolism as ROS contributors...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174618/transgenic-rat-models-for-mutagenesis-and-carcinogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Takehiko Nohmi, Kenichi Masumura, Naomi Toyoda-Hokaiwado
Rats are a standard experimental animal for cancer bioassay and toxicological research for chemicals. Although the genetic analyses were behind mice, rats have been more frequently used for toxicological research than mice. This is partly because they live longer than mice and induce a wider variety of tumors, which are morphologically similar to those in humans. The body mass is larger than mice, which enables to take samples from organs for studies on pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics. In addition, there are a number of chemicals that exhibit marked species differences in the carcinogenicity...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161166/comparison-of-immunochromatographic-assays-based-on-fluorescent-microsphere-and-quantum-dot-submicrobead-for-quantitative-detection-of-aflatoxin-m1-in-milk
#15
Chenghui Wu, Liming Hu, Jun Xia, Guomao Xu, Kai Luo, Daofeng Liu, Hong Duan, Song Cheng, Yonghua Xiong, Weihua Lai
The performance of fluorescent microsphere immunochromatographic assay (FM-ICA) and quantum-dot submicrobead immunochromatographic assay (QB-ICA) was systematically and comprehensively compared in quantitative detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk. Under optimum conditions, the advantages of FM-ICA include lower limit of detection of 42.3 pg/mL with better accuracy, precision, reliability, and practicability. The advantages of QB-ICA include shorter detection time and lower monoclonal antibody consumption. The 2 ICA were consistent with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153237/graphene-oxide-and-carboxylated-graphene-oxide-viable-two-dimensional-nanolabels-for-lateral-flow-immunoassays
#16
Li Yu, Peiwu Li, Xiaoxia Ding, Qi Zhang
Graphene oxide (GO) and carboxylated GO were used as labels for lateral flow immunoassays, instead of the conventionally used colloidal gold and colored latex labels. A sensor is demonstrated that enables fast screening for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) as a model analyte using the antibody-GO complex as the recognition element. The visual limit of detection and cut-off value for AFB1 are 0.3 and 1ng/mL, respectively. It is shown that GO and carboxylated GO are viable black labels for use in lateral flow assays, one typical advantage being the saving cost (compared to the use of colloidal gold)...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149005/aspergilli-aflatoxins-health-threat
#17
EDITORIAL
Usha P Sarma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148686/maize-milling-method-affects-growth-and-zinc-status-but-not-provitamin-a-carotenoid-bioefficacy-in-male-mongolian-gerbils
#18
Bryan M Gannon, Kevin V Pixley, Sherry A Tanumihardjo
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A (VA) and zinc deficiencies are prevalent. Maize is a common staple, and milling affects nutrient and nutrient-modifier profiles. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the interaction of maize milling methods (i.e., whole grain compared with refined) in male Mongolian gerbils aged 29-35 d with conventionally bred provitamin A-biofortified (orange) or white maize on VA and zinc status. METHODS: Study 1 (n = 67) was a 2 × 3 milling (whole compared with refined) by VA [no-vitamin A placebo group (VA-), orange, and VA-supplemented group (VA+)] design, with 4 wk of VA depletion followed by six 4-wk treatments (n = 10/treatment)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135406/mycotoxin-contamination-of-rice-in-china
#19
REVIEW
Xiang Dong Sun, Ping Su, Hong Shan
Mycotoxin contamination in rice is generally lower than in other cereals such as corn or wheat. However, over 65% of the population in China consumes rice as a staple food. Due to the diversity of the climate across China, the southern region is characterized by high temperatures and humidities, especially in rainy season. Such conditions are optimal for the growth of fungi. The accumulative and transferrable characteristics of fungi mycotoxins pose a great potential threat as confirmed by high incidences of liver cancer in the Yangtze delta region...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132800/preparation-and-analysis-of-peanut-flour-used-in-oral-immunotherapy-clinical-trials
#20
Jelena P Berglund, Nicole Szczepanski, Anusha Penumarti, Ayeshia Beavers, Janelle Kesselring, Kelly Orgel, Bruce Burnett, A Wesley Burks, Michael Kulis
BACKGROUND: Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an investigational therapeutic approach for the treatment of food allergies. Characterization of the drug product used in oral immunotherapy trials for peanut allergy has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To quantify relative amounts of the major peanut allergens and microbial load present in peanut flour used in OIT trials and assess whether these parameters change over a 12-month period. We also anticipate that this report will serve as a guide for investigators seeking to conduct OIT trials under Food and Drug Administration-approved Investigational New Drug applications...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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