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Aflatoxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471136/post-weaning-piglets-fed-with-different-levels-of-fungal-mycotoxins-and-spray-dried-porcine-plasma-have-improved-weight-gain-feed-intake-and-reduced-diarrhea-incidence
#1
Lucieli Kamila Focht Müller, Diovani Paiano, Jeferson Gugel, William Raphael Lorenzetti, Janio Morais Santurio, Fernando de Castro Tavernari, Eduardo Micotti da Gloria, Matheus D Baldissera, Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva
Mycotoxins are responsible for economic losses in the swine production industry, especially during post-weaning, when piglets are physiologically immature. Spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), added to pig diets, may help reduce losses due to mycotoxins. This work investigates the effects of SDPP in post-weaning piglets fed with diets containing natural contaminants or with more contaminants (co-contamination by mycotoxins). Fifty-six castrated weaned piglets were used in a randomized 2 (0 and 6% of SDPP) x 2 (natural contamination or co-contamination with mycotoxin) factorial design, with seven experimental units of two piglets each...
February 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467750/the-peroxygenase-activity-of-the-aspergillus-flavus-caleosin-afpxg-modulates-the-biosynthesis-of-aflatoxins-and-their-trafficking-and-extracellular-secretion-via-lipid-droplets
#2
Abdulsamie Hanano, Mari Alkara, Ibrahem Almousally, Mouhnad Shaban, Farzana Rahman, Mehedi Hassan, Denis J Murphy
Aflatoxins (AF) are highly detrimental to human and animal health. We recently demonstrated that the Aspergillus flavus caleosin, AfPXG, had peroxygenase activity and mediated fungal development and AF accumulation. We now report the characterization of an AfPXG -deficient line using reference strain NRRL3357. The resulting fungal phenotype included a severe decrease in mycelium growth, failure to sporulate, and reduced AF production. Increasing cellular oxidative status by administration of hydrogen peroxide and cumene hydroperoxide did not restore the AfPXG -deficient phenotype, which suggests that AfPXG -deficiency is not directly related to oxidative stress...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467403/proteome-analysis-of-aspergillus-flavus-isolate-specific-responses-to-oxidative-stress-in-relationship-to-aflatoxin-production-capability
#3
Jake C Fountain, Jin Koh, Liming Yang, Manish K Pandey, Spurthi N Nayak, Prasad Bajaj, Wei-Jian Zhuang, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Robert C Kemerait, R Dewey Lee, Sixue Chen, Rajeev K Varshney, Baozhu Guo
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of plants such as maize and peanut under conducive conditions such as drought stress resulting in significant aflatoxin production. Drought-associated oxidative stress also exacerbates aflatoxin production by A. flavus. The objectives of this study were to use proteomics to provide insights into the pathogen responses to H2 O2 -derived oxidative stress, and to identify potential biomarkers and targets for host resistance breeding. Three isolates, AF13, NRRL3357, and K54A with high, moderate, and no aflatoxin production, were cultured in medium supplemented with varying levels of H2 O2 , and examined using an iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification) approach...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464607/first-report-of-an-atypical-new-aspergillus-parasiticus-isolates-with-nucleotide-insertion-in-aflr-gene-resembling-to-a-sojae
#4
Sui Sheng T Hua, Dan E Parfitt, Siov Bouy L Sarreal, Bertram G Lee, Delilah F Wood
Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and cause toxin contamination in food chain worldwide. Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic and are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Fungal isolates were collected from a California orchard and a few were initially identified to be A...
February 20, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462999/an-on-site-simultaneous-semi-quantification-of-aflatoxin-b1-zearalenone-and-t-2-toxin-in-maize-and-cereal-based-feed-via-multicolor-immunochromatographic-assay
#5
Lin Xu, Zhaowei Zhang, Qi Zhang, Wen Zhang, Li Yu, Du Wang, Hui Li, Peiwu Li
Multiple-mycotoxin contamination has been frequently found in the agro-food monitoring due to the coexistence of fungi. However, many determination methods focused on a single mycotoxin, highlighting the demand for on-site determination of multiple mycotoxins in a single run. We develop a multicolor-based immunochromatographic strip (ICS) for simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin in maize- and cereal-based animal feeds. The nanoparticles with different colors are conjugated with three monoclonal antibodies, which serve as the immunoassay probes...
February 17, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462867/on-site-detection-of-aflatoxin-b1-in-grains-by-a-palm-sized-surface-plasmon-resonance-sensor
#6
Jeong Moon, Jihyun Byun, Hongki Kim, Eun-Kyung Lim, Jinyoung Jeong, Juyuen Jung, Taejoon Kang
Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic compounds that can cause both acute and chronic toxicity in humans. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered the most toxic of AFs. Therefore, the rapid and on-site detection of AFB1 is critical for food safety management. Here, we report the on-site detection of AFB1 in grains by a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. For the detection of AFB1, the surface of an SPR Au chip was sequentially modified by cysteine-protein G, AFB1 antibody, and bovine serum albumin (BSA)...
February 15, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458161/multiple-mycotoxin-analysis-in-nut-products-occurrence-and-risk-characterization
#7
Sara C Cunha, S Sá, José O Fernandes
Nuts consumption plays an important role in Mediterranean diet, being a good source of proteins, vitamins, minerals and unsaturated fatty acids. However, nuts can be also a source of harmful mycotoxins with negative impact on human health. In this work, the occurrence of 16 mycotoxins belonging to different chemical classes, was assessed in several nut products. The analytical method used was based on modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) procedure followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis...
February 16, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456275/antimicrobial-packaging-based-on-%C3%A9-polylysine-bioactive-film-for-the-control-of-mycotoxigenic-fungi-in-vitro-and-in-bread
#8
C Luz, J Calpe, F Saladino, Fernando B Luciano, M Fernandez-Franzón, J Mañes, G Meca
ɛ-Poly-l-lysine (ɛ-PL) is a cationic peptide with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the use of ɛ-PL as natural antimicrobial to inhibit fungal growth and to reduce aflatoxins (AFs) production. Antifungal activity of starch biofilms with different concentrations of ɛ-Poly-l-lysine (ɛ-PL) was determined in solid medium against Aspergillus parasiticus (AFs producer) and Penicillium expansum . Then, biofilms were tested as antimicrobial devices for the preservation of bread loaf inoculated with A...
January 2018: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453995/changes-of-lipid-peroxidation-and-glutathione-redox-system-and-expression-of-glutathione-peroxidase-regulatory-genes-as-effect-of-short-term-aflatoxin-b-1-exposure-in-common-carp
#9
Benjamin Kövesi, Csilla Pelyhe, Erika Zándoki, Miklós Mézes, Krisztián Balogh
Lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase activity and gene expression of transcription factors, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione synthetase and glutathione reductase was investigated in common carp liver. Short term (24 h) exposure of aflatoxin B 1 at different doses (100, 200 and 400 μg AFB 1 kg -1 feed) was used. It was found that conjugated dienes and trienes elevated after 16 h, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content increased only at the lowest dose after 16 and 24 h of exposure...
February 14, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453120/mycobiota-and-co-occurrence-of-mycotoxins-in-south-african-maize-based-opaque-beer
#10
Ifeoluwa Adekoya, Adewale Obadina, Cynthia Chilaka Adaku, Marthe De Boevre, Sheila Okoth, Sarah De Saeger, Patrick Njobeh
Beer, a beverage consumed throughout the world, is mainly derived from cereals. In this study, fungal and mycotoxin contamination, as well as the physicochemical properties of maize-based opaque beer (umqombothi) obtained from the Gauteng province of South Africa, was investigated. The mean water activity, pH and total titratable acidity of the analysed beer samples were 0.91, 3.76 and 1.20% lactic acid, respectively. The investigation revealed Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma and Saccharomyces as the predominant fungal genera with a mean fungal load of 3...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452190/toxicity-assessment-of-mycotoxins-extracted-from-contaminated-commercial-dog-pelleted-feed-on-canine-blood-mononuclear-cells
#11
Sanil D Singh, Naeem Sheik-Abdul, Alisa Phulukdaree, Charlette Tiloke, Savani Nagiah, Sooraj Baijnath, Anil A Chuturgoon
Raw ingredients of pet food are often contaminated with mycotoxins. This is a serious health problem to pets and causes emotional and economical stress to the pet owners. The aim of this study was to determine the immunotoxicity of the most common mycotoxins (aflatoxin, fumonisin, ochratoxin A and zearalenone) by examining 20 samples of extruded dry dog food found on the South African market [10 samples from standard grocery store lines (SB), 10 from premium veterinarian lines (PB)]. Pelleted dog food was subjected to extraction protocols optimized for the above mentioned mycotoxins...
February 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451853/graphene-oxide-coated-stir-bar-sorptive-extraction-of-trace-aflatoxins-from-soy-milk-followed-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-laser-induced-fluorescence-detection
#12
Haiyan Ma, Congcong Ran, Mengjiao Li, Jinglin Gao, Xinyu Wang, Lina Zhang, Jing Bian, Junmei Li, Ye Jiang
Mycotoxins are potential food pollutants produced by fungi. Among them, aflatoxins (AFs) are the most toxic. Therefore, AFs were selected as models, and a sensitive, simple and green graphene oxide (GO)-based stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) method was developed for extraction and determination of AFs with high performance liquid chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence detector (HPLC-LIF). This method improved the sensitivity of AFs detection and solved the deposition difficulty of the direct use of GO as adsorbent...
February 16, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445054/comparison-of-drug-metabolism-and-its-related-hepatotoxic-effects-in-heparg-cryopreserved-human-hepatocytes-and-hepg2-cell-cultures
#13
Yuichi Yokoyama, Yoshifumi Sasaki, Natsuko Terasaki, Taku Kawataki, Koji Takekawa, Yumiko Iwase, Toshinobu Shimizu, Seigo Sanoh, Shigeru Ohta
Differentiated HepaRG cells maintain liver-specific functions such as drug-metabolizing enzymes. In this study, the feasibility of HepaRG cells as a human hepatocyte model for in vitro toxicity assessment was examined using selected hepatotoxic compounds. First, basal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase [UGT], and sulfotransferases [SULT]) were measured in HepaRG, human hepatocytes, and HepG2 cells. Enzyme activities in differentiated HepaRG cells were comparable to those in human hepatocytes and much higher than those in HepG2 cells, except for SULT activity...
February 14, 2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435124/adduction-to-arginine-detoxifies-aflatoxin-b1-by-eliminating-genotoxicity-and-altering-in-vitro-toxicokinetic-profiles
#14
Blake R Rushing, Mustafa I Selim
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a class 1 carcinogen and prominent food contaminant, is highly linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and plays a causative role in a large portion of global HCC cases. We have demonstrated that a mixture of common organic acids (citric and phosphoric acid) along with arginine can eliminate >99% of AFB1 in solution as well as on corn kernels and convert it to the AFB2a-Arg adduct, acting as a potential detoxification process for contaminated foods. Evaluation of toxicokinetic changes after AFB2a-Arg formation show that the product is highly stable in biological fluids, is not metabolized by P450 enzymes, is highly plasma protein bound, has low lipid solubility, and has poor intestinal permeability/high intestinal efflux compared to AFB1...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434580/genetic-and-toxigenic-variability-within-aspergillus-flavus-population-isolated-from-maize-in-two-diverse-environments-in-kenya
#15
Sheila Okoth, Marthe De Boevre, Arnau Vidal, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sofie Landschoot, Martina Kyallo, Joyce Njuguna, Jagger Harvey, Sarah De Saeger
Aspergillus flavus is the main producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities such as maize. This fungus occurs naturally on crops, and produces aflatoxins when environmental conditions are favorable. The aim of this study is to analyse the genetic variability among 109 A. flavus isolates previously recovered from maize sampled from a known aflatoxin-hotspot (Eastern region, Kenya) and the major maize-growing area in the Rift Valley (Kenya), and to determine their toxigenic potential. DNA analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA, partial β-tubulin gene (benA) and calmodulin gene (CaM) sequences were used...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431900/deciphering-drought-induced-metabolic-responses-and-regulation-in-developing-maize-kernels
#16
Liming Yang, Jake C Fountain, Pingsheng Ji, Xinzhi Ni, Sixue Chen, Robert D Lee, Robert C Kemerait, Baozhu Guo
Drought stress conditions decrease maize growth and yield, and aggravate pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. While several studies have been performed on mature kernels responding to drought stress, the metabolic profiles of developing kernels are not as well characterized, particularly in germplasm with contrasting resistance to both drought and mycotoxin contamination. Here, following screening for drought tolerance, a drought-sensitive line, B73, and a drought-tolerant line, Lo964, were selected and stressed beginning at 14 days after pollination...
February 12, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431554/development-of-an-adverse-outcome-pathway-for-chemically-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-case-study-of-afb1-a-human-carcinogen-with-a-mutagenic-mode-of-action
#17
Martha M Moore, Rita S Schoeny, Richard A Becker, Kimberly White, Lynn H Pottenger
Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are frameworks starting with a molecular initiating event (MIE), followed by key events (KEs) linked by KE relationships (KERs), ultimately resulting in a specific adverse outcome. Relevant data for the pathway and each KE/KER are evaluated to assess biological plausibility, weight-of-evidence, and confidence. We aimed to describe an AOP relevant to chemicals directly inducing mutation in cancer critical gene(s), via the formation of chemical-specific pro-mutagenic DNA adduct(s), as an early critical step in tumor etiology...
February 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429512/effect-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-cd34-hematopoietic-stem-cell-on-the-expression-of-wnt4-and-p53-genes-in-a-rat-model-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Rania Naiem Sherif, Hussein Abdellatif, Noha Hazem, Neven A Ebrahim, Dalia Saleh, Gamal Shiha, Huda Eltahry, Kamal G Botros, Omar M Gabr
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary liver malignancy. Chronic liver injuries as chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B viruses, aflatoxins consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are well-established causes of HCC. HCC is associated with a series of molecular changes, as alternation in glypican-3, P53 expression and Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Hepatic cancer progenitor cells could contribute to HCC development. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell on Wnt4 and P53 genes expression, histopathological grading and hepatic progenitor cells percentage in HCC rat model...
February 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428756/effect-of-adding-clay-with-or-without-a-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fermentation-product-on-the-health-and-performance-of-lactating-dairy-cows-challenged-with-dietary-aflatoxin-b1
#19
Y Jiang, I M Ogunade, D H Kim, X Li, A A Pech-Cervantes, K G Arriola, A S Oliveira, J P Driver, L F Ferraretto, C R Staples, D Vyas, A T Adesogan
The study was conducted to examine the effect of supplementing bentonite clay with or without a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; 19 g of NutriTek + 16 g of MetaShield, both from Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) on the performance and health of dairy cows challenged with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows (64 ± 11 d in milk) were stratified by parity and milk production and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment sequences. The experiment had a balanced 4 × 4 Latin square design with 6 replicate squares, four 33-d periods, and a 5-d washout interval between periods...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427712/optimal-pcr-primers-for-rapid-and-accurate-detection-of-aspergillus-flavus-isolates
#20
Mohammed Baqur S Al-Shuhaib, Ali H Albakri, Sabah H Alwan, Noor B Almandil, Sayed AbdulAzeez, J Francis Borgio
Aspergillus flavus is among the most devastating opportunistic pathogens of several food crops including rice, due to its high production of carcinogenic aflatoxins. The presence of these organisms in economically important rice strip farming is a serious food safety concern. Several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers have been designed to detect this species; however, a comparative assessment of their accuracy has not been conducted. This study aims to identify the optimal diagnostic PCR primers for the identification of A...
February 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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