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Sanil D Singh, Anil A Chuturgoon
Dry pelleted dog food in the South African market is available via supermarkets, pet stores (standard brands [SBs]) and veterinary channels (premium brands [PBs]). For the purpose of this study, the supermarket channel included the cheaper quality foods and PBs were sold via the veterinary channel (n = 20). These feeds were analysed for four main mycotoxins (aflatoxins [AF], fumonisin [FB], ochratoxin A [OTA] and zearalenone [ZEA]) using standard welldescribed extraction, characterisation and quantitation processes...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Hongyuan Zhou, Saji George, Caixia Li, Subramaniam Gurusamy, Xiulan Sun, Zhiyuan Gong, He Qian
While, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are the most prevalent mycotoxins co-existing in grain products and animal feeds, little is known about their combinatorial toxicities on aquatic life-forms. We studied the individual and combined effects of these mycotoxins in a fish cell line (BF-2) and zebrafish larvae (wild-type and transgenic). The types of interactions in mycotoxins combinations on cell viability were determined by using Chou-Talalay model. Induction of oxidative stress pathway in mycotoxins-exposed BF-2 cells was assessed using high content screening (HCS)...
October 3, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Mohammad Mohajeri, Behzad Behnam, Arrigo F G Cicero, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Aflatoxicosis is a deleterious medical condition that results from aflatoxins (AFs) or ochratoxins (OTs). Contamination with these toxins exerts detrimental effects on the liver, kidneys, reproductive organs, and also on immunological and cardiovascular systems. Aflatoxicosis is closely associated with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as key contributors to oxidative and nitrosative stress responses, and subsequent damages to lipids, proteins, RNA, and DNA. The main target organ for AF toxicity is the liver, where DNA adducts, degranulation of endoplasmic reticulum, increased hepatic lipid peroxide, GSH depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reduction of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants are manifestations of aflatoxicosis...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
L De Gelder, K Audenaert, B Willems, K Schelfhout, S De Saeger, M De Boevre
Food and feed stocks heavily contaminated with mycotoxins are rendered unfit for consumption and therefore discarded as waste. Due to the lack of guidelines and in accordance with the prudent avoidance principle, these waste streams are often incinerated. For better valorization, these streams could be used as input for anaerobic digestion. However, the degradation of multiple mycotoxins during anaerobic digestion and their effect on the methane production is currently unknown. In batch tests spiked with mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin were degraded for more than 90%...
October 9, 2017: Waste Management
Jay A Rosenheim, Bradley S Higbee, Jonathan D Ackerman, Matthew H Meisner
Capturing the complementary strengths of observational and experimental research methods usually requires the researcher to gather separate experimental and observational data sets. In some cases, however, commercial agricultural practices produce the spatial and temporal mixing of 'treatments' independently of other possibly covarying factors that is normally achieved only with formal experimentation. The resulting 'pseudoexperiments' can provide strong evidence for causal relationships. Here, we analyze a large observational data set that creates a series of such pseudoexperiments to assess the effect of different commercial varieties of almond, Prunus dulcis (Mill...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Hui Li, Daibin Yang, Peiwu Li, Qi Zhang, Wen Zhang, Xiaoxia Ding, Jin Mao, Jing Wu
A highly sensitive aptasensor for aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) detection was constructed based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs). PdNPs (33 nm) were synthesized through a seed-mediated growth method and exhibited broad and strong absorption in the whole ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range. The strong coordination interaction between nitrogen functional groups of the AFM₁ aptamer and PdNPs brought FAM and PdNPs in close proximity, which resulted in the fluorescence quenching of FAM to a maximum extent of 95%...
October 13, 2017: Toxins
Alejandro Ortega-Beltran, Peter Cotty
Aspergillus flavus frequently contaminates maize, a critical staple of billions, with aflatoxins. Diversity among A. flavus L morphotype populations associated with maize in Sonora, Mexico was assessed and a total of 869 isolates from 83 fields were placed into 136 vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) using nitrate-nonutilizing mutants. VCG diversity indices did not differ in four agroecosystems (AES) but diversity significantly differed among years. Frequencies of certain VCGs changed manyfold over single years in both multiple fields and multiple AES...
October 13, 2017: Phytopathology
Jeffrey W Cary, Pamela Harris-Coward, Leslie Scharfenstein, Brian M Mack, Perng-Kuang Chang, Qijian Wei, Matthew Lebar, Carol Carter-Wientjes, Rajtilak Majumdar, Chandrani Mitra, Sourav Banerjee, Anindya Chanda
Homeobox proteins, a class of well conserved transcription factors, regulate the expression of targeted genes, especially those involved in development. In filamentous fungi, homeobox genes are required for normal conidiogenesis and fruiting body formation. In the present study, we identified eight homeobox (hbx) genes in the aflatoxin-producing ascomycete, Aspergillus flavus, and determined their respective role in growth, conidiation and sclerotial production. Disruption of seven of the eight genes had little to no effect on fungal growth and development...
October 12, 2017: Toxins
Xiai Yang, Liangliang Liu, Jing Chen, Aiping Xiao
In order to investigate the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on intestinal bacterial flora, 24 Kunming mice (KM mice) were randomly placed into four groups, which were labeled as control, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups. They were fed intragastrically with 0.4 mL of 0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 4 mg/L, or 10 mg/L of AFB1 solutions, twice a day for 2 months. The hypervariable region V3 + V4 on 16S rDNA of intestinal bacterial flora was sequenced by the use of a high-flux sequencing system on a Miseq Illumina platform; then, the obtained sequences were analyzed...
October 12, 2017: Toxins
Gökhan Eraslan, Zeynep Soyer Sarıca, Latife Çakır Bayram, Muhammet Yasin Tekeli, Murat Kanbur, Mürsel Karabacak
Aflatoxin is among the natural toxins that cause serious side effects on living things. Diosmin is also one of the compounds with broad pharmacological effects. In this study, the effects on the oxidant/antioxidant system of 50 mg/kg body weight/day dose of diosmin, aflatoxin (500 μg/kg body weight/day), and combined aflatoxin (500 μg/kg body weight/day) plus diosmin (50 mg/kg body weight/day) given to the stomach via catheter female adult Wistar Albino rats is examined. Forty rats were used in the experiment, and these animals were randomly allocated to four equal groups...
October 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Youxiu Lin, Qian Zhou, Dianping Tang
A novel signal-amplified strategy based on dopamine-loaded liposome (DLL) was developed for competitive-type nonenzymatic photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay of small- molecular aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in foodstuff, using Mn(2+)-doped Zn3(OH)2V2O7·2H2O nanobelts. The signal was amplified by high-loaded capacity of liposome and the highly efficient dopamine molecule to enhance photocurrent of Mn(2+)-doped Zn3(OH)2V2O7·2H2O nanobelts. The loaded dopamine in the liposome was used as an electron donor to scavenge the hole and inhibit the charge recombination...
October 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Xiangwei Du, Dwayne E Schrunk, Dahai Shao, Paula M Imerman, Chong Wang, Steve M Ensley, Wilson K Rumbeiha
Mycotoxins negatively impact animal health. Aflatoxins (AFs) are the most common mycotoxins affecting both large and small animals and are a common cause of toxin-related pet food recalls. Definitive diagnosis of aflatoxicosis is constrained by a lack of validated ante-mortem analytical methods for detection and quantitation of AFs and their metabolites in biological specimens. Herein, we developed and evaluated a urine-based quantitative method for measurement of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and its metabolites aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and aflatoxin Q1 (AFQ1) in animal urine...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jeroen Peters, Ruud van Dam, Ronald van Doorn, David Katerere, Franz Berthiller, Willem Haasnoot, Michel W F Nielen
Currently beer is booming, mainly due to the steady rise of craft breweries worldwide. Previous surveys for occurrence of mycotoxins in beer, were mainly focussed on industrial produced beer. The present survey reports the presence of mycotoxins in craft beer and how this compares to industrial produced beer. More than 1000 beers were collected from 47 countries, of which 60% were craft beers. A selection of 1000 samples were screened for the presence of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins (FBs), T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2 and HT-2) and deoxynivalenol (DON) using a mycotoxin 6-plex immunoassay...
2017: PloS One
Kiran K Sharma, Arunima Pothana, Kalyani Prasad, Dilip Shah, Jagdeep Kaur, Deepak Bhatnagar, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Yenjit Raruang, Jeffrey W Cary, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Hari Kishan Sudini, Pooja Bhatnagar-Mathur
Aflatoxin contamination in peanuts poses major challenges for vulnerable populations of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Developing peanut varieties to combat pre-harvest Aspergillus flavus infection and resulting aflatoxin contamination has thus far remained a major challenge, confounded by highly complex peanut-Aspergilli pathosystem. Our study reports achieving high level of resistance in peanut by over expressing (OE) antifungal plant defensins MsDef1 and MtDef4.2, and through host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) of aflM and aflP genes from the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway...
October 3, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Kanokwan Sriwattanapong, Stephen L Slocum, Supawadee Chawanthayatham, Bogdan I Fedeles, Patricia A Egner, John D Groopman, Jutamaad Satayavivad, Robert G Croy, John M Essigmann
Pregnancy is a complex physiological state, in which the metabolism of endogenous as well as exogenous agents is ostensibly altered. One exogenous agent of concern is the hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a foodborne fungal toxin, that requires Phase I metabolic oxidation for conversion to its toxic and carcinogenic form, the AFB1-8,9-exo-epoxide. The epoxide interacts with cellular targets causing toxicity and cell death; these targets include the covalent modification of DNA leading to mutations that can initiate malignant transformation...
August 24, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Gaofeng Wang, Yushan Miao, Zhiming Sun, Shuilin Zheng
Organo-montmorillonites (OMts) modified with mono- and di-alkyl cationic surfactants were prepared to remove polar mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and weak polar, hydrophobic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZER) simultaneously. The structural and surface properties of the prepared OMts were investigated. In vitro adsorption experiments were carried out to simulate the in vivo conditions of gastrointestinal tract of animals by a batch mode. The adsorption of AFB1 and ZER in both single and binary-contaminate systems were investigated systematically...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Chee Wei Lim, Gerald Chung, Sheot Harn Chan
Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and B₂ (AFB₂) and G1 and G₂ remain the top mycotoxins routinely analyzed and monitored by Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) national laboratories primarily for food safety regulation in the major food commodities, nuts and spices. LC tandem fluorescence detection (LC–fluorescence) represents a current mainstream analytical method, with a progressive migration to a primary method by LC tandem MS (MS/MS) for the next half decade. Annual proficiency testing (PT) is conducted by ASEAN Food Reference Laboratories (AFRLs) for mycotoxin testing as part of capability building in national laboratories, with the scope of PT materials spanning from naturally mycotoxin-contaminated spices and nuts in the early 2010s to the recent contamination of corn flour in 2017 for total aflatoxin assay development...
October 3, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Zuzana Hruska, Haibo Yao, Russell Kincaid, Robert L Brown, Deepak Bhatnagar, Thomas E Cleveland
Non-invasive, easy to use and cost-effective technology offers a valuable alternative for rapid detection of carcinogenic fungal metabolites, namely aflatoxins, in commodities. One relatively recent development in this area is the use of spectral technology. Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging, in particular, offers a potential rapid and non-invasive method for detecting the presence of aflatoxins in maize infected with the toxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus. Earlier studies have shown that whole maize kernels contaminated with aflatoxins exhibit different spectral signatures from uncontaminated kernels based on the external fluorescence emission of the whole kernels...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ka Yiu Yip, Murphy Lam Yim Wan, Alice Sze Tsai Wong, Kenneth S Korach, Hani El-Nezami
Zearalenone (ZEA) has long been recognized as a xenoestrogen, while the endocrine disrupting effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) have been identified recently. Due to co-occurrence and endocrine disrupting potentials of ZEA and AFB1, it was hypothesized that co-exposure to ZEA and AFB1 might affect breast cancer cell growth. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of ZEA and AFB1 (1nM-100nM) on cell growth and cell cycle progression, using a human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Our results showed that ZEA and AFB1 produced significant interactive effects on cell growth, DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression...
September 28, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Wei-Jia Zeng, Ni Liao, Yan-Mei Lei, Jing Zhao, Ya-Qin Chai, Ruo Yuan, Ying Zhuo
In this work, hemin was firstly used as electrochemically regenerable co-reaction accelerator for signal amplification to develop an ultrasensitive aptasensor for Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) detection. Initially, the perylenetetracarboxylic acid (PTCA) was directly employed as luminophore to construct the ECL sensing nano-platform by combining Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) for immobilizing thiol-terminated hairpin probe (H1). Then with the help of hairpin H2, H3, the AFM1-catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) was executed to produce the H1-H3 duplex, which could further initiate the hybridization chain reaction (HCR) to generate dendritic DNA polymers consisting of G-rich sequence for capturing large quantities of hemin on the electrode surface...
September 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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