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Arthur Bill Musk, Michael Hunter, Jennie Hui, Matthew W Knuiman, Mark Divitini, John P Beilby, Alan James
OBJECTIVE: To document the changing levels of tobacco smoking, respiratory symptoms, doctor-diagnosed asthma, and lung function in Busselton adults aged 46-65 years over the past 50 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Repeated cross-sectional population surveys (1966 to 2010-2015) of adults registered to vote in the Busselton shire, Western Australia, including a modified version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: History of doctor-diagnosed asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking history, respiratory medications used, spirometry parameters (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC])...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Z M Liu, F Fang, C H Ding, W H Zhang, J Deng, C H Chen, X Wang, J Liu, Z Li, X L Jia, J S Zeng, S Y Qian
Objective: To investigate the clinical and genetic features of congenital myasthenia syndrome with episodic apnea (CMS-EA) caused by gene mutation of choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) Methods: The clinical data of 2 patients with congenital myasthenia syndrome were collected, and both were diagnosed from 2013 to 2015 in Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University. The clinical features and gene mutation characteristics were analyzed, and the patients were followed-up for therapeutic efficacy. Results: The two patients (case 1 and case 2) had the onset soon after birth and at 3 months after birth respectively...
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Kee Hong Park, Patrick Waters, Mark Woodhall, Bethan Lang, Thomas Smith, Jung-Joon Sung, Kwang-Kuk Kim, Young-Min Lim, Jee-Eun Kim, Byung-Jo Kim, Jin-Sung Park, Jeong-Geon Lim, Dae-Seong Kim, Ohyun Kwon, Eun Hee Sohn, Jong Seok Bae, Byung-Nam Yoon, Nam-Hee Kim, Suk-Won Ahn, Jeeyoung Oh, Hyung Jun Park, Kyong Jin Shin, Yoon-Ho Hong
Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) is a prototype autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction, caused in most patients by autoantibodies to the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). There seem to be ethnic and regional differences in the frequency and clinical features of MG seronegative for the AChR antibody. This study aimed to describe the autoantibody profiles and clinical features of Korean patients with generalized MG seronegative for the AChR antibody. A total of 62 patients with a high index of clinical suspicion of seronegative generalized MG were identified from 18 centers, and we examined their sera for antibodies to clustered AChR, muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK), and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) by cell-based assays (CBA) and to MuSK by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA)...
2018: PloS One
Ryo Ueta, Yuji Yamanashi
The neuromuscular junction(NMJ)is the synapse between a motor neuron and the skeletal muscle that is essential for muscle contraction. Impairments at the NMJ lead to neuromuscular-transmission pathologies characterized by fatigable muscle weakness. Muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK plays key roles in NMJ formation. Over the past decade, studies examining the NMJ formation signals have identified molecules involved in the signaling pathways and have promoted a better understanding of characteristic molecular mechanisms for MuSK activation...
2018: Clinical Calcium
Andrew G Engel
The congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are heterogeneous disorders in which the safety margin of neuromuscular transmission is compromised by one or more specific mechanisms. The disease proteins reside in the nerve terminal, the synaptic basal lamina, or in the postsynaptic region, or at multiple sites at the neuromuscular junction as well as in other tissues. Targeted mutation analysis by Sanger or exome sequencing has been facilitated by characteristic phenotypic features of some CMS. No fewer than 20 disease genes have been recognized to date...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Grace McMacken, Dan Cox, Andreas Roos, Juliane Müller, Roger Whittaker, Hanns Lochmüller
Inherited defects of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) comprise an increasingly diverse range of disorders, termed congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). Therapies acting on the sympathetic nervous system, including the selective β2 adrenergic agonist salbutamol and the α and β adrenergic agonist ephedrine, have become standard treatment for several types of CMS. However, the mechanism of the therapeutic effect of sympathomimetics in these disorders is not understood. Here, we examined the effect of salbutamol on NMJ development using zebrafish with deficiency of the key postsynaptic proteins Dok-7 and MuSK...
February 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
John Morren, Yuebing Li
Growing evidence provides new insights about myasthenia gravis with antibodies against muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK-MG) including its pathogenesis, clinical and electrophysiological manifestations, and treatment. Data now support the presence of both presynaptic and postsynaptic dysfunction in MuSK-MG. This is one of many key differences between MuSK-MG and acetylcholine receptor antibody-MG (AChR-MG), especially as it pertains to potential therapeutic implications. In comparison to AChR-MG, MuSK-MG is generally more refractory to treatment...
February 20, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Sarah Cantor, Wei Zhang, Nicolas Delestrée, Leonor Remédio, George Z Mentis, Steven J Burden
In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and animal models of ALS, including SOD1-G93A mice, disassembly of the neuromuscular synapse precedes motor neuron loss and is sufficient to cause a decline in motor function that culminates in lethal respiratory paralysis. We treated SOD1-G93A mice with an agonist antibody to MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase essential for maintaining neuromuscular synapses, to determine whether increasing muscle retrograde signaling would slow nerve terminal detachment from muscle. The agonist antibody, delivered after disease onset, slowed muscle denervation, promoting motor neuron survival, improving motor system output, and extending the lifespan of SOD1-G93A mice...
February 20, 2018: ELife
Aimee van Wynsberghe, Scott Robbins
Many industry leaders and academics from the field of machine ethics would have us believe that the inevitability of robots coming to have a larger role in our lives demands that robots be endowed with moral reasoning capabilities. Robots endowed in this way may be referred to as artificial moral agents (AMA). Reasons often given for developing AMAs are: the prevention of harm, the necessity for public trust, the prevention of immoral use, such machines are better moral reasoners than humans, and building these machines would lead to a better understanding of human morality...
February 19, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Hui Zhang, Barry C Kelly
While numerous studies have demonstrated the environmental behavior of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), information regarding sorption and bioaccumulation potential of other widely used organic chemicals such as halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) is limited. This study involved a comprehensive field investigation of multi-class hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in environmental media and fish in Singapore Strait, an important tropical maritime strait in Southeast Asia...
February 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Jianwen Wang, Yatao Xiao, Kejing Zhang, Benyan Luo, Chengyong Shen
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a peripheral synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers that controls muscle contraction. The NMJ is the target of various disorders including myasthenia gravis (MG), an autoimmune disease in which auto-antibodies (auto-Abs) attack the synapse, and thus cause muscle weakness in patients. There are multiple auto-Abs in the MG patient sera, but not all the Abs are proven to be pathogenic, which increases the difficulties in clinical diagnoses and treatments. To establish the causative roles of auto-Abs in MG pathogenesis, the experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG) induced by the active immunization of auto-antigens (auto-Ags) or the passive transfer of auto-Abs is required...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience
Renato Mantegazza, Carlo Antozzi
The prognosis for patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) has improved significantly over the past half century, including substantial reductions in mortality and morbidity. However, approximately 10% of patients fails to respond adequately to current therapies and are considered treatment refractory, or treatment intolerant, and up to 80% have disease that fails to achieve complete stable remission. Although patients with autoantibodies to muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (anti-MuSK positive) are more likely to become treatment refractory than those with autoantibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (anti-AChR positive), each of these serotypes is substantially represented in the refractory MG population...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Cheng Li, Jiayi Chen, Yan Chen, Jihua Wang, Hua Ping, Anxiang Lu
Polycyclic musks (PCMs) have recently received growing attention as emerging contaminants because of their bioaccumulation and potential ecotoxicological effects. Herein, an effective method for the determination of five PCMs in aqueous samples is presented. Reduced graphene oxide-derivatized silica (rGO@silica) particles were prepared from graphene oxide and aminosilica microparticles and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
February 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Manal Galal Abd El Wahab, Soad Shaker Ali, Nasra Naeim Ayuob
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect induced by musk on Alzheimer's disease-such as neurodegenerative changes in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty male Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups (n = 10); control, CUMS, CUMS + fluoxetine, CUMS + musk. At the end of the experiment, behavior of the mice was assessed. Serum corticosterone level, hippocampal protein level of the glucocorticoid receptors, and brain-derived neurotropic factor were also assessed...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Panos Stathopoulos, Aditya Kumar, Jason A Vander Heiden, Elba Pascual-Goñi, Richard J Nowak, Kevin C O'Connor
Pathogenic autoantibodies to muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) can be found in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) who do not have detectable antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor. Although the autoantibody-mediated pathology is well understood, much remains to be learned about the cellular immunology that contributes to autoantibody production. To that end, our laboratory has investigated particular components associated with the cellular immunopathology of MuSK MG. First, we found that B cell tolerance defects contribute to the abnormal development of the naive repertoire, which indicates that dysregulation occurs before the production of autoantibodies...
January 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Angela Vincent, Saif Huda, Michelangelo Cao, Hakan Cetin, Inga Koneczny, Pedro Rodriguez-Cruz, Leslie Jacobson, Stuart Viegas, Saiju Jacob, Mark Woodhall, Akiko Nagaishi, Angelina Maniaol, Valentina Damato, M Isabel Leite, Judith Cossins, Richard Webster, Jacqueline Palace, David Beeson
Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) have been recognized for over 40 years and have been important in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis (MG), and its recognition in patients of different ages and thymic pathologies. The 10-20% of patients who do not have AChR antibodies are now known to comprise different subgroups, the most commonly reported of which is patients with antibodies to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK). The use of cell-based assays has extended the repertoire of antibody tests to clustered AChRs, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4, and agrin...
January 29, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Maartje G Huijbers, Jaap J Plomp, Silvère M van der Maarel, Jan J Verschuuren
Immunoglobulin 4 (IgG4) is one of four human IgG subclasses and has several unique functional characteristics. It exhibits low affinity for complement and for most Fc receptors. It furthermore has generally high affinity for its antigen, with binding occurring in a monovalent fashion, as IgG4 can exchange Fab-arms with other IgG4 molecules. Because of these characteristics, IgG4 is believed to block its targets and prevent inflammation, which, depending on the setting, can have a protective or pathogenic effect...
January 28, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Gabrielle C Musk, Garry J Wilkes
The aim of this study was to compare sedation of sheep with acepromazine and buprenorphine or morphine. Twenty merino sheep received acepromazine (0.03mg/kg) with buprenorphine (0.02mg/kg, AB, n=10) or morphine (0.3mg/kg, AM, n=10) by intramuscular injection. Sedation was scored (SS) on a scale from 0 (no sedation) to 10 (heavy sedation). Response to restraint was scored (RS) on a scale from 0 (agitated) to 4 (relaxed). Three independent blinded observers and a single blinded observer determined the SS and RS, respectively...
January 20, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Siobhain Mulrennan, Matthew Knuiman, John P Walsh, Jennie Hui, Michael Hunter, Mark Divitini, Kun Zhu, Brian R Cooke, Arthur W Bill Musk, Alan James
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The relationship between vitamin D and respiratory disease was examined by cross-sectional analysis of a large community-based sample. METHODS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and history of respiratory disease, symptoms (recorded by questionnaire) and spirometry were measured in 5011 adults aged 45-69 years. Adjustments were made for age, sex, season and smoking (Model A), plus body mass index (BMI) and physical activity level (Model B), plus history of chronic diseases (Model C)...
January 24, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
David Beeson, Judith Cossins, Pedro Rodriguez-Cruz, Susan Maxwell, Wei-Wei Liu, Jacqueline Palace
The congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are hereditary disorders of neuromuscular transmission. The number of cases recognized, at around 1:100,000 in the United Kingdom, is increasing with improved diagnosis. The advent of next-generation sequencing has facilitated the discovery of many genes that harbor CMS-associated mutations. An emerging group of CMS, characterized by a limb-girdle pattern of muscle weakness, is caused by mutations in genes that encode proteins involved in the initial steps of the N-linked glycosylation pathway, which is surprising, since this pathway is found in all mammalian cells...
January 24, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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