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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447579/double-gene-targeting-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-crocodylus-porosus-in-commercial-products
#1
Nina Naquiah, Md Eaqub Ali, M A Motalib Hossain, Sharmin Sultana, Mohammad Nasir Uddin Ahamad
The demand for crocodile meat is quickly growing because of its exotic and organoleptic appeal and also low content of cholesterol and lipids. Moreover, crocodile oil and blood have been used in alternative medicines for treating asthma and several other ailments since ancient times. Furthermore, crocodile hides have great demand in leather industries. All of these have collectively contributed to the extensive hunting, illegal trading and consequent decline of crocodiles in most parts of the world. To keep space with the growing demands, some crocodile species such as Crocodylus porosus have been raised in farms and its commercial trades have been legalized...
February 15, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443947/vertebrate-genome-evolution-in-the-light-of-fish-cytogenomics-and-rdnaomics
#2
REVIEW
Radka Symonová, W Mike Howell
To understand the cytogenomic evolution of vertebrates, we must first unravel the complex genomes of fishes, which were the first vertebrates to evolve and were ancestors to all other vertebrates. We must not forget the immense time span during which the fish genomes had to evolve. Fish cytogenomics is endowed with unique features which offer irreplaceable insights into the evolution of the vertebrate genome. Due to the general DNA base compositional homogeneity of fish genomes, fish cytogenomics is largely based on mapping DNA repeats that still represent serious obstacles in genome sequencing and assembling, even in model species...
February 14, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440415/coprolites-reveal-ecological-interactions-lost-with-the-extinction-of-new-zealand-birds
#3
Alexander P Boast, Laura S Weyrich, Jamie R Wood, Jessica L Metcalf, Rob Knight, Alan Cooper
Over the past 50,000 y, biotic extinctions and declines have left a legacy of vacant niches and broken ecological interactions across global terrestrial ecosystems. Reconstructing the natural, unmodified ecosystems that preceded these events relies on high-resolution analyses of paleoecological deposits. Coprolites are a source of uniquely detailed information about trophic interactions and the behaviors, gut parasite communities, and microbiotas of prehistoric animal species. Such insights are critical for understanding the legacy effects of extinctions on ecosystems, and can help guide contemporary conservation and ecosystem restoration efforts...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438388/ancient-dna-analysis-of-indigenous-rockfish-use-on-the-pacific-coast-implications-for-marine-conservation-areas-and-fisheries-management
#4
Antonia T Rodrigues, Iain McKechnie, Dongya Y Yang
Rockfish (Sebastes spp.) are a common marine fish in nearshore and continental shelf environments in the North Pacific Ocean. They are frequently identified in coastal archaeological sites in western North America; however, the morphological similarity of rockfish species limits conventional zooarchaeological identifications to the genus level. This study applies ancient DNA analysis to 96 archaeological rockfish specimens from four sites on separate islands in an archipelago on western Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436536/quantum-dots-for-a-high-throughput-pfu-polymerase-based-multi-round-polymerase-chain-reaction-pcr
#5
Fuming Sang, Zhizhou Zhang, Lin Yuan, Deli Liu
Multi-round PCR is an important technique for obtaining enough target DNA from rare DNA resources, and is commonly used in many fields including forensic science, ancient DNA analysis and cancer research. However, multi-round PCR is often aborted, largely due to the accumulation of non-specific amplification during repeated amplifications. Here, we developed a Pfu polymerase based multi-round PCR technique assisted by quantum dots (QDs). Different PCR assays, DNA polymerases (Pfu and Taq), DNA sizes and GC amounts were compared in this study...
February 13, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428440/melatonin-a-cutaneous-perspective-on-its-production-metabolism-and-functions
#6
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Ruediger Hardeland, Michal A Zmijewski, Radomir M Slominski, Russel J Reiter, Ralf Paus
Melatonin, an evolutionarily ancient derivative of serotonin with hormonal properties, is the main neuroendocrine secretory product of the pineal gland. Although melatonin is best known to regulate circadian rhythmicity and lower vertebrate skin pigmentation, the full spectrum of functional activities of this free radical-scavenging molecule, which also induces/promotes complex antioxidative and DNA repair systems, includes immunomodulatory, thermoregulatory, and antitumor properties. Because this plethora of functional melatonin properties still awaits to be fully appreciated by dermatologists, the current review synthesizes the main features that render melatonin a promising candidate for the management of several dermatoses associated with substantial oxidative damage...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427634/mucuna-pruriens-l-dc-chemo-sensitize-human-breast-cancer-cells-via-downregulation-of-prolactin-mediated-jak2-stat5a-signaling
#7
Sonam Sinha, Sonal Sharma, Jaykant Vora, Heta Shah, Anshu Srivastava, Neeta Shrivastava
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC (MP) is an ancient Indian medicinal plant traditionally used to treat Parkinson's disease. L-Dopa (LD), precursor of dopamine is abundantly found in the seeds of MP. L-dopa is a natural inhibitor of prolactin (PRL) hormone which is required to maintain lactation in women but it's over production (hyperprolactinemia) plays critical role in advancement of breast cancer. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aim to examine the pharmacological effect of LD and MP on this hyperprolactinemia associated breast cancer and related signaling for effective management of the disease...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426903/identifying-source-populations-for-the-reintroduction-of-the-eurasian-beaver-castor-fiber-l-1758-into-britain-evidence-from-ancient-dna
#8
Melissa M Marr, Selina Brace, Danielle C Schreve, Ian Barnes
Establishing true phylogenetic relationships between populations is a critical consideration when sourcing individuals for translocation. This presents huge difficulties with threatened and endangered species that have become extirpated from large areas of their former range. We utilise ancient DNA (aDNA) to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of a keystone species which has become extinct in Britain, the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber. We sequenced seventeen 492 bp partial tRNAPro and control region sequences from Late Pleistocene and Holocene age beavers and included these in network, demographic and genealogy analyses...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412519/high-throughput-dna-sequencing-of-ancient-wood
#9
Stefanie Wagner, Frédéric Lagane, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Mikkel Schubert, Thibault Leroy, Erwan Guichoux, Emilie Chancerel, Inger Bech-Hebelstrup, Vincent Bernard, Cyrille Billard, Yves Billaud, Matthias Bolliger, Christophe Croutsch, Katarina Čufar, Frédérique Eynaud, Karl Uwe Heussner, Joachim Köninger, Fabien Langenegger, Frédéric Leroy, Christine Lima, Nicoletta Martinelli, Garry Momber, André Billamboz, Oliver Nelle, Antoni Palomo, Raquel Piqué, Marianne Ramstein, Roswitha Schweichel, Harald Stäuble, Willy Tegel, Xavier Terradas, Florence Verdin, Christophe Plomion, Antoine Kremer, Ludovic Orlando
Reconstructing the colonization and demographic dynamics that gave rise to extant forests is essential to forecasts of forest responses to environmental changes. Classical approaches to map how population of trees changed through space and time largely rely on pollen distribution patterns, with only a limited number of studies exploiting DNA molecules preserved in wooden tree archaeological and subfossil remains. Here, we advance such analyses by applying high throughput (HTS) DNA sequencing to wood archaeological and subfossil material for the first time, using a comprehensive sample of 167 European white oak waterlogged remains spanning a large temporal (from 550 to 9,800 years) and geographical range across Europe...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410864/diversity-of-management-strategies-in-mesoamerican-turkeys-archaeological-isotopic-and-genetic-evidence
#10
Aurelie Manin, Eduardo Corona-M, Michelle Alexander, Abigail Craig, Erin Kennedy Thornton, Dongya Y Yang, Michael Richards, Camilla F Speller
The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) represents one of the few domestic animals of the New World. While current research points to distinct domestication centres in the Southwest USA and Mesoamerica, several questions regarding the number of progenitor populations, and the timing and intensity of turkey husbandry remain unanswered. This study applied ancient mitochondrial DNA and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) analysis to 55 archaeological turkey remains from Mexico to investigate pre-contact turkey exploitation in Mesoamerica...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410676/the-geographic-origins-of-ethnic-groups-in-the-indian-subcontinent-exploring-ancient-footprints-with-y-dna-haplogroups
#11
David G Mahal, Ianis G Matsoukas
Several studies have evaluated the movements of large populations to the Indian subcontinent; however, the ancient geographic origins of smaller ethnic communities are not clear. Although historians have attempted to identify the origins of some ethnic groups, the evidence is typically anecdotal and based upon what others have written before. In this study, recent developments in DNA science were assessed to provide a contemporary perspective by analyzing the Y chromosome haplogroups of some key ethnic groups and tracing their ancient geographical origins from genetic markers on the Y-DNA haplogroup tree...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402214/sequence-analysis-of-european-maize-inbred-line-f2-provides-new-insights-into-molecular-and-chromosomal-characteristics-of-presence-absence-variants
#12
Aude Darracq, Clémentine Vitte, Stéphane Nicolas, Jorge Duarte, Jean-Philippe Pichon, Tristan Mary-Huard, Céline Chevalier, Aurélie Bérard, Marie-Christine Le Paslier, Peter Rogowsky, Alain Charcosset, Johann Joets
BACKGROUND: Maize is well known for its exceptional structural diversity, including copy number variants (CNVs) and presence/absence variants (PAVs), and there is growing evidence for the role of structural variation in maize adaptation. While PAVs have been described in this important crop species, they have been only scarcely characterized at the sequence level and the extent of presence/absence variation and relative chromosomal landscape of inbred-specific regions remain to be elucidated...
February 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399779/archaeogenetics-of-late-iron-age-%C3%A3-emialo-s%C3%A4-rt%C3%A4-batman-investigating-maternal-genetic-continuity-in-north-mesopotamia-since-the-neolithic
#13
Reyhan Yaka, Ayşegül Birand, Yasemin Yılmaz, Ceren Caner, Sinan Can Açan, Sidar Gündüzalp, Poorya Parvizi, Aslı Erim Özdoğan, İnci Togan, Mehmet Somel
OBJECTIVES: North Mesopotamia has witnessed dramatic social change during the Holocene, but the impact of these events on its demographic history is poorly understood. Here, we study this question by analysing genetic data from the recently excavated Late Iron Age settlement of Çemialo Sırtı in Batman, southeast Turkey. Archaeological and radiocarbon evidence indicate that the site was inhabited during the second and first millennia BCE. Çemialo Sırtı reveals nomadic items of the Early Iron Age, as well as items associated with the Late Achaemenid and subsequent Hellenistic Periods...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395378/insights-into-modern-human-prehistory-using-ancient-genomes
#14
REVIEW
Melinda A Yang, Qiaomei Fu
The genetic relationship of past modern humans to today's populations and each other was largely unknown until recently, when advances in ancient DNA sequencing allowed for unprecedented analysis of the genomes of these early people. These ancient genomes reveal new insights into human prehistory not always observed studying present-day populations, including greater details on the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow that characterized past human populations, particularly in early Eurasia, as well as increased insight on the relationship between archaic and modern humans...
December 22, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391530/inferring-genetic-origins-and-phenotypic-traits-of-george-b%C3%A3-hr-the-architect-of-the-dresden-frauenkirche
#15
Alexander Peltzer, Alissa Mittnik, Chuan-Chao Wang, Tristan Begg, Cosimo Posth, Kay Nieselt, Johannes Krause
For historic individuals, the outward appearance and other phenotypic characteristics remain often non-resolved. Unfortunately, images or detailed written sources are only scarcely available in many cases. Attempts to study historic individuals with genetic data so far focused on hypervariable regions of mitochondrial DNA and to some extent on complete mitochondrial genomes. To elucidate the potential of in-solution based genome-wide SNP capture methods - as now widely applied in population genetics - we extracted DNA from the 17th century remains of George Bähr, the architect of the Dresdner Frauenkirche...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385286/the-fate-of-ribosomal-rna-genes-in-spontaneous-polyploid-dogrose-hybrids-rosa-l-sect-caninae-dc-ser-exhibiting-non-symmetrical-meiosis
#16
Veit Herklotz, Aleš Kovařík, Jana Lunerová, Susan Lippitsch, Marco Groth, Christiane M Ritz
Dogroses represent an exceptional system for studying the effects of genome doubling and hybridization: their asymmetrical meiosis enables recombination in bi-parentally inherited chromosomes but prevents it in maternally inherited ones. We employed fluorescent in situ hybridization, genome skimming, amplicon sequencing of genomic and cDNA as well as conventional cloning of nuclear ribosomal DNA in two phylogenetically distinct pentaploid (2n = 5x = 35) species, Rosa canina and R. inodora, and their naturally occurring reciprocal hybrids, R...
January 31, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384680/a-comparison-of-common-mass-spectrometry-approaches-for-paleoproteomics
#17
Timothy P Cleland, Elena R Schroeter
The last two decades have seen a broad diversity of methods used to identify and/or characterize proteins in the archeological and paleontological record. Of these, mass spectrometry has opened an unprecedented window into the proteomes of the past, providing protein sequence data from long extinct animals as well as historical and prehistorical artifacts. Thus, application of mass spectrometry to fossil remains has become an attractive source for ancient molecular sequences with which to conduct evolutionary studies, particularly in specimens older than the proposed limit of amplifiable DNA detection...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382937/the-genetic-prehistory-of-the-baltic-sea-region
#18
Alissa Mittnik, Chuan-Chao Wang, Saskia Pfrengle, Mantas Daubaras, Gunita Zariņa, Fredrik Hallgren, Raili Allmäe, Valery Khartanovich, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Mari Tõrv, Anja Furtwängler, Aida Andrades Valtueña, Michal Feldman, Christos Economou, Markku Oinonen, Andrejs Vasks, Elena Balanovska, David Reich, Rimantas Jankauskas, Wolfgang Haak, Stephan Schiffels, Johannes Krause
While the series of events that shaped the transition between foraging societies and food producers are well described for Central and Southern Europe, genetic evidence from Northern Europe surrounding the Baltic Sea is still sparse. Here, we report genome-wide DNA data from 38 ancient North Europeans ranging from ~9500 to 2200 years before present. Our analysis provides genetic evidence that hunter-gatherers settled Scandinavia via two routes. We reveal that the first Scandinavian farmers derive their ancestry from Anatolia 1000 years earlier than previously demonstrated...
January 30, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382278/mediterranean-y-chromosome-2-0-why-the-y-in-the-mediterranean-is-still-relevant-in-the-postgenomic-era
#19
Maarten H D Larmuseau, Claudio Ottoni
CONTEXT: Due to its unique paternal inheritance, the Y-chromosome has been a highly popular marker among population geneticists for over two decades. Recently, the advent of cost-effective genome-wide methods has unlocked information-rich autosomal genomic data, paving the way to the postgenomic era. This seems to have announced the decreasing popularity of investigating Y-chromosome variation, which provides only the paternal perspective of human ancestries and is strongly influenced by genetic drift and social behaviour...
February 2018: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375799/partitioning-of-herbivore-hosts-across-time-and-food-plants-promotes-diversification-in-the-megastigmus-dorsalis-oak-gall-parasitoid-complex
#20
James A Nicholls, Karsten Schönrogge, Sonja Preuss, Graham N Stone
Communities of insect herbivores and their natural enemies are rich and ecologically crucial components of terrestrial biodiversity. Understanding the processes that promote their origin and maintenance is thus of considerable interest. One major proposed mechanism is ecological speciation through host-associated differentiation (HAD), the divergence of a polyphagous species first into ecological host races and eventually into more specialized daughter species. The rich chalcid parasitoid communities attacking cynipid oak gall wasp hosts are structured by multiple host traits, including food plant taxon, host gall phenology, and gall structure...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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