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Olivier Dutour
Paleopathology studies the traces of disease on human and animal remains from ancient times. Infectious diseases have been, for over a century, one of its main fields of interest. The applications of paleogenetics methods to microbial aDNA, that started in the 90s combined to the recent development of new sequencing techniques allowing 'paleogenomics' approaches, have completely renewed the issue of the infections in the past. These advances open up new challenges in the understanding of the evolution of human-pathogen relationships, integrated in "One Health" concept...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Helen D Donoghue
Tuberculosis is a significant global disease today, so understanding its origins and history is important. It is primarily a lung infection and is transmitted by infectious aerosols from person to person, so a high population density encourages its spread. The causative organism is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen in the M. tuberculosis complex that also contains closely related species, such as Mycobacterium bovis, that primarily infect animals. Typical bone lesions occur in about 5% of untreated infections...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Bruna Benso, Marcelo Franchin, Adna Prado Massarioli, Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal, Severino Matias Alencar, Gilson Cesar Nobre Franco, Pedro Luiz Rosalen
Given their medical importance, natural products represent a tremendous source of drug discovery. The aim of this study was to investigate Malva sylvestris L. extract and fractions and their pharmacological activities followed by chemical identification. The aqueous fraction (AF) was identified as the bioactive fraction in the in vitro and in vivo assays. The AF controlled the neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity by 66%, inhibited the antiedematogenic activity by 58.8%, and controlled IL-1β cytokine expression by 54%...
2016: PloS One
Alexander Immel, Adeline Le Cabec, Marion Bonazzi, Alexander Herbig, Heiko Temming, Verena J Schuenemann, Kirsten I Bos, Frauke Langbein, Katerina Harvati, Anne Bridault, Gilbert Pion, Marie-Anne Julien, Oleksandra Krotova, Nicholas J Conard, Susanne C Münzel, Dorothée G Drucker, Bence Viola, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Paul Tafforeau, Johannes Krause
Sub-fossilised remains may still contain highly degraded ancient DNA (aDNA) useful for palaeogenetic investigations. Whether X-ray computed [micro-] tomography ([μ]CT) imaging of these fossils may further damage aDNA remains debated. Although the effect of X-ray on DNA in living organisms is well documented, its impact on aDNA molecules is unexplored. Here we investigate the effects of synchrotron X-ray irradiation on aDNA from Pleistocene bones. A clear correlation appears between decreasing aDNA quantities and accumulating X-ray dose-levels above 2000 Gray (Gy)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Montgomery Slatkin
In the past few years, the number of autosomal DNA sequences from human fossils has grown explosively and numerous partial or complete sequences are available from our closest relatives, Neanderthal and Denisovans. I review commonly used statistical methods applied to these sequences. These methods fall into three broad classes: methods for estimating levels of contamination, descriptive methods, and methods based on population genetic models. The latter two classes are largely methods developed for the analysis of present-day genomic data...
September 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Paweł Berczyński, Aleksandra Kładna, Irena Kruk, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
The aim of this study was to characterize the antioxidant activity of penicillin G (PG), ampicillin (AMP), oxacillin (OX) and dicloxacillin (DOX) through their reactivity towards reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion radical, O2•̅; hydroxyl radical, HO(•) ; peroxyl radical, ROO(•) ; hydrogen peroxide, H2 O2 ; DPPH(•) ) using various in vitro antioxidant assays with chemiluminescence (CL) and spectrophotometry as measurement techniques. In hydroxyl radical assays , PG, OX and AMP were found to inhibit the CL signal arising from the Fenton-like reaction in a dose-dependent manner with IC50  = 0...
August 11, 2016: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Andrzej Dobradin
Masywne krwawienie z przewodu pokarmowego prezentuje kompleksowy problem diagnostyczny i terapeutyczny. Dokładna identyfikacja miejsca krwawienia jest skomplikowana i chirurgiczna resekcja miejsca krwawienia jest trudne. Angiografii używanej do lokalizacji i embolizacji miejscu krwawienia w krążeniu krezkowym brakuje skuteczności ze względu na skomplikowaną sieć zespolenia naczyń krwionośnych zaopatrujących jelito cienkie. Przedoperacyjnie umieszczenie microcoil dla fluoroskopowo kierowanej laparoskopowej resekcji jelita cienkiego zostało wykorzystane w przypadku 58-letniej kobiety leczonej chemioterapią z użyciem idarubicyny i cytarabiny...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Irina Morozova, Pavel Flegontov, Alexander S Mikheyev, Sergey Bruskin, Hosseinali Asgharian, Petr Ponomarenko, Vladimir Klyuchnikov, GaneshPrasad ArunKumar, Egor Prokhortchouk, Yuriy Gankin, Evgeny Rogaev, Yuri Nikolsky, Ancha Baranova, Eran Elhaik, Tatiana V Tatarinova
The term 'ancient DNA' (aDNA) is coming of age, with over 1,200 hits in the PubMed database, beginning in the early 1980s with the studies of 'molecular paleontology'. Rooted in cloning and limited sequencing of DNA from ancient remains during the pre-PCR era, the field has made incredible progress since the introduction of PCR and next-generation sequencing. Over the last decade, aDNA analysis ushered in a new era in genomics and became the method of choice for reconstructing the history of organisms, their biogeography, and migration routes, with applications in evolutionary biology, population genetics, archaeogenetics, paleo-epidemiology, and many other areas...
August 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Ana Flavia Rodrigues da Silva, Jeniffer de Cássia Rillo Dutka, Adna Maressa Pereira do Amaral, Maíra de Souza Périco, Maria Inês Pegoraro-Krook
OBJECTIVE:  To describe and compare measures of velar length, velar thickness, and depth of the nasopharynx between two groups of patients with velopharyngeal dysfunction after primary palatoplasty: one received the modified Langenbeck procedure and the other the Furlow procedure. DESIGN:  Comparative study involving a convenience sample of videofluoroscopic films established prospectively. SETTING:  Surgeries and videofluoroscopic assessments were conducted at a craniofacial center...
July 18, 2016: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Serkan Doğan, Gŭlşen Doğan, Adna Ašić, Larisa Besić, Biljana Klimenta, Mirsada Hukić, Yusuf Turan, Dragan Primorac, Damir Marjanović
Analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroup distribution is widely used when investigating geographical clustering of different populations, which is why it plays an important role in population genetics, human migration patterns and even in forensic investigations. Individual determination of these haplogroups is mostly based on the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers located in the non-recombining part of Y-chromosome (NRY). On the other hand, the number of forensic and anthropology studies investigating short tandem repeats on the Y-chromosome (Y-STRs) increases rapidly every year...
April 2016: Collegium Antropologicum
Abigail Bouwman, Frank Rühli
Archaeogenetics is the study of exploration of ancient DNA (aDNA) of more than 70 years old. It is an important part of the wider studies of many different areas of our past, including animal, plant and pathogen evolution and domestication events. Hereby, we address specifically the impact of research in archaeogenetics in the broader field of evolutionary medicine. Studies on ancient hominid genomes help to understand even modern health patterns. Human genetic microevolution, e.g. related to abilities of post-weaning milk consumption, and specifically genetic adaptation in disease susceptibility, e...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Nicole L Boivin, Melinda A Zeder, Dorian Q Fuller, Alison Crowther, Greger Larson, Jon M Erlandson, Tim Denham, Michael D Petraglia
The exhibition of increasingly intensive and complex niche construction behaviors through time is a key feature of human evolution, culminating in the advanced capacity for ecosystem engineering exhibited by Homo sapiens A crucial outcome of such behaviors has been the dramatic reshaping of the global biosphere, a transformation whose early origins are increasingly apparent from cumulative archaeological and paleoecological datasets. Such data suggest that, by the Late Pleistocene, humans had begun to engage in activities that have led to alterations in the distributions of a vast array of species across most, if not all, taxonomic groups...
June 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Montgomery Slatkin, Fernando Racimo
We review studies of genomic data obtained by sequencing hominin fossils with particular emphasis on the unique information that ancient DNA (aDNA) can provide about the demographic history of humans and our closest relatives. We concentrate on nuclear genomic sequences that have been published in the past few years. In many cases, particularly in the Arctic, the Americas, and Europe, aDNA has revealed historical demographic patterns in a way that could not be resolved by analyzing present-day genomes alone...
June 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Karl-Göran Sjögren, T Douglas Price, Kristian Kristiansen
Isotopic investigations of two cemetery populations from the Corded Ware Culture in southern Germany reveal new information on the dating of these graves, human diet during this period, and individual mobility. Corded Ware Culture was present across much of temperate Europe ca. 2800-2200 cal. BC and is represented by distinctive artifacts and burial practices. Corded Ware was strongly influenced by the Yamnaya Culture that arose in the steppes of eastern Europe and western Eurasia after 3000 BC, as indicated by recent aDNA research...
2016: PloS One
T Lech
Historical parchments in the form of documents, manuscripts, books, or letters, make up a large portion of cultural heritage collections. Their priceless historical value is associated with not only their content, but also the information hidden in the DNA deposited on them. Analyses of ancient DNA (aDNA) retrieved from parchments can be used in various investigations, including, but not limited to, studying their authentication, tracing the development of the culture, diplomacy, and technology, as well as obtaining information on the usage and domestication of animals...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Khadidja Z Klouch, Sabine Schmidt, Françoise Andrieux-Loyer, Mickaël Le Gac, Dominique Hervio-Heath, Zujaila N Qui-Minet, Julien Quéré, Estelle Bigeard, Laure Guillou, Raffaele Siano
The multiannual dynamic of the cyst-forming and toxic marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum was studied over a time scale of about 150 years by a paleoecological approach based on ancient DNA (aDNA) quantification and cyst revivification data obtained from two dated sediment cores of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France). The first genetic traces of the species presence in the study area dated back to 1873 ± 6. Specific aDNA could be quantified by a newly developed real-time PCR assay in the upper core layers, in which the germination of the species (in up to 17-19-year-old sediments) was also obtained...
July 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Maximilian Kothe, Verena Seidenberg, Susanne Hummel, Oliver Piskurek
BACKGROUND: As Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs), human-specific Alu elements can be used for population genetic studies. Very recent inserts are polymorphic within and between human populations. In a sample of 30 elements originating from three different Alu subfamilies, we investigated whether they are preserved in prehistorical skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. In the present study, we examined a prehistoric triad of father, mother and daughter...
2016: Mobile DNA
Charlotte J Houldcroft, Simon J Underdown
High quality Altai Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes are revealing which regions of archaic hominin DNA have persisted in the modern human genome. A number of these regions are associated with response to infection and immunity, with a suggestion that derived Neanderthal alleles found in modern Europeans and East Asians may be associated with autoimmunity. As such Neanderthal genomes are an independent line of evidence of which infectious diseases Neanderthals were genetically adapted to. Sympathetically, human genome adaptive introgression is an independent line of evidence of which infectious diseases were important for AMH coming in to Eurasia and interacting with Neanderthals...
July 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Miriam Mabel Selani, Andreia Bianchini, Wajira S Ratnayake, Rolando A Flores, Adna Prado Massarioli, Severino Matias de Alencar, Solange Guidolin Canniatti Brazaca
The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of mango (MAC), pineapple (PAC) and passion fruit (PFC) co-products in order to evaluate them as ingredients for food application. Proximate composition showed low fat content (0.95-5.64 g/100 g), and high levels of dietary fiber. In pineapple and passion fruit co-products, dietary fiber represented more than 50 % of the sample. Low pH, water activity, along with high acidity indicated that these co-products would not be easily susceptible to deterioration as food ingredients...
June 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Adna Halilovic, Thore Schmedt, Anne-Sophie Benischke, Cecily Hamill, Yuming Chen, Janine Hertzog Santos, Ula V Jurkunas
AIMS: Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), a leading cause of age-related corneal edema requiring transplantation, is characterized by rosette formation of corneal endothelium with ensuing apoptosis. We sought to determine whether excess of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species leads to chronic accumulation of oxidative DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, instigating cell death. RESULTS: We modeled the pathognomonic rosette formation of postmitotic corneal cells by increasing endogenous cellular oxidative stress with menadione (MN) and performed a temporal analysis of its effect in normal (HCEnC, HCECi) and FECD (FECDi) cells and ex vivo specimens...
June 20, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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