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Alejandro Ortega-Beltran, Juan Moral, Ryan D Puckett, David P Morgan, Peter J Cotty, Themis J Michailides
Interactions between pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungal species in the tree canopy are complex and can determine if disease will manifest in the plant and in other organisms such as honey bees. Seasonal dynamics of fungi were studied in an almond orchard in California where experimental release of the atoxigenic biopesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 to displace toxigenic Aspergillus strains has been conducted for five years. The presence of the vegetative compatibility group (VCG) YV36, to which AF36 belongs, in the blossoms, and the honey bees that attend these blossoms, was assessed...
2018: PloS One
Hasim Munawar, Katarzyna Smolinska-Kempisty, Alvaro Garcia Cruz, Francesco Canfarotta, Elena Piletska, Khalku Karim, Sergey A Piletsky
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used as a standard tool for monitoring food and animal feed contamination from the carcinogenic fumonisin B1 (FB1). Unfortunately, ELISA is not always efficient due to the instability of the antibody and enzyme components in the immunoassay, the presence of natural enzyme inhibitors in the samples and the high levels of non-specific protein binding. Additionally, the production of antibodies for ELISA can be time-consuming and costly, due to the involvement of animals in the manufacturing process...
June 20, 2018: Analyst
Fengyuan Wang, Zhicai Zuo, Kejie Chen, Xi Peng, Jing Fang, Hengmin Cui, Gang Shu, Min He, Li Tang
Cecal tonsil is the largest peripheral lymphoid organ of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue executing immune function. To evaluate the protective effect of selenium (Se) on the cecal tonsil of chicken exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ), 144 1-day-old healthy Cobb chickens were randomly divided into four groups, and fed with basal diet (control group), 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1 group), 0.4 mg/kg Se supplement (+Se group), and 0.6 mg/kg AFB1  + 0.4 mg/kg Se supplement (AFB1  + Se group) for 21 days, respectively...
June 20, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Narayan C Rath, Rohana Liyanage, Anamika Gupta, Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Jackson O Lay
Enterocytes function as both absorptive and protective components of intestine that come in close contact with a variety of enteric factors, such as dietary, microbial, and parasites, that have potential to affect the organismal health. Understanding how enterocytes interact with this complex array of factors may help improve gut health particularly in the context of poultry production where it is also linked to food safety issues. The enterocyte in vitro culture can help screen different factors and their interactions with microbiome, and potentially be utilized in the development of interventions strategies for pathogens such as antibiotic alternatives...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Dionisia Carballo, Guillermina Font, Emilia Ferrer, Houda Berrada
Simultaneous determination of twenty-seven mycotoxins in ready-to-eat food samples using “Quick Easy Cheap Rough and Safe” (QuEChERS) extraction and chromatographic methods coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem is described in this study. Mycotoxins included in this survey were aflatoxins (B₁, B₂, G₁, G₂), enniatins (A, A₁, B, B₁), beauvericin (BEA), fumonisins (FB₁, FB₂), sterigmatocystin (STG), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), fusarenon-X (FUS-X), zearalenone (ZEA), α-zearalanol (αZAL), β-zearalenone (βZAL), α-zearalenol (αZOL), β-zearalenol (βzol), T2, and HT-2 toxin...
June 15, 2018: Toxins
Mahror Norlia, M A R Nor-Khaizura, Jinap Selamat, Fatimah Abu Bakar, Son Radu, Cheow Keat Chin
The peanut supply chain in Malaysia is dominated by three main stakeholders (importers, manufacturers, retailers). The present study, aimed to determine the levels and critical points of aflatoxins and fungal contamination in peanuts along the supply chain. Specifically, two types of raw peanuts and six types of peanut-based products were collected (N = 178). Samples were analysed for aflatoxins by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results revealed that the aflatoxins contamination was significantly higher (P≤0...
June 18, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Geoffrey Ssepuuya, Christof Van Poucke, Emmanuel Njumbe Ediage, Catherine Mulholland, Angelika Tritscher, Philippe Verger, Mary Kenny, Catherine Bessy, Sarah De Saeger
This research aimed at evaluating the safety, and the type, level and prevalence of mycotoxins in grain sorghum of four sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Mali and Sudan). A multi-analyte LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 23 mycotoxins (nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, neosolaniol, 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, roquefortine C, HT-2 toxin, alternariol, T-2 toxin, FB1, FB2, FB3, zearalenone, aflatoxin G1 , aflatoxin G2 , aflatoxin B1 , aflatoxin B2 , sterigmatocystin, OTA, altenuene, alternariol monomethylether) was applied to different sorghum matrices...
June 18, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Kyung-Tae Shin, Jing Guo, Ying-Jie Niu, Xiang-Shun Cui
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a type of mycotoxin produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. AFB1 is considered as the most toxic mycotoxin owing to its toxic effect on health. In the present study, the toxic effect of AFB1 on early porcine embryonic development and its possible mechanism were investigated. Blastocyst formation was impaired with treatment of 1 nM AFB1 compared with control, 0.01, 0.1 group (40.13 ± 2.10%, 28.21 ± 1.62%, 32.34 ± 2.07% vs 19.01 ± 1.06%)...
June 8, 2018: Theriogenology
Shujuan Sun, Kai Yao, Sijun Zhao, Pimiao Zheng, Sihan Wang, Yuyang Zeng, Demei Liang, Yuebin Ke, Haiyang Jiang
Six aflatoxins (AFs; AF B1 , B2 , G1 , G2 , M1 and M2 ) and six zearalenone (ZEN) analogs (ZEN, zearalanone, α-zeralanol, β-zeralanol, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol) were simultaneously extracted from edible and medicinal herbs using a group-specific immunoaffinity column (IAC) and then identified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The IAC was prepared by coupling N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated Sepharose 4B Fast Flow gel with two group-specific monoclonal antibodies...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Jalil Mehrzad, Abbas Bahari, Mohammad Reza Bassami, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Hesam Dehghani
We assessed the effects of naturally occurring levels of AFB1 on the expression of key immune molecules and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) by cell culture, RT-qPCR, and flow cytometry. Data here revealed that an environmentally relevant level of AFB1 led to remarkably weakened key functional capacity of DCs, up-regulation of key transcripts and DCs apoptosis, down-regulation of key phagocytic element, CD64, and creation of pseudolicensing direction of DCs. Flow cytometry data confirmed a damage towards DCs, i...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Mohammad Khodadadi, Akbar Malekpour, Masoud A Mehrgardi
Aptamers, due to the inherently high selectivity towards target analytes, are promising candidate for surface modification of the nanoparticles. Therefore, aptamer-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (AMNPs) was prepared and used to develop a magnetic solid-phase extraction procedure for clean-up of milk and dairy products samples before measuring the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contents by the high-performance liquid chromatography. The prepared sorbent was characterized by different instrumental methods such as FT-IR, FESEM, TEM, EDX and AGFM...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Nannan Qiu, Chunli Deng, Shuang Zhou, Yunfeng Zhao, Shuo Zhang, Yongning Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate contamination levels of 10 mycotoxins in human breast milk from 15 provinces in China. METHODS: The human milk breast samples were collected from 15 provinces in China by aid of the second National Breast Milk Survey. After the pooled samples were made, concentrations of 10 main mycotoxins in breast milk pooled samples were measured by a UPLC-MS/MS with isotope dilution. RESULTS: aflatoxins B_1, aflatoxins M_1, deoxynivalenol, deepoxydeoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2 were detected in breast milk samples of some provinces, while zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol and ochratoxin A were not detected in all the samples...
January 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Jamal Rahmani, Solmaz Alipour, Ali Miri, Yadolah Fakhri, Seyed-Mohammad Riahi, Hassan Keramati, Masoud Moradi, Nazak Amanidaz, Rokhsane Hosseini Pouya, Zohreh Bahmani, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
The current investigation was undertaken to take a review of the performed studies regarding the concentration and prevalence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) of the consumed cow milk in the Middle East. In this context, all available studies published in databases include Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science among 1995 to December 2017; were screened accordingly. Also, the carcinogenic risk was estimated by calculating hazard index (HI) using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The result of conducted meta-analysis for 49 articles containing 7484 data indicated that the rank order of type of milk based on the concentration of aflatoxin M1 was Ultra-high temperature processing (UHT) milk (82...
June 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Cong Lv, Ping Wang, Longxue Ma, Mumin Zheng, Yang Liu, Fuguo Xing
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ), which is mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus , is the most toxic and hepatocarcinogenic polyketide known. Chemical fungicides are currently utilized to reduce this fungal contaminant, but they are potentially harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural anti-aflatoxigenic products are used as sustainable alternatives to control food and feed contamination. For example, eugenol, presents in many essential oils, has been identified as an aflatoxin inhibitor...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jun Zhou, Lili Tang, Jincheng Wang, Jia-Sheng Wang
In this study, male F344 rats were orally exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at 0, 5, 25, and 75 μg/kg for four weeks. Rat feces were collected from 2-4 weeks following exposure and were assessed for gut-microbiota dependent metabolites. Gut-microbiota related organic acids were quantitated in the feces using 2-nitrophenylhydrazine derivatization coupled HPLC-profiling method which was validated and showed good reliability, accuracy and sensitivity. After 2-week exposure, AFB1 significantly reduced the levels of fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with an over 70% reduction in the high-dose group (75 μg/kg)...
April 20, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Hongmei Liu, Anxiang Lu, Hailong Fu, Bingru Li, Meihua Yang, Jihua Wang, Yunxia Luan
A novel adsorbent is described for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of the aflatoxins AFB1 and AFB2 (AFBs). Magnetic agarose microspheres (MAMs) were functionalized with an aptamer to bind the AFBs which then were quantified by HPLC and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization with fluorescence detection. Streptavidin-conjugated MAMs were synthesized first by a highly reproducible strategy. They possess strong magnetism and high surface area. The MAMs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, laser diffraction particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, vibrating sample magnetometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy...
June 12, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Tugrul Kaymak, Ercan Koca, Mustafa Atak, Ercan Sarikaya, Joerg Stroka
Background: Tarhana is a traditional fermented, sun-dried Turkish food containing yogurtand cereals. There are several potential sources of mycotoxins in tarhana, such as contamination of ingredients or formation during preparation, when water activity is suitable for fungal growth and may lead to mycotoxin production during fermentation or subsequent sun-drying. Objective: To optimize an immunoaffinity column method and carry out single-laboratory validation for the determination of aflatoxins B1 , B₂, G1 , and G₂ together with ochratoxin A (OTA) in tarhana...
June 12, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Sabrina O Garcia, Ana Carla P Feltrin, Jaqueline Garda-Buffon
The peroxidase (POD) enzyme, obtained from different sources, has been described in the literature regarding its good results of reduction in concentration or degradation levels of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. This study aimed at evaluating the action of commercial peroxidase and peroxidase from soybean bran (SB) and rice bran (RB) in zearalenone (ZEA) reduction in a model solution and the characterization of the mechanism of enzyme action. POD was extracted from SB and RB in phosphate buffer by orbital agitation...
June 11, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
M Norlia, S Jinap, M A R Nor-Khaizura, R Son, C K Chin, Sardjono
Peanuts are widely consumed as the main ingredient in many local dishes in Malaysia. However, the tropical climate in Malaysia (high temperature and humidity) favours the growth of fungi from Aspergillus section Flavi, especially during storage. Most of the species from this section, such as A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, are natural producers of aflatoxins. Precise identification of local isolates and information regarding their ability to produce aflatoxins are very important to evaluate the safety of food marketed in Malaysia...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Johana Ortiz, Liesbeth Jacxsens, Gabriela Astudillo, Adriana Ballesteros, Silvana Donoso, Lieven Huybregts, Bruno De Meulenaer
The dietary exposure to mycotoxins in Ecuadorian children aged 0-23 months (320 rural and 603 urban) was evaluated based on the intake of breast milk and staple cereals used as complementary/weaning foods. A probabilistic distribution approach by first order Monte Carlo simulation was adopted to assess the locally occurring mycotoxins (aflatoxins M1 and B1 in breast milk, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in wheat noodles and oat flakes, and HT-2 toxin in polished rice). Overall, exposure was modest but higher for rural children due to their monotonous diet...
June 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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