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tyrosine hydroxylase

Danielle E Jenkins, Dharshini Sreenivasan, Fiona Carman, Samal Babru, Lee E Eiden, Stephen J Bunn
The pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β/α modulate catecholamine secretion, and long-term gene regulation, in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Since interleukin-6 (IL6) also plays a key integrative role during inflammation, we have examined its ability to affect both tyrosine hydroxylase activity and adrenomedullary gene transcription in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. IL6 caused acute tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and serine/tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Rui Hu, Zhiwei Wang, Zongli Ren, Min Liu
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies reported that diabetic patients had a lower incidence of aortic dissection (AD), but the definite mechanism is unknown. We aim to investigate the possible protective effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on AD formation with an emphasis on autonomic remodeling. METHODS: Streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injection was applied to induce diabetes, unilateral renal artery stenosis (URAS) together with β-amino propionitrile (BAPN) oral treatment was used to induce AD...
October 21, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Christina Gutierrez Bracamontes, Rebecca Lopez-Valdez, Ramadevi Subramani, Arunkumar Arumugam, Sushmita Nandy, Venkatesh Rajamanickam, Vignesh Ravichandran, Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy
Early parity reduces the risk of breast cancer in women while nulliparity and late parity increase the risk of breast cancer. In order to translate this protection to women where early pregnancy is not feasible, much work has focused on understanding how parity confers protection against breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs is still not well understood. Healthy parous and nulliparous women were recruited for this study. We assessed serum protein profiles of early parous, late parous, and nulliparous women using the Phospho Explorer antibody array...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Chien-Wei Feng, Han-Chun Hung, Shi-Ying Huang, Chun-Hong Chen, Yun-Ru Chen, Chun-Yu Chen, San-Nan Yang, Hui-Min David Wang, Ping-Jyun Sung, Jyh-Horng Sheu, Kuan-Hao Tsui, Wu-Fu Chen, Zhi-Hong Wen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait impairment. In a previous study, we found that the marine-derived compound 11-dehydrosinulariolide (11-de) upregulates the Akt/PI3K pathway to protect cells against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-mediated damage. In the present study, SH-SY5Y, zebrafish and rats were used to examine the therapeutic effect of 11-de. The results revealed the mechanism by which 11-de exerts its therapeutic effect: the compound increases cytosolic or mitochondrial DJ-1 expression, and then activates the downstream Akt/PI3K, p-CREB, and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways...
October 17, 2016: Marine Drugs
Karol Cichewicz, Emma J Garren, Chika Adiele, Yoshinori Aso, Zhang Wang, Martin Wu, Serge Birman, Gerald M Rubin, Jay Hirsh
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter with conserved behavioral roles between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In addition to its neural functions, in insects DA is a critical substrate for cuticle pigmentation and hardening. Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) is the rate limiting enzyme for DA biosynthesis. Viable brain DA deficient flies were previously generated using tissue selective GAL4-UAS binary expression rescue of a DTH null mutation and these flies show specific behavioral impairments. To circumvent the limitations of rescue via binary expression, here we achieve rescue utilizing genomically integrated mutant DTH...
October 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Kara R Vogel, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, K Michael Gibson
BACKGROUND: The mainstay of therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU) remains dietary protein restriction. Developmental and neurocognitive outcomes for patients, however, remain suboptimal. We tested the hypothesis that mice with PKU receiving protein-restricted diets would reveal disruptions of brain amino acids that shed light on these neurocognitive deficits. METHOD: Phenylalanine hydroxylase-deficient (PKU) mice and parallel controls (both wild-type and heterozygous) were fed custom diets containing 18, 6, and 4 % protein for 3 weeks, after which tissues (brain, liver, sera) were collected for amino acid analysis profiling...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Alexander Kiss, Zuzana Majercikova
Effect of repeated asenapine (ASE) treatment on FosB/ΔFosB expression was studied in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of male rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) for 21days. Our intention was to find out whether repeated ASE treatment for 14days may: 1) induce FosB/ΔFosB expression in the PVN; 2) activate selected PVN neuronal phenotypes, synthesizing oxytocin (OXY), vasopressin (AVP), corticoliberin (CRH) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); and 3) interfere with the impact of CMS. Control, ASE, CMS, and CMS+ASE treated groups were used...
October 15, 2016: Neuropeptides
Nataly E Gruntenko, Natalya V Adonyeva, Elena V Burdina, Evgenia K Karpova, Olga V Andreenkova, Daniil V Gladkikh, Yury Y Ilinsky, Inga Yu Rauschenbach
The Forkhead BoxO transcription factor (FOXO) is a component of the insulin signalling pathway and plays a role in responding to adverse conditions, such as oxidative stress and starvation. In stressful conditions, FOXO moves from the cytosol to the nucleus where it activates gene expression programmes. Here, we show that FOXO in Drosophila melanogaster responds to heat stress as it does to other stressors. The catecholamine signalling pathway is another component of the stress response. In Drosophila, dopamine and octopamine levels rise steeply under heat, nutrition and mechanical stresses, which is followed by a decrease in the activity of synthesis enzymes...
October 17, 2016: Biology Open
Wioletta Pijacka, Fiona McBryde, Anthony P Ford, Julian F R Paton
OBJECTIVE: Arterial hypertension is associated with increases in both peripheral chemoreceptor reflex sensitivity and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). We have shown that CB resection in SH rats reduces arterial pressure (AP; McBryde et al. 2013). Since P2X3 receptors exist in the rat CB and P2X3 receptor activity is associated with afferent hyperreflexia (Ford et al. 2015), we hypothesized that P2X3 receptor would be upregulated in the CB of SH vs normotensive (Wistar) control rats and that a selective P2X3 receptor antagonist (AF-219) would reduce chemoreflex hypersensitivity, AP and SNA in SH rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Michael A Bergen, Han Na Park, Ranjay Chakraborty, Erica G Landis, Curran Sidhu, Li He, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue
Purpose: The neuromodulator dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the prevention of excessive ocular elongation and myopia in various animal models. This study used retina-specific DA knockout mice to investigate the role of retinal DA in refractive development and susceptibility to experimental myopia. Methods: Measurements of refractive error, corneal curvature, and ocular biometrics were obtained as a function of age for both untreated and form-deprived (FD) groups of retina-specific tyrosine hydroxylase knockout (rTHKO) and control (Ctrl) mice...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jianli Wang, Chaobao Liu, Yongping Ma
Parents-offspring bonding is critical for development of offspring in mammals. While it is known that pups stimuli provide rewarding effects on their parents, few studies have assessed whether parental stimuli serve as a reinforcing agent to their pups, and what the neural mechanisms underlying this reward process may be. In addition to maternal care, male ICR mice display pairmate-dependent parental behavior. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, we examined the effects of maternal and paternal conditioning on the postnatal day 17-21 female ICR mice pups, and compared the expression of oxytocin (OT)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)- immunoreactive (IR) neurons...
October 13, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Jacob D Brown, M Cathleen Kovarik, Dennis K Miller, Frank W Booth
The mesolimbic dopamine and opioid systems are postulated to influence the central control of physical activity motivation. We utilized selectively bred rats for high (HVR) or low (LVR) voluntary running behavior to examine 1) inherent differences in mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) expression and function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), 2) if dopamine-related mRNAs, wheel-running, and food intake are differently influenced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone injection in HVR and LVR rats, and 3) if dopamine is required for naltrexone-induced changes in running and feeding behavior in HVR rats...
October 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Yusuke Matsuda, Noriko Kimura, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Sekiguchi, Junzo Tomoishi, Ichiro Kasahara, Yoshihito Hara, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, which exclusively produce dopamine, are very rare. Herein, we report for the first time a Japanese case of an exclusively dopamine-producing paraganglioma accompanied by detailed immunohistochemical analyses. A 70-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for functional examination of her left retroperitoneal mass. Her adrenal functions were normal, except for excessive dopamine secretion. After the tumorectomy, her dopamine level normalized. The histopathological diagnosis of the tumor was paraganglioma; this was confirmed by positive immunostaining of chromogranin A (CgA), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), and succinate dehydrogenase gene subunit B (SDHB)...
October 14, 2016: Endocrine Pathology
Kai-Chih Hung, Hui-Ju Huang, Yi-Ting Wang, Anya Maan-Yuh Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and protein aggregation form a vicious cycle in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD); activated microglia is the main location of neuroinflammation. A Chinese medicine book, "Shanghan Lun", known as the "Treatises on Cold damage Diseases" has suggested that Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is effective in treating CNS diseases. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of baicalein, a phenolic flavonoid in the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, remain to be explored...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Wei Zhang, Hong He, Hujie Song, Junjie Zhao, Tao Li, Leitao Wu, Xiaojun Zhang, Jianzong Chen
The degenerative loss through apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta plays a primary role in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Our in vitro experiments suggested that salidroside (Sal) could protect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine-induced cell apoptosis in part by regulating the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. The current study aims to increase our understanding of the protective mechanisms of Sal in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropypridine- (MPTP-) induced PD mouse model...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Kaiwu He, Fei Qi, Chunni Guo, Shuqin Zhan, Hua Xu, Jianjun Liu, Xifei Yang
Transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channel proteins are abundantly expressed in brain. However, the functions of these TRPC proteins such as TRPC1 are largely unclear. In this study, we reported that TRPC1 deficiency caused movement disorder as measured by swimming test, modified open field test and sunflower seeds eating test. Immunofluorescent staining showed significant loss of both NeuN-positive cells and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) -positive cells in the caudate putamen (CPu), the external globus pallidus (GPe), and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in 5-month-old TRPC1 knockout mice (TRPC1-/-) compared to the wild type (WT) mice...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Kai-Cheng Hsu, Feng-Sheng Wang
Model-based optimization approaches are valuable in developing new drugs for human metabolic disorders. The core objective in most optimal drug designs is positive therapeutic effects. In this study, we considered the effects of therapeutic, adverse, and target variation simultaneously. A fuzzy optimization method was applied to formulate a multiobjective drug design problem for detecting enzyme targets in the presynaptic dopamine metabolic network to remedy two types of enzymopathies caused by deficiencies of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)...
2016: PloS One
Victoria Grèze, Florence Brugnon, Fanny Chambon, Pascale Halle, Michel Canis, Clotilde Amiot, Anne-Sophie Grémeau, Bruno Pereira, Yania Yáñez Peralta, Andrei Tchirkov, Justyna Kanold
BACKGROUND: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) is the only option available to preserve fertility in prepubertal females with neuroblastoma (NB), a childhood solid tumor that can spread to the ovaries, with a risk of reintroducing malignant cells after an ovarian graft. PROCEDURE: We set out to determine whether the analysis of TH (tyrosine hydroxylase), PHOX2B (paired-like homeobox 2b), and DCX (doublecortin) transcripts using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) could be used to detect NB contamination in ovarian tissue...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Ai-Ling Chen, Xi Sun, Wei Wang, Jin-Feng Liu, Xin Zeng, Jing-Fan Qiu, Xin-Jian Liu, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression has been described as a consequence of brain injury and infection by different mechanisms. Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause injury to the central nervous system and eosinophilic meningitis to human. Both T cell and B cell immunity play an essential role in the resistance of the infection. However, whether brain injury caused by A. cantonensis infection can lead to immunosuppression is not clear. Therefore, the present study sought to observe the alteration of immune responses in mice infected with A...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Wang Yan, Zhao-Ying Chen, Jia-Qi Chen, Hui-Min Chen
BACKGROUND: Neural stem cells (NSCs) are pluripotent and self-renewing cells which could differentiate into diverse types of neural cells, such as dopaminergic (DA) neurons, the loss of which is the typical characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to examine the molecular mechanisms of BMP2-mediating NSCs differentiation into DA neurons. METHODS: Different concentrations of BMP2 were used to induce the differentiation of NSCs into DA neurons, which were characterized by the number and the neurite lengths of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+ and dopamine transporter (DAT)+ neurons by immunocytochemistry...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
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