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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792933/role-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-slowly-progressive-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-in-the-zitter-rat
#1
Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Kanji Yoshimoto, Shuichi Ueda
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration. However, little is known about the distribution patterns and functions of nNOS in slowly progressive DA neurodegeneration. Here we describe the spatiotemporal change in nNOS expression over the course of neurodegeneration and the effect of short- or long-term treatment with the nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), in zitter (zi/zi) rats. In the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), nNOS expression was significantly increased with progression of neurodegeneration...
May 21, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792848/subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-protects-neurons-by-activating-autophagy-via-pp2a-inactivation-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Ting-Ting Du, Ying-Chuan Chen, Yong-Quan Lu, Fan-Gang Meng, Hui Yang, Jian-Guo Zhang
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective therapeutic strategy for alleviating disability in patients with moderate to severe Parkinson's disease (PD). Preclinical studies have shown that stimulation of the rat STN can protect against nigral dopaminergic neuron loss. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. To investigate the molecular basis of the neuroprotective effects of STN stimulation, a rat model of PD was established by unilaterally injecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789374/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-spontaneously-active-bursty-gabaergic-interneuron-in-the-mouse-striatum
#3
Maxime Assous, Thomas W Faust, Robert Assini, Fulva Shah, Yacouba Sidibe, James M Tepper
The recent availability of different transgenic mouse lines coupled with other modern molecular techniques has led to the discovery of an unexpectedly large cellular diversity and synaptic specificity in striatal interneuronal circuitry. Prior research has described three spontaneously active interneuron types in mouse striatal slices; the cholinergic interneuron, the neuropeptide Y-low threshold spike interneuron, and the tyrosine hydroxylase interneurons (THINs). Using transgenic Htr3a-Cre mice we now characterize a fourth population of spontaneously active striatal GABAergic interneurons termed spontaneously active bursty interneurons (SABI) because of their unique burst-firing pattern in cell-attached recordings...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789007/site-dependent-differences-in-the-composite-fibers-of-male-pelvic-plexus-branches-an-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-donated-elderly-cadavers
#4
Kuniyasu Muraoka, Shuichi Morizane, Keisuke Hieda, Masashi Honda, Takehiro Sejima, Gen Murakami, Shin-Ichi Abe, Atsushi Takenaka
BACKGROUND: Although the pelvic autonomic plexus branches are considered to be a mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, little is known regarding the composite fibers of the pelvic plexus branches. This study aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical features of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves in the pelvic autonomic plexus branches. METHODS: Using 10 donated elderly male cadavers, the detailed topohistology of nerve fibers at and around the bladder, seminal vesicle, prostate, and rectum was examined...
May 22, 2018: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783643/hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neurotoxicity-and-neuroinflammation-in-primary-mesencephalic-cultures
#5
Tian Wang, Yu-Xin Ding, Jie He, Cheng-Jun Ma, Yue Zhao, Zhen-Hua Wang, Bing Han
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation triggers and accelerates the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Carthamus tinctorius L., a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A (HSYA) is an active component of C. tinctorius . The purpose of this study was to investigate whether HSYA could attenuate LPS-induced neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation in primary mesencephalic cultures. Cell viability was measured by MTT and LDH assays...
May 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782942/effects-of-light-and-dark-phase-testing-on-the-investigation-of-behavioural-paradigms-in-mice-relevance-for-behavioural-neuroscience
#6
Juliet Richetto, Marcello Polesel, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer
Different timing and light phases are critical factors in behavioural neuroscience, which can greatly affect the experimental outcomes of the performed tests. Despite the fact that time of testing is one of the most common factors that varies across behavioural laboratories, knowledge about the consequences of testing time on behavioural readouts is limited. Thus, in this study we systematically assessed the effect of this factor on the readout of a variety of elementary and recurrent behavioural paradigms in C57Bl/6 mice...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782882/prolonged-increase-in-ser31-tyrosine-hydroxylase-phosphorylation-in-substantia-nigra-following-cessation-of-chronic-methamphetamine
#7
Michael F Salvatore, Vicki A Nejtek, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Methamphetamine (MA) exposure may increase the risk of motor or cognitive impairments similar to Parkinson's disease (PD) by middle age. Although damage to nigrostriatal or mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) neurons may occur during or early after MA exposure, overt PD-like symptoms at a younger age may not manifest due to compensatory mechanisms to maintain DA neurotransmission. One possible compensatory mechanism is increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation. In the rodent PD 6-OHDA model, nigrostriatal lesion decreases TH protein in both striatum and substantia nigra (SN)...
May 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781786/sitagliptin-rescues-memory-deficits-in-parkinsonian-rats-via-upregulating-bdnf-to-prevent-neuron-and-dendritic-spine-loss
#8
Jing Li, Shuhu Zhang, Chenye Li, Mei Li, Lan Ma
OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with high morbidity among adults worldwide that causes tremendous trouble to people's lives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of sitagliptin on PD and its potential mechanism. METHODS: First, the memory of rats in each group was evaluated with the Morris water maze (MWM) test and the passive avoidance test. Then, both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and mRNA levels were detected by ELISA and qPCR assays, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779114/general-sources-of-dopamine-as-a-potential-morphogenic-factor-in-the-developing-striatum-of-rats
#9
A I Kurtova, L K Dil'mukhametova, E R Mingazov, M V Ugrumov
In the striatum of rats at different stages of development, we determined the content of tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino acids decarboxylase using double immunohistochemical labeling and estimated the expression level of their transcripts by real-time PCR. We found that, in different periods of development, there are three sources of dopamine in the striatum of rats: bienzymatic nerve fibers (throughout ontogeny), bienzymatic neurons (appear on day 18 of embryonic development), and monoenzymatic neurons (in adult animals)...
March 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779103/dopamine-synthesis-as-a-mechanism-of-brain-plasticity-in-nigrostriatal-system-pathology
#10
A A Kolacheva, M V Ugrumov
Using an experimental Parkinson's disease model (symptoms develop in mice after the injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), we studied the characteristics of the synthesis of dopamine as a possible compensatory mechanism aimed at maintaining the dopamine level in the dopaminergic neurons that survived in this pathology. We found no correlation between the content and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nigrostriatal system. The enzyme activity and the dopamine content showed unidirectional changes in the substantia nigra, but not in the striatum, which is apparently due to triggering other compensatory mechanisms...
March 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778792/valproic-acid-attenuates-manganese-induced-reduction-in-expression-of-glt-1-and-glast-with-concomitant-changes-in-murine-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity
#11
James Johnson, Edward Pajarillo, Pratap Karki, Judong Kim, Deok-Soo Son, Michael Aschner, Eunsook Lee
Exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) causes manganism, a neurological disorder with similar characteristics to those of Parkinson's disease (PD). Valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic, is known to inhibit histone deacetylases and exert neuroprotective effects in many experimental models of neurological disorders. In the present study, we investigated if VPA attenuated Mn-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity and the possible mechanisms involved in VPA's neuroprotection, focusing on modulation of astrocytic glutamate transporters (glutamate aspartate transporter, GLAST and glutamate transporter 1, GLT-1) and histone acetylation in H4 astrocyte culture and mouse models...
May 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778240/the-autonomic-neural-mechanism-of-right-ventricular-outflow-tract-tachycardia
#12
Hung-Yu Chang, Li-Wei Lo, Yu-Ruey Chen, Yu-Hui Chou, Wei-Lun Lin, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Wei-Hsian Yin, An-Ning Feng, Shih-Ann Chen
BACKGROUND: Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) originating from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) are generally considered as benign arrhythmias, with ECG morphology showing LBBB pattern and inferior axis. Pathogenic mechanisms in the genesis of RVOT VT/VPC remain largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the neural mechanism in RVOT ventricular arrhythmias in canine model. METHODS: Twelve mongrel dogs (13.7 ± 1...
July 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778010/exposure-to-cannabinoid-agonist-win-55-212-2-during-early-adolescence-increases-alcohol-preference-and-anxiety-in-cd1-mice
#13
Jimena Laura Frontera, Victoria María Gonzalez Pini, Fernando Luis Messore, Alicia Brusco
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in the modulation of the reward system and participates in the reinforcing effects of different drugs of abuse, including alcohol. The most abundant receptor of the eCB system in the central nervous system is the CB1 receptor (CB1R), which is predominantly expressed in areas involved in drug addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens, the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra and the raphe nucleus. CB1R is expressed in early stages during development, and reaches maximum levels during early adolescence...
May 16, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770121/overexpression-of-thioredoxin-1-blocks-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-through-regulating-the-interaction-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-and-dopamine-systems
#14
Xiang Li, Mengbing Huang, Lihua Yang, Ningning Guo, Xiaoyan Yang, Zhimin Zhang, Ming Bai, Lu Ge, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Ye Li, Jie Bai
Morphine is one kind of opioid, which is currently the most effective widely utilized pain relieving pharmaceutical. Long-term administration of morphine leads to dependence and addiction. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is an important redox regulating protein and works as a neurotrophic cofactor. Our previous study showed that geranylgeranylaceton, an inducer of Trx-1 protected mice from rewarding effects induced by morphine. However, whether overexpression of Trx-1 can block morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice is still unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767672/blockade-of-tlr4-within-the-paraventricular-nucleus-attenuates-blood-pressure-by-regulating-ros-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-prehypertensive-rats
#15
Mo-Lin Wang, Xiao-Jing Yu, Xiao-Guang Li, De-Zhi Pang, Qing Su, Roland Osei Saahene, Hong-Bao Li, Xu-Ying Mao, Kai-Li Liu, Li-Yan Fu, Ying Li, Guo-Qing Zhu, Yu-Ming Kang
Background: Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been implicated in the progression of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. However, the role of TLR4 in the development of prehypertension is uncertain. Methods: Prehypertensive rats were treated with 8% salt for 12 weeks to induce prehypertension. These rats were then given either TAK-242 selective TLR4 blocker, or vehicle by bilateral micro-injection to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity were recorded...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766510/ineffectiveness-of-saxagliptin-as-a-neuroprotective-drug-in-6-ohda-lesioned-rats
#16
Joelle de Melo Turnes, Taysa Bervian Bassani, Leonardo C Souza, Maria A B F Vital
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the drug saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor which is utilized for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus, has neuroprotective effects in the animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (weighing 280-300 g) received a bilateral infusion of 6-OHDA in the substantia nigra. Twenty-four hours later, they were treated with saxagliptin (1 mg/kg, p.o) once daily, for 21 days...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761857/downregulated-expression-of-microrna-329-inhibits-apoptosis-of-nigral-dopaminergic-neurons-by-regulating-cdkn2d-expression-via-the-foxo3a-signaling-pathway-in-rats-with-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Yuan-Yuan Liu, Yi-Nan Zhang, Qing-Shan Yang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. This study focuses on the effect of microRNA-329 (miR-329) on nigral dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of PD via the FoxO3a signaling pathway by binding to CDKN2D. Brain tissues from the substantia nigra were taken from the rats in two groups. TUNEL staining was used to observe tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons. Nigral dopaminergic neurons were randomized into the normal, blank, negative control (NC), miR-329 mimics, miR-329 inhibitors, small interfering (siRNA)-CDKN2D, and miR-329 inhibitors + siRNA-CDKN2D groups...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758584/inhibition-of-sympathetic-sprouting-in-ccd-rats-by-lacosamide
#18
Yuying Wang, Fuquan Huo
BACKGROUND: Early hyperexcitability activity of injured nerve/neuron is critical for developing sympathetic nerve sprouting within dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Since lacosamide (LCM), an anticonvulsant, inhibits Na+ channel. The present study tried to test the potential effect of LCM on inhibiting sympathetic sprouting in vivo. METHODS: LCM (50 mg/kg) was daily injected intraperitoneally into rats subjected to chronic compression DRG (CCD), an animal model of neuropathic pain that exhibits sympathetic nerve sprouting, for the 1st 7 days after injury...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755339/therapeutic-potential-of-a-prolyl-hydroxylase-inhibitor-fg-4592-for-parkinson-s-diseases-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-regulation-of-redox-biology-and-mitochondrial-function
#19
Xuan Li, Xin-Xin Cui, Ya-Jing Chen, Ting-Ting Wu, Huaxi Xu, Huiyong Yin, Yun-Cheng Wu
As the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular responses to hypoxia, Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). HIF-1α is normally degraded through ubiquitination after hydroxylation by prolyl hydroxylases (PHD). Emerging evidence has suggested that HIF PHD inhibitors (HIF-PHI) may have neuroprotective effects on PD through increasing HIF-1α levels. However, the therapeutic benefit of HIF-PHI for PD remains poorly explored due to the lack of proper clinical compounds and understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753303/season-of-death-and-nigral-neuronal-density-in-a-high-latitude-region
#20
Lauri Heiskanen, Katri Kivinen, Maria Gardberg, Pia Wahlsten, Valtteri Kaasinen
There is evidence that the neurotransmitter dopamine may be modulated by or be a modulator of circadian rhythms [1] and that brain dopamine function may vary in relation to season of birth [2-5]. A recent study of postmortem neuronal counts from individuals who had died during the summer or winter suggested that there may be significant seasonal differences between the densities of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive (TH+) and immunonegative (TH-) neurons [6]. The difference in the density of TH+ neurons was remarkably large, as individuals who had died during the summer had 6-fold higher densities than individuals who had died during the winter...
May 12, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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