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Exercise, type-1 diabetes

Sunita Dodani, Gyanendra K Sharma
INTRODUCTION: South Asian Immigrants (SAIs) are the second fastest growing Asian immigrant population in the US, and at a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (diabetes) and coronary artery disease (CAD) than the general US population. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine in SAIs the; 1) the prevalence of CAD risk factors in diabetics and non-diabetics; and b) the high possibility of CAD in diabetic SAIs. We also assessed the prevalence of sub-clinical CAD in both diabetics and non-diabetics SAIs using common carotid artery Intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
Iván Cavero-Redondo, Bárbara Peleteiro, Celia Álvarez-Bueno, Enrique G Artero, Miriam Garrido-Miguel, Vicente Martinez-Vizcaíno
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is widely perceived to be beneficial for preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus and for controlling glycaemic levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, but evidence supporting a positive effect in the control of glycaemic levels in healthy people is rather weak. The aim of this review was to estimate the effect of physical activity on glycaemic control measured by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) levels in non-diabetic populations, and to determine which type of physical activity has a greater influence on glycaemic control...
February 16, 2018: Sports Medicine
Jon D Oden, Brian Franklin, Ernesto Fernandez, Soumya Adhikari, Perrin C White
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and fat mass may be higher in children with diabetes compared to healthy peers. It is not certain how diabetic children respond to exercise and diet interventions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of summer camp on BMI and body composition in children with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Five hundred eighty-six children (5-19 years, 518 with type 1 diabetes, 68 without diabetes) were followed while attending camp...
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Riyadh A Alzaheb, Abdullah H Altemani
Background: Although the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rising sharply in Saudi Arabia, data on glycemic control, crucial to reducing diabetes mellitus complications, remain scarce. This study therefore investigated glycemic control status and the factors influencing poor glycemic control among adult T2DM patients in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 423 T2DM patients at a diabetic center in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia between September 2016 and July 2017...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Nicole K Brockman, Jane E Yardley
Sex-related differences in metabolic and neuroendocrine response to exercise in individuals without diabetes have been well established. Men and women differ in fuel selection during exercise, in which women rely to a greater extent on fat oxidation, whereas males rely mostly on carbohydrate oxidation for energy production. The difference in fuel selection appears to be mediated by sex-related differences in hormonal (including catecholamines, growth hormone, and estrogen) response to different types and intensities of exercise...
February 8, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Ronnie Aronson, Juan Frias, Allison Goldman, Amanda Darekar, Brett Lauring, Steven G Terra
AIM: This phase III, multicenter, randomised study evaluated the efficacy and safety of ertugliflozin monotherapy in adults with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] 7.0% to 10.5% [53-91 mmol/mol]) despite diet and exercise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 52-week study comprised a 26-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled period (phase A) where 461 participants received placebo, ertugliflozin 5-mg/day, or ertugliflozin 15-mg/day. This was followed by a 26-week active-controlled period (phase B) where participants in the placebo group who had not received glycaemic rescue therapy had blinded metformin added...
February 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Dana Zilberman-Kravits, Naomi Meyerstein, Yones Abu-Rabia, Arnon Wiznitzer, Ilana Harman-Boehm
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Israel is increasing in all ethnic groups but most markedly in the Bedouin population. We aimed to assess the effects of a lifestyle change intervention on risk markers for type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: One hundred eighty Jewish and Bedouin post-GDM women were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG) starting 3-4 months after delivery. The IG participated in healthy lifestyle sessions led by a dietician and a sports instructor for 24 months after delivery...
February 6, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Kohei Kido, Satoru Ato, Takumi Yokokawa, Koji Sato, Satoshi Fujita
Adapter protein containing PH domain, PTB domain, and leucine zipper motif 1 (APPL1) has been reported as a positive regulator of insulin-stimulated Akt activation. The expression of APPL1 is reduced in skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic (T2D) animals, implying that APPL1 may be an important factor affecting insulin sensitivity. However, the regulation of APPL1 expression and the physiological interventions modulating these effects are unclear. Accordingly, we first confirmed that APPL1 expression and Akt phosphorylation were significantly attenuated in skeletal muscles of T2D rats...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ying Wang, Hong Yang, Mark Nolan, Faraz Pathan, Kazuaki Negishi, Thomas H Marwick
AIMS: Patients with heart failure (HF) risk factors are described as being in Stage A of this condition (SAHF). Management is directed towards prevention of HF progression, but to date, no evidence has been described to align the intensity of this intervention to HF risk. We sought to what extent SAHF of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other HF risks showed differences in subclinical left ventricular function, exercise capacity, and prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 551 elder asymptomatic SAHF patients (age 71 ± 5 years, 49% men, 290 T2DM) with at least one risk factor from a community-based population with preserved ejection fraction...
February 5, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Tatsuhiko Urakami
The principal treatment for children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes is dietary and exercise management. However, the blood glucose levels of some patients receiving this treatment fail to improve; thus, pharmacological treatment is eventually required. The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in pediatric patients appears to be similar to that in adults; thus, the range of antidiabetic drugs used in adults is likely to be effective in pediatric patients as well. However, in the majority of countries, including Japan, only metformin, glimepiride, and insulin have been approved for use in pediatric patients...
2018: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
Andrew Borror, Gabriel Zieff, Claudio Battaglini, Lee Stoner
BACKGROUND: Regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia is a major concern for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Exercise can reduce postprandial hyperglycemia by increasing contraction-mediated glucose uptake. However, there is no consensus with which to develop guidelines for optimal postprandial exercise timing and prescription. OBJECTIVE: The current systematic review was conducted to consolidate the literature surrounding the effects of postprandial exercise on glucose regulation in individuals with type 2 diabetes...
February 2, 2018: Sports Medicine
Lisa Chu, Katherine M Morrison, Michael C Riddell, Sandeep Raha, Brian W Timmons
PURPOSE: The capacity to match carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation with CHO availability (deemed metabolic flexibility (MetFlex)) may be important for type 2 diabetes prevention. In adults, impaired MetFlex is associated with insulin resistance (IR), which can be improved with as little as 7 days of exercise. Whether this occurs similarly in children is unknown. We hypothesized 7 consecutive days of exercise would improve MetFlex and IR in children with obesity. METHODS: Twelve children (8 boys, 4 girls) completed 2 study visits before (PRE) and 2 study visits after (POST) exercise training...
February 2, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Pennie J Taylor, Campbell H Thompson, Grant D Brinkworth
This narrative review discusses the role of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) in glycaemic and weight control and lifestyle behaviour adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A literature search from January 2001 to November 2017 was conducted (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science and Scopus). Eligible studies were trials evaluating the use of CGM with the aim of achieving glucose control or lifestyle-related treatment adherence over a period of ≥8 weeks in adults with T2D compared to usual care or another comparison intervention OR observational trials reporting CGM user experience...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Ryosuke Sakai, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Emi Ushigome, Akane Miki, Takuro Okamura, Masako Matsugasumi, Takuya Fukuda, Saori Majima, Shinobu Matsumoto, Takafumi Senmaru, Masahide Hamaguchi, Muhei Tanaka, Mai Asano, Masahiro Yamazaki, Yohei Oda, Michiaki Fukui
Skipping breakfast or irregular breakfast is associated with poor glycemic control. However, a relationship between the timing of dinner and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes remains indefinite. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between late-night-dinner and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. We performed questionnaire survey for lifestyle factors in this cross-sectional study. We defined having dinner later than eight pm as late-night-dinner. We examined the differences in clinical and metabolic parameters between those who have late-night-dinner and those who do not have...
January 27, 2018: Endocrine Journal
Amy Kennedy, Parth Narendran, Robert C Andrews, Amanda Daley, Sheila M Greenfield
OBJECTIVES: To explore attitudes and barriers to exercise in adults with new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). DESIGN: Qualitative methodology using focus group (n=1), individual face-to-face (n=4) and telephone interviews (n=8). Thematic analysis using the Framework Method. SETTING: Nineteen UK hospital sites. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen participants in the Exercise for Type 1 Diabetes study. We explored current and past levels of exercise, understanding of exercise and exercise guidelines, barriers to increasing exercise levels and preferences for monitoring of activity in a trial...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Open
C Ranasinghe, A P Hills, G R Constantine, G Finlayson, P Katulanda, N A King
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is rising globally. T2DM is particularly problematic in South Asia with an estimated 10-15% of Sri Lankans diagnosed with the disease. Exercise is known to improve blood glucose, lipid profiles, blood pressure and adiposity, key goals in the management of T2DM. However, much of the evidence to date has been gained from white Caucasians who have a different body composition and disease profile compared to South Asians...
January 24, 2018: BMC Public Health
Jingchuan Guo, Rachel G Miller, Tina Costacou, William P Follansbee, Trevor J Orchard
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess association between abnormal LVEF, in the absence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and 25-year incidence of major outcomes of diabetes (MOD) in a cardiology substudy of the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications cohort of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. METHODS: 115 normotensive type 1 diabetes individuals without known CAD, underwent a baseline exercise radionuclide ventriculography. Abnormal LVEF was defined as a resting ejection fraction <50% or a failure to increase ejection fraction with exercise by >5% (men) or a fall in ejection fraction with exercise (women)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Maria Kyhlbäck, Anne Söderlund, Tomas Thierfelder, Gunilla Elmgren Frykberg
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate how health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional shoulder range of motion are affected among patients with diabetes with shoulder problems, treated with a specific physiotherapy programme. A further aim was to investigate how health-related quality of life, functional shoulder range of motion, pain intensity, and shoulder function correlate within the group of patients after the treatment period. METHOD: A pre-post treatment design was applied for a study group of ten patients with type 1 diabetes and shoulder problems...
January 24, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Lindsay Haines, Natalie Coppa, Yael Harris, Juan P Wisnivesky, Jenny J Lin
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, diabetes affects 29.1 million people in the United States. Marriage has been suggested to have a protective effect on overall health outcomes, but few studies have evaluated the role of partnership status on patients with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess this role of partnership status on diabetes control and self-management behaviors. Patients with type 2 diabetes taking at least one oral hypoglycemic agent were assessed over a 3-month period to measure hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) changes and adherence to medication, exercise, diet, and glucose monitoring...
January 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Alberto Palazzuoli, Elena Ceccarelli, Gaetano Ruocco, Ranuccio Nuti
Heart failure (HF) is a common complication in patients with type 2 diabetes and it is closely associated with high morbidity and mortality rate. The incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes is related to high levels of glycemia, expressed by increase of HbA1c levels. However, there is little evidence to indicate that glycemic control can reduce the incidence of HF events in this population. Recently, several new antidiabetic drugs have been proposed although the exact clinical impact on heart failure occurrence and deterioration is under debate...
January 23, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
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