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Diagnosis fungal infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508389/usefulness-of-techniques-based-on-real-time-pcr-for-the-identification-of-onychomycosis-causing-species
#1
Anissa Z Hafirassou, Clara Valero, Nadia Gassem, Ilhem Mihoubi, Maria J Buitrago
Onychomycosis (OM) is a nail infection caused mainly by dermatophyte species but other species of yeast and moulds are frequently involved as well. Classical diagnosis has limitations thus empirical treatment is common. The usefulness of different real time PCR (RT-PCR) assays for identifying species causing OM was assessed in samples from seventy patients and fifteen controls. Conventional methods and four different RT-PCR assays were used: a panfungal, a pandermatophyte and two specific assays for detecting Candida spp...
May 16, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501465/candiduria-evidence-based-approach-to-management-are-we-there-yet
#2
REVIEW
W A Alfouzan, R Dhar
Candiduria is considered one of the most controversial issues in patient management. Neither the diagnosis nor the optimal treatment options are standardized. This is further complicated by lack of defined laboratory criteria for diagnosis as most of the studies were set for bacterial rather than fungal urinary tract infection (UTI). Furthermore, since Candida species is a known commensal of the genitourinary tract its presence in the urine sample adds ambiguity to making a definitive diagnosis of candidal UTI...
May 10, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497678/eosinophil-fungal-rhinosinusitis-caused-by-fusarium-infection-secondary-to-odontogenic-maxillary-sinus-disease-when-collaboration-between-otolaryngologist-and-allergologist-leads-to-the-correct-diagnosis-and-therapy
#3
P Gamba, C Lombardi
Rhinitis and sinusitis usually coexist and are concurrent in most individuals; thus, the correct terminology is now "rhinosinusitis". On the basis of numerous causative factors, often co-existing in the same patient, the diagnosis of rhinosinusitis is also made by a wide variety of practitioners (allergologists, otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, primary care physicians, paediatricians, and many others). Approximately 5-15% of the population suffers from chronic rhinosinusitis, and in 10-12% of them, it is of dental origin...
May 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487208/epidemiology-and-outcome-of-invasive-fungal-infections-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-pneumonia-and-complicated-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-cssti-in-lebanon-and-saudi-arabia
#4
Rima Moghnieh, Adel F Alothman, Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi, Madonna J Matar, Thamer H Alenazi, Fayassal Farahat, Shelby L Corman, Caitlyn T Solem, Nirvana Raghubir, Cynthia Macahilig, Jennifer M Stephens
The objectives of this retrospective medical chart review study were to document the inpatient incidence, treatment, and clinical outcomes associated with invasive fungal infections (IFI) due to Candida and Aspergillus species, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia and MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI) in the Middle East. This study evaluated 2011-2012 data from 5 hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon with a combined total of 207,498 discharges. Hospital medical chart data were abstracted for a random sample of patients with each infection type (102 patients - IFI, 93 patients - MRSA pneumonia, and 87 patients-MRSA cSSTI)...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487045/pentraxin-3-levels-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-of-lung-transplant-recipients-with-invasive-aspergillosis
#5
Dima Kabbani, Archana Bhaskaran, Lianne G Singer, Alyajahan Bhimji, Coleman Rotstein, Shaf Keshavjee, W Conrad Liles, Shahid Husain
BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis is the most common invasive fungal infection in lung transplant recipients. The use of galactomannan testing in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has improved diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis; however, false-positive results can lead to overdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment. The use of proinflammatory markers such as pentraxin 3 (PTX3) may help differentiate between Aspergillus colonization and disease. METHODS: BAL PTX3 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 151 lung transplant recipients and 9 healthy control subjects...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483045/fungal-musculoskeletal-infections
#6
REVIEW
Michael W Henry, Andy O Miller, Thomas J Walsh, Barry D Brause
Fungi are rare but important causes of osteoarticular infections, and can be caused by a wide array of yeasts and molds. Symptoms are often subacute and mimic those of other more common causes of osteoarticular infection, which can lead to substantial delays in treatment. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis. The severity of infection depends on the inherent pathogenicity of the fungi, the immune status of the host, the anatomic location of the infection, and whether the infection involves a foreign body...
June 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480277/epidemiology-of-cryptococcosis-and-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-a-large-retrospective-cohort-of-patients-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#7
Ige A George, Carlos A Q Santos, Margaret A Olsen, William G Powderly
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is the third most common invasive fungal infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. There are no nationally representative data describing the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of cryptococcosis after SOT. METHODS: We assembled a large cohort of adult SOT recipients using Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification billing data from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases of Florida (2006-2012), New York (2006-2011), and California (2004-2010)...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470871/survival-of-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-in-modified-romanowsky-staining-solutions
#8
Angus Misan, Wei Yee Chan, Darren Trott, Peter B Hill
BACKGROUND: Stains that are used regularly for patient-side diagnosis to rapidly identify bacterial and fungal infections could become contaminated by common pathogens, such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, during slide immersion. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the inoculation of S. pseudintermedius into modified Romanowsky type stains (Quick Dip(®) ) results in viable bacterial contamination and whether this is influenced by the addition of organic debris (canine hair and skin)...
May 3, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469695/molecular-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-central-china
#9
Rongrong Yang, Hong Zhang, Yong Xiong, Xien Gui, Yongxi Zhang, Liping Deng, Shicheng Gao, Mingqi Luo, Wei Hou, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: CSF PCR is the standard diagnostic technique used in resource-rich settings to detect pathogens of the CNS infection. However, it is not currently used for routine CSF testing in China. Knowledge of CNS opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in China is limited. METHODS: Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral and fungal etiologies. Pathogen-specific primers were used to detect DNA from cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and John Cunningham virus (JCV) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464834/molecular-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-central-china
#10
Rongrong Yang, Hong Zhang, Yong Xiong, Xien Gui, Yongxi Zhang, Liping Deng, Shicheng Gao, Mingqi Luo, Wei Hou, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: CSF PCR is the standard diagnostic technique used in resource-rich settings to detect pathogens of the CNS infection. However, it is not currently used for routine CSF testing in China. Knowledge of CNS opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in China is limited. METHODS: Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral and fungal etiologies. Pathogen-specific primers were used to detect DNA from cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and John Cunningham virus (JCV) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
May 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462859/exfoliative-erythroderma-and-palmoplantar-hyperkeratosis-associated-with-majocchi-s-granuloma-by-trichophyton-tonsurans-in-a-patient-with-aids
#11
Marcelo R Lyra, Bruna Muniz Álvarez, Andrea L Lanziano, Maria Auxiliadora A Imbeth, Adriana M Sá, Tullia Cuzzi, Jeferson C Oliveira, Armando O Schubach
BACKGROUND: Dermatophytoses are skin superficial mycoses in which clinical manifestations are directly related to the virulence of the infecting microorganism or the host immunity. CASE REPORT: We describe a severe case of dermatophytosis associated with exfoliative erythroderma, substantial palmoplantar keratoderma, onychodystrophy affecting all nails, diffuse non-scarring alopecia and tissue fungal invasion by Trichophyton tonsurans, which led us to the diagnosis of AIDS...
April 24, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462080/a-case-of-pulmonary-actinomycosis-diagnosed-by-transbronchial-lung-biopsy
#12
Saya Nakamura, Masaaki Kusunose, Akira Satou, Kazuyoshi Senda, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Koichi Nishimura
A previously healthy 73-year-old man was hospitalized with left complicated effusion and a consolidation in the left upper lung. He underwent a chest tube insertion and was treated with clindamycin but the consolidation remained after the treatment. We subsequently performed flexible bronchoscopy but it was impossible to make a diagnosis. Three months later, the consolidation had worsened so we performed another bronchoscopy. Finally, we were able to diagnose the consolidation as pulmonary actinomycosis, and to treat the condition appropriately...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460550/evaluating-the-use-of-pcr-for-diagnosing-invasive-aspergillosis
#13
Dieter Buchheidt, Mark Reinwald, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann, Tobias Boch, Birgit Spiess
Aspergillus species, primarily Aspergillus fumigatus, are still the most emerging fungal pathogens. Within recent years, novel molecular methods have been developed to improve the diagnosis of life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in high risk patients. Especially patients with malignant hematological diseases undergoing intensive chemotherapy are at risk and mortality rates are exceptionally high, in part due to difficulties and delays in establishing a microbiologic diagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for an adequate therapeutical management, but, however, are hardly achieved in the clinical setting because most of the current conventional diagnostic tools either lack specificity or acceptable sensitivity at the critical early phase of the infection...
May 10, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458494/rhinocerebral-mucormycosis-report-of-a-rare-case
#14
Richa Sahota, Ramandeep Gambhir, Samir Anand, Avani Dixit
BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is one of the rapidly progressing and lethal form of fungal infection which involves the nose and paranasal sinuses of the head and the neck regions. Mucormycosis also remains a threat to patients with uncontrolled diabetes or other predisposing systemic conditions. It manifests as rhinocerebral, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cutaneous or disseminated form. The underlying conditions can influence clinical presentation and often delay diagnosis, with resultant poor outcomes...
January 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451399/preliminary-evaluation-of-circulating-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-in-paracoccidioidomycosis
#15
Junya De Lacorte Singulani, Julhiany De Fátima Da Silva, Fernanda Patricia Gullo, Marina Célia Costa, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Francisco Javier Enguita, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (length, 19-24 nucleotides) that regulate gene expression by either mRNA degradation or translational inhibition of proteins. Circulating miRNAs, which are extremely stable and protected from RNAse-mediated degradation in body fluids, have appeared as candidate biomarkers for numerous diseases. However, little is known about circulating miRNAs in fungal infections. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is caused by the Paracoccidioides species, and is endemic in Central and South America, with predominance in adult male workers from rural areas...
March 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438221/isolated-splenic-tuberculosis-with-subsequent-paradoxical-deterioration-a-case-report
#16
Frederick Wangai, Loice Achieng, George Otieno, Jacqueline Njoroge, Tabitha Wambaire, Jamilla Rajab
BACKGROUND: Isolated tuberculosis of the spleen has been described occasionally in literature, mostly in immunosuppressed individuals with various risk factors. Sequestration in the spleen makes such Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection difficult to diagnose. This report describes an extremely rare case of isolated splenic tuberculosis in an immunocompetent individual. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26 year old Kenyan male presented with pyrexia of unknown origin, with negative screening tests for bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections...
April 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437459/management-and-outcomes-of-severe-dengue-patients-presenting-with-sepsis-in-a-tropical-country
#17
Prapit Teparrukkul, Viriya Hantrakun, Nicholas P J Day, T Eoin West, Direk Limmathurotsakul
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a common cause of infection in adults in tropical countries. Sepsis is a syndrome of systemic manifestations induced by infection of any organisms; including bacterial, fungal and viral agents. Here, we investigated the diagnosis, management and outcomes of dengue patients presenting with sepsis in a prospective study of community-acquired sepsis in Thailand. METHODS: From June to December 2015, 874 adult patients (age≥18 years) with suspected or documented community-acquired infection, with ≥3 diagnostic criteria for sepsis according to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign 2012, and within 24 hours of admission were evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431569/co-colonisation-with-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-is-associated-with-poorer-health-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-an-irish-registry-analysis
#18
Emma Reece, Ricardo Segurado, Abaigeal Jackson, Siobhán McClean, Julie Renwick, Peter Greally
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary infection is the main cause of death in cystic fibrosis (CF). Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are the most prevalent fungal and bacterial pathogens isolated from the CF airway, respectively. Our aim was to determine the effect of different colonisation profiles of AF and PA on the clinical status of patients with CF. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data from the Cystic Fibrosis Registry of Ireland from 2013 was performed to determine the effect of intermittent and persistent colonisation with AF or PA or co-colonisation with both microorganisms on clinical outcome measures in patients with CF...
April 21, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429626/promising-immunotherapy-against-fungal-diseases
#19
Wilfried Posch, Marion Steger, Doris Wilflingseder, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
Despite the relatively high efficacy of antifungal drugs, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are still associated with tremendous morbidity and mortality, since late diagnosis makes an antifungal drug therapy inefficient. Therefore, antifungal immunotherapies to specifically strengthen the host´s own immune mechanisms constitute an additional promising strategy in taking action against fungal pathogens. Areas covered: The authors summarize efforts in research and clinical trials to provide safe and efficient immunotherapeutic options against invasive fungal diseases...
April 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427796/molecular-methods-for-septicemia-diagnosis
#20
Francesc Marco
Septicemia remains a major cause of hospital mortality. Blood culture remains the best approach to identify the etiological microorganisms when a bloodstream infection is suspected but it takes long time because it relies on bacterial or fungal growth. The introduction in clinical microbiology laboratories of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technology, DNA hybridization, microarrays or rapid PCR-based test significantly reduce the time to results. Tests for direct detection in whole blood samples are highly desirable because of their potential to identify bloodstream pathogens without waiting for blood cultures to become positive...
April 17, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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