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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146410/cart-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-and-lateral-hypothalamic-area-exert-differential-controls-on-energy-homeostasis
#1
Jackie Lau, Aitak Farzi, Yue Qi, Regine Heilbronn, Mario Mietzsch, Yan-Chuan Shi, Herbert Herzog
OBJECTIVE: The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) codes for a pivotal neuropeptide important in the control of appetite and energy homeostasis. However, limited understanding exists for the defined effector sites underlying CART function, as discrepant effects of central CART administration have been reported. METHODS: By combining Cart-cre knock-in mice with a Cart adeno-associated viral vector designed using the flip-excision switch (AAV-FLEX) technology, specific reintroduction or overexpression of CART selectively in CART neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), respectively, was achieved...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143197/three-cases-of-hereditary-tyrosinaemia-type-1-neuropsychiatric-outcomes-and-brain-imaging-following-treatment-with-ntbc
#2
Helen Walker, Mervi Pitkanen, Yusof Rahman, Sally F Barrington
AIM: To examine neuropsychiatric outcomes in adults with hereditary tyrosinaemia type I (HT-1), treated with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) and correlate these with functional imaging as well as with tyrosine and phenylalanine-tyrosine (Phe:Tyr) ratios. DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of three adult HT-1 patients with a particular focus on their FDG PET/CT brain scans, neuropsychiatric assessment (including neurocognitive assessment and mood and anxiety ratings) as well as mean tyrosine and phenylalanine levels and Phe:Tyr ratios for 3-month period...
November 16, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137186/dopaminergic-dysfunction-in-mammalian-dopamine-neurons-induced-by-simazine-neurotoxicity
#3
Xueting Li, Jia Yu, Jianan Li, Yanping Wu, Baixiang Li
Many studies have shown that the pollutant simazine (6-chloro-N,N'-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), which has been overused, inhibits the proliferation of mammalian dopaminergic cells, and affects the developmental differentiation of mammalian dopaminergic neurons. However, few studies have shown the effects of simazine on dopaminergic metabolism in these cells. Therefore, we aim to examine the metabolic effects of simazine exposure in mouse dopaminergic progenitor neurons (MN9D) at different exposure times...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136779/juglanin-ameliorates-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-in-animal-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-cell-culture-via-inactivating-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#4
Fang-Xue Zhang, Ren-Shi Xu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neuro-degenerative disorder, and novel therapeutic targets are required for the treatment of PD. Juglanin is a natural compound extracted from the crude Polygonum aviculare, exhibiting anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. In our study, PD in mice was induced by systemic LPS treatment as evidenced by enhanced α-synuclein and reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which were reversed by juglanin treatment. Moreover, juglanin administration attenuated LPS-caused behavioral and memory impairments and reduced LPS-induced enhancement of neuro-degenerative markers, including amyloid β (Aβ) and p-Tau...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133763/effects-of-melatonin-levels-on-neurotoxicity-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Yan Li, Shu-Mei Wang, Lei Guo, Jian Zhu, Ying Wang, Lei Li, Yan-Xin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Damage of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) results in similar characteristics to the cognitive deficiency seen with the progress of Parkinson's disease (PD). Since the course of mPFC damage is still unclear, our study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin (MT) on neurotoxicity in the mPFC of a rat model of PD. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four normal, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: normal + normal saline (NS), normal + 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), sham pinealectomy (PX) + 6-OHDA, PX + 6-OHDA, and MT + 6-OHDA...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133512/exosomes-from-adipose-derived-stem-cells-attenuate-adipose-inflammation-and-obesity-through-polarizing-m2-macrophages-and-beiging-in-white-adipose-tissues
#6
Hui Zhao, Qianwen Shang, Zhenzhen Pan, Yang Bai, Zequn Li, Huiying Zhang, Qiu Zhang, Chun Guo, Lining Zhang, Qun Wang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) play critical roles in controlling obesity-associated inflammation and metabolic disorders. Exosomes from ADSCs exert protective effects in several diseases, but their roles in obesity and related pathological conditions remain unclear. Here we showed that treatment of obese mice with ADSC-derived exosomes facilitated their metabolic homeostasis including improved insulin sensitivity (27.8% improvement), reduced obesity and alleviated hepatic steatosis. ADSC-derived exosomes drove M2 macrophage polarization, inflammation reduction and beiging in white adipose tissues (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133386/restoration-of-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-activity-underlies-moxonidine-evoked-neuroprotection-and-sympathoinhibition-in-diabetic-rats
#7
Mohamed A Fouda, Shaimaa S El-Sayed, Abdel A Abdel-Rahman
We recently demonstrated a fundamental role for cystathionine-γ lyase (CSE)-derived hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the cardioprotective effect of the centrally acting drug moxonidine in diabetic rats. Whether a downregulated CSE/H2S system in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) underlies neuronal oxidative stress and sympathoexcitation in diabetes has not been investigated. Along with addressing this question, we tested the hypothesis that moxonidine prevents the diabetes-evoked neurochemical effects by restoring CSE/H2S function within its major site of action, the RVLM...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132545/nanoformulation-a-useful-therapeutic-strategy-for-improving-neuroprotection-and-the-neurorestorative-potential-in-experimental-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Jose V Lafuente, Catalina Requejo, Alejandro Carrasco, Harkaitz Bengoetxea
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder, but current therapies are only symptomatic. Experimental models are necessary to go deeper in the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanism and to assess new therapeutic strategies. The unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion either in medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or into the striatum in rats affords to study various stages of PD depending on the evolution time lapsed. A promising alternative to address the neurodegenerative process is the use of neurotrophic factors; but its clinical use has been limited due to its short half-life and rapid degradation after in vivo administration, along with difficulties for crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126932/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-enhances-the-therapeutic-potential-of-neonatal-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-post-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Hussein Ghazale, Naify Ramadan, Sara Mantash, Kazem Zibara, Sally El-Sitt, Hala Darwish, Farah Chamaa, Rose Mary Boustany, Stefania Mondello, Wassim Abou-Kheir, Jihane Soueid, Firas Kobeissy
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide with 1.5 million people inflicted yearly. Several neurotherapeutic interventions have been proposed including drug administration as well as cellular therapy involving neural stem cells (NSCs). Among the proposed drugs is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, exhibiting neuroprotective properties. In this study, we utilized an innovative intervention of neonatal NSCs transplantation in combination with DHA injections in order to ameliorate brain damage and promote functional recovery in an experimental model of TBI...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116553/effect-of-sinomenine-on-the-morphine-dependence-and-related-neural-mechanisms-in-mice
#10
Miao Fang, Junkui Li, Daoqi Zhu, Chaohua Luo, Chan Li, Chen Zhu, Menglin Fan, Ken Kin-Lam Yung, Zhixian Mo
Evidence suggests that the dopamine receptor rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and the glutamate receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B), contribute to morphine dependence. Previous studies show that chronic exposure to morphine changes the expression of opioid receptors. In this study, we focus on the effects of sinomenine on morphine-dependent mice and its related neural mechanisms. Conditioned place preference (CPP) mouse model was established using morphine (9 mg/kg, s.c.), and their expression levels of TH and NR2B were observed by immunohistochemistry...
November 8, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115391/effect-on-the-dopaminergic-metabolism-induced-by-oral-exposure-to-simazine-during-the-prepubertal-period-in-rats
#11
Xueting Li, Jia Yu, Yanping Wu, Baixiang Li
The herbicide simazine is widely used in agricultural and non-agricultural fields. Studies have shown that simazine inhibits the proliferation of dopaminergic cells and affects the developmental differentiation of dopamine neurons. However, little is known about the effects of simazine on dopaminergic metabolism. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of simazine on Sprague‑Dawley (SD) rats from weaning to puberty (40 days exposure). Simazine was administered orally to SD rats at doses of 0, 12...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113897/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-win55-212-2-treatment-on-mesostriatal-dopaminergic-and-cannabinoid-systems-in-the-rat-brain
#12
Panagiotis Perdikaris, Martha Tsarouchi, Eleni Fanarioti, Evangelos Natsaridis, Ada Mitsacos, Panagiotis Giompres
Cannabinoid administration modulates dopamine transmission via an indirect, multisynaptic mechanism that includes the activation of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R). The present study evaluated in rodents, the effects of acute and chronic (20 days) WIN55,212-2 administration, a non-selective CB1R agonist, on dopamine uptake and synthesis in the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways and associate them to its effects on the endocannabinoid system. The effect of spontaneous withdrawal, after different abstinence periods (7 days, 20 days), was also assessed...
November 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113462/simultaneous-transplantation-of-fetal-ventral-mesencephalic-tissue-and-encapsulated-genetically-modified-cells-releasing-gdnf-in-a-hemi-parkinsonian-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Alberto Perez-Bouza, Stefano Di Santo, Stefanie Seiler, Morten Meyer, Lukas Andereggen, Alexander Huber, Raphael Guzman, Hans R Widmer
Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons for Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by poor survival and suboptimal integration of grafted tissue into the host brain. In a 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of PD, we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous transplantation of rat fetal VM tissue and polymer-encapsulated C2C12 myoblasts genetically modified to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or mock-transfected myoblasts on graft function. Amphetamine-induced rotations were assessed prior to transplantation and 2, 4, 6 and 9 wk posttransplantation...
September 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111184/neuron-protective-effect-of-subanesthestic-dosage-ketamine-on-mice-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Jun-Chao Fan, Jun-Jie Song, Ying Wang, Ying Chen, Dao-Xian Hong
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the neuron-protective effect and possible mechanism of subanesthestic-dosage ketamine on Parkinson's disease mice induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. METHODS: A total of 30 mice were divided equally into three groups, model control group (MC group), ketamine treatment group (KT group), and blank control group (BC group), respectively. The Parkinson's disease mice of MC group and KT groups were established by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (20 mg/kg/d), while mice in KT group were treated by intraperitoneal injection of subanesthestic-dosage ketamine (8 mg/kg)...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110208/expression-of-gas1-in-mouse-brain-release-and-role-in-neuronal-differentiation
#15
Elizabeth Bautista, Natanael Zarco, Nicolás Aguirre-Pineda, Manuel Lara-Lozano, Paula Vergara, Juan Antonio González-Barrios, Raúl Aguilar-Roblero, José Segovia
Growth arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis of tumor cells and has important roles during development. Recently, the presence of two forms of Gas1 was reported: one attached to the cell membrane by a GPI anchor; and a soluble extracellular form shed by cells. Previously, we showed that Gas1 is expressed in different areas of the adult mouse CNS. Here, we report the levels of Gas1 mRNA protein in different regions and analyzed its expressions in glutamatergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic neurons...
November 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109055/characterization-of-oromotor-and-limb-motor-dysfunction-in-the-dj1-model-of-parkinson-disease
#16
Katie M Yang, Katherine V Blue, Haleigh M Mulholland, Meghna P Kurup, Cynthia A Kelm-Nelson, Michelle R Ciucci
Parkinson disease (PD) is devastating to sensorimotor function that includes cranial/oromotor and limb motor deficits. However, the onset, progression, and neural correlates of PD-related dysfunctions are poorly understood. To address this gap, we used a genetic rat model of PD, DJ1 -/-, and hypothesized that motor deficits would manifest early in the disease process, be progressive in nature, and be related to pathologies in brainstem structures associated with sensorimotor function. The present study compares homozygous DJ1 -/- male rats to age-matched wild type controls...
November 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108742/gene-expression-analysis-reveals-chronic-low-level-exposure-to-the-pesticide-diazinon-affects-psychological-disorders-gene-sets-in-the-adult-rat
#17
Claire Y Savy, Ann E Fitchett, Peter G Blain, Christopher M Morris, Sarah J Judge
Chronic low level exposure to organophosphate (OPs) pesticides in adulthood has been linked to adverse neurobehavioural deficits and psychological disorder symptoms, although this remains a contentious issue. The OP-induced biological changes that could underlie these effects are unclear. We assessed gene expression changes following chronic low level exposure to diazinon, a pesticide with a high dietary exposure risk. Adult male rats were orally exposed to diazinon (0, 1, 2mg/kg, 5days a week for 12 weeks)...
November 3, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107581/developmental-estrogen-exposures-and-disruptions-to-maternal-behavior-and-brain-effects-of-ethinyl-estradiol-a-common-positive-control
#18
Mary C Catanese, Laura N Vandenberg
Due of its structural similarity to the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) is widely used to study the effects of estrogenic substances on sensitive organs at multiple stages of development. Here, we investigated the effects of EE2 on maternal behavior and the maternal brain in females exposed during gestation and the perinatal period. We assessed several components of maternal behavior including nesting behavior and pup retrieval; characterized the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)α in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), a brain region critical for the display of maternal behavior; and measured expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker for dopaminergic cells, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a brain region important in maternal motivation...
October 28, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107062/the-anti-aging-protein-klotho-alleviates-injury-of-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-pathway-in-6-hydroxydopamine-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-involvement-of-pka-camkii-creb-signaling
#19
Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Seyed-Mohammad Eftekhari, Nida Jamali-Raeufy, Sobhan Haghani, Hossein Zeinali, Mehrdad Roghani
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent movement disorder in the elderly. PD is hallmarked with progressive deterioration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and development of debilitating motor and non-motor clinical symptoms. Klotho protein is the product of an aging-suppressor gene that its overexpression could protect neurons against oxidative injury. This study was undertaken to explore whether exogenous klotho could alleviate injury of nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD...
October 31, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105838/a-parkinson-s-disease-gene-dj-1-repairs-brain-injury-through-sox9-stabilization-and-astrogliosis
#20
Dong-Joo Choi, Jin-Hwa Eun, Byung Gon Kim, Ilo Jou, Sang Myun Park, Eun-Hye Joe
Defects in repair of damaged brain accumulate injury and contribute to slow-developing neurodegeneration. Here, we report that a deficiency of DJ-1, a Parkinson's disease (PD) gene, delays repair of brain injury due to destabilization of Sox9, a positive regulator of astrogliosis. Stereotaxic injection of ATP into the brain striatum produces similar size of acute injury in wild-type and DJ-1-knockout (KO) mice. However, recovery of the injury is delayed in KO mice, which is confirmed by 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging and tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining...
November 6, 2017: Glia
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