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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913132/rapid-identification-of-candida-spp-frequently-involved-in-invasive-mycoses-by-using-flow-through-hybridization-and-gene-chip-fhgc-technology
#1
Chen Li, Xiurong Ding, Zhizhong Liu, Juanjuan Zhu
The incidence of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients has increased in recent decades. Rapid and accurate identification of these pathogenic fungi is crucial for initiating a timely, safe, and effective antifungal therapy. Here we developed a microarray based on flow-through hybridization gene chip technology. The microarray was tested for its specificity using a panel of reference and blinded clinical isolates. The results proved that this microarray was highly discriminative, leading to the unequivocal identification of each species, including Candida famata and the highly related species Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886402/analysis-of-paracoccidioides-lutzii-mitochondria-a-proteomic-approach
#2
L Casaletti, P S Lima, L N Lima, C L Borges, S N Báo, A M Bailão, C M A Bailão
The genus Paracoccidioides is composed of thermal dimorphic fungi, causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most frequent systemic mycoses in Latin America. Mitochondria have sophisticated machinery for ATP production, which involves metabolic pathways such as citric acid and glyoxylate cycles, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, this organelle performs a variety of functions in the cell, working as an exceptional metabolic signaling center that contributes to cellular stress responses, as autophagy and apoptosis in eukaryotic organisms...
November 25, 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880667/the-current-treatment-landscape-other-fungal-diseases-cryptococcosis-fusariosis-and-mucormycosis
#3
Olivier Lortholary, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, John R Perfect
Compared with major invasive mycoses such as aspergillosis and candidiasis, the antifungal stewardship management strategies of other fungal diseases have different opportunities and considerations. Cryptococcosis, fusariosis and mucormycosis are globally prevalent invasive fungal diseases (IFDs), but are not currently included in antifungal prophylaxis guidelines for immunocompromised hosts. Since the implementation of biomarkers as part of diagnostic screening strategies, the concept of pre-emptive antifungal therapy has emerged for these IFDs...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856522/chromoblastomycosis
#4
REVIEW
Flavio Queiroz-Telles, Sybren de Hoog, Daniel Wagner C L Santos, Claudio Guedes Salgado, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Alexandro Bonifaz, Emmanuel Roilides, Liyan Xi, Conceição de Maria Pedrozo E Silva Azevedo, Moises Batista da Silva, Zoe Dorothea Pana, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Thomas J Walsh
Chromoblastomycosis (CBM), also known as chromomycosis, is one of the most prevalent implantation fungal infections, being the most common of the gamut of mycoses caused by melanized or brown-pigmented fungi. CBM is mainly a tropical or subtropical disease that may affect individuals with certain risk factors around the world. The following characteristics are associated with this disease: (i) traumatic inoculation by implantation from an environmental source, leading to an initial cutaneous lesion at the inoculation site; (ii) chronic and progressive cutaneous and subcutaneous tissular involvement associated with fibrotic and granulomatous reactions associated with microabscesses and often with tissue proliferation; (iii) a nonprotective T helper type 2 (Th2) immune response with ineffective humoral involvement; and (iv) the presence of muriform (sclerotic) cells embedded in the affected tissue...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856170/antifungal-activity-of-acetone-extracts-from-punica-granatum-l-quercus-suber-l-%C3%A2-and-vicia-faba-l
#5
S Akroum
Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity...
November 14, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837506/serological-approaches
#6
Barbora Weinbergerova, Iva Kocmanova, Zdenek Racil, Jiri Mayer
The diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) based on clinical, radiological, and conventional microbiological findings is not reliable and is often delayed. Non-culture-based methods with higher sensitivity and specificity may reduce diagnostic time and result in decreased IFD morbidity and mortality. These methods are now increasingly used to manage patients at risk of IFD. Among available biomarkers, fungal antigens have been investigated as an aid to early diagnosis and are predominantly used as screening tests to prompt antifungal treatment mainly in patients with hematological malignancies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837505/culture-based-techniques
#7
Birgit Willinger
The detection of fungal elements and their characterization in patient specimens provides fundamental information. Culture-based methods, though often slow, may yield the specific etiological agent, and may allow susceptibility testing to be performed. Proper collection and transportation of the specimen is essential. Particularly, sterile materials are important for diagnosis of invasive fungal infections.Therefore, culture and direct microscopy should be performed on all suitable clinical specimens when fungal disease is suspected...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822542/rna-sequencing-based-genome-reannotation-of-the-dermatophyte-arthroderma-benhamiae-and-characterization-of-its-secretome-and-whole-gene-expression-profile-during-infection
#8
Van Du T Tran, Niccolò De Coi, Marc Feuermann, Emanuel Schmid-Siegert, Elena-Tatiana Băguţ, Bernard Mignon, Patrice Waridel, Corinne Peter, Sylvain Pradervand, Marco Pagni, Michel Monod
Dermatophytes are the most common agents of superficial mycoses in humans and animals. The aim of the present investigation was to systematically identify the extracellular, possibly secreted, proteins that are putative virulence factors and antigenic molecules of dermatophytes. A complete gene expression profile of Arthroderma benhamiae was obtained during infection of its natural host (guinea pig) using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. This profile was completed with those of the fungus cultivated in vitro in two media containing either keratin or soy meal protein as the sole source of nitrogen and in Sabouraud medium...
July 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815226/utility-of-the-serum-galactomannan-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
Gulhadiye Avcu, Deniz Yilmaz Karapinar, Ayse Burcu Akinci, Zuhal Onder Sivis, Akkiz Sahin, Zumrut Sahbudak Bal, Suleyha Hilmioglu Polat, Dilek Yesim Metin, Fadil Vardar, Yesim Aydinok
OBJECTIVES: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children with hematological malignancies. The monitoring of serum galactomannan (GM) antigen is considered useful in the diagnosis of IA . The aim of this study was to determine the utility of serum GM monitoring in the early diagnosis of IA and the role of positive antigenemia in the management of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). METHODS: The cases of 141 children who were being treated for ALL in the Division of Pediatric Hematology of the Medical School of Ege University between January 2006 and February 2015 were reviewed retrospectively...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807434/perplexing-metabolomes-in-fungal-insect-trophic-interactions-a-terra-incognita-of-mycobiocontrol-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Digar Singh, Su Y Son, Choong H Lee
The trophic interactions of entomopathogenic fungi in different ecological niches viz., soil, plants, or insect themselves are effectively regulated by their maneuvered metabolomes and the plethora of metabotypes. In this article, we discuss a holistic framework of co-evolutionary metabolomes and metabotypes to model the interactions of biocontrol fungi especially with mycosed insects. Conventionally, the studies involving fungal biocontrol mechanisms are reported in the context of much aggrandized fungal entomotoxins while the adaptive response mechanisms of host insects are relatively overlooked...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770760/the-hydrolytic-enzymes-produced-by-fungi-strains-isolated-from-the-sand-and-soil-of-recreational-areas
#11
Piotr Kurnatowski, Anna Wójcik, Joanna Błaszkowska, Katarzyna Góralska
The pathogenicity of fungi depends on, inter alia, the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity of yeasts and yeast-like fungi isolated from children’s recreation areas, and compare the results with literature data of strains obtained from patients with mycoses. The enzymatic activity of 96 strains was assessed using an API ZYM kit (bioMerieux, France) and their biotypes were established. The fungal species were found to produce from 16 to 19 hydrolases: the most active were: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), alkaline phosphatase (e1), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11), esterase – C4 (e2), β-galac - tosidase (e13) and β-glucosidase (e16)...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770757/the-mycobiome-%C3%A2-a-friendly-cross-talk-between-fungal-colonizers-and-their-host
#12
Dworecka-Kaszak Bożena, Dąbrowska Iwona, Kaszak Ilona
The organisms colonizing a living host create together with their host a holobiome. The holobioms are networks of mutualistic interactions between host`s cells and microorganisms communities. The fungi are among these microorganisms and have been also well known to infect human and animals. These organisms are associated with a wide range of diseases as superficial or systemic mycoses. Fungi as colonizers can also modify host physiology and metabolism, energy acquisition, vitamin-cofactor availability, development and function of immune system, and even host behavior...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763259/antifungal-drugs-the-current-armamentarium-and-development-of-new-agents
#13
Nicole Robbins, Gerard D Wright, Leah E Cowen
Invasive fungal infections are becoming an increasingly important cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly for immunocompromised populations. The fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus collectively contribute to over 1 million human deaths annually. Hence, the importance of safe and effective antifungal therapeutics for the practice of modern medicine has never been greater. Given that fungi are eukaryotes like their human host, the number of unique molecular targets that can be exploited for drug development remains limited...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750101/development-and-characterization-of-the-voriconazole-loaded-lipid-based-nanoparticles
#14
Petra Füredi, Zsófia Edit Pápay, Kristóf Kovács, Borbála Dalmadi Kiss, Krisztina Ludányi, István Antal, Imre Klebovich
The number of topical fungal infections is growing, mostly owing to immunosuppressive therapy. Several topical fungal infections, such as eye mycoses, can be treated by local administration of antimycotic drugs. One major group of the antifungal agents is triazole, such as voriconazole (VCZ), which is used as the first line treatment of aspergillosis. A disadvantage of VCZ is its low water solubility making the drug difficult to administer in a liquid preparation. The lipid-based nanoparticles (LNP) have attracted increasing attention due to their advantageous properties...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750097/food-safety-in-scavenger-conservation-diet-associated-exposure-to-livestock-pharmaceuticals-and-opportunist-mycoses-in-threatened-cinereous-and-egyptian-vultures
#15
Guillermo Blanco, Alexandra Junza, Dolores Barrón
Pharmaceuticals from veterinary treatments may enter terrestrial food webs when medicated livestock are available to wildlife in supplementary feeding stations aimed at the conservation of endangered scavengers. Here, we hypothesized that the exposure risk to livestock fluoroquinolones, as indicators of pharmaceutical burden in food, is related to the variable reliance of scavengers on domestic versus wild animal carcasses. Since the misuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics is a major predisposing factor for opportunistic mycoses, we evaluated disease signs potentially associated with diet-dependent drug exposure in nestlings of two threatened vultures...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744308/ast-to-alt-ratio-is-elevated-in-disseminated-histoplasmosis-as-compared-to-localized-pulmonary-disease-and-other-endemic-mycoses
#16
Andrej Spec, Christopher R Barrios, Usama Ahmad, Laurie A Proia
Severe pulmonary or disseminated histoplasmosis often necessitates presumptive antifungal treatment while awaiting definitive diagnosis. Histoplasma antigen assays have improved sensitivity but results may lag up to 7 days. In order to increase diagnostic certainty, "soft clues" may be looked for in laboratory and radiologic data, such as elevated alkaline phosphatase or ferritin levels and findings of mediastinal adenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. To determine if elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio is specific to histoplasmosis or a non-specific marker for disseminated fungal infection or sepsis in general, we retrospectively examined records of all patients diagnosed with an endemic fungal infection (EFI) at Rush University Medical Center from January of 1997 to October of 2012, and a cohort of septic patients with elevated liver enzymes...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739110/anti-dermatophyte-and-anti-malassezia-activity-of-extracts-rich-in-polymeric-flavan-3-ols-obtained-from-vitis-vinifera-seeds
#17
Giovanna Simonetti, Felicia Diodata D'Auria, Nadia Mulinacci, Marzia Innocenti, Donato Antonacci, Letizia Angiolella, Anna Rita Santamaria, Alessio Valletta, Livia Donati, Gabriella Pasqua
Several human skin diseases are associated with fungi as dermatophytes and Malassezia. Skin mycoses are increasing and new alternatives to conventional treatments with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. For the first time, the anti-dermatophytes and the anti-Malassezia activities of Vitis vinifera seed extracts obtained from different table and wine cultivars have been evaluated. Geometric minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 20 to 97 µg/mL for dermatophytes and from 32 to 161 µg/mL for Malassezia furfur...
October 13, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704024/invasive-aspergillosis-associated-with-severe-influenza-infections
#18
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone
Background.  Invasive aspergillosis may occur in the setting of severe influenza infections due to viral-induced respiratory epithelium disruption and impaired immune effects, but data are limited. Methods.  A retrospective study was conducted among severe influenza cases requiring medical intensive care unit (ICU) admission at an academic center during the 2015-2016 season. Data collected included respiratory cultures, medical conditions and immunosuppressants, laboratory and radiographic data, and outcomes...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704020/serum-amyloid-p-component-and-systemic-fungal-infection-does-it-protect-the-host-or-is-it-a-trojan-horse
#19
Stephen A Klotz, Richard E Sobonya, Peter N Lipke, Melissa C Garcia-Sherman
It is a striking observation that tissue of patients invaded by the deep mycoses often lacks evidence of an inflammatory response. This lack of host response is often attributed to neutropenia secondary to chemotherapy. However, systematic studies do not support this simplistic explanation. However, invasive fungal lesions are characterized by abundant fungal functional amyloid, which in turn is bound by serum amyloid P component (SAP). We postulate that SAP is important in the local immune response in invasive fungal infections...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690694/complications-of-invasive-mycoses-in-organ-transplant-recipients
#20
Palash Samanta, Nina Singh
Opportunistic mycoses remain a significant complication in organ recipients. Areas covered: This review is an evidence-based presentation of current state-of-knowledge and our perspective on recent developments in the field Expert commentary: Invasive fungal infections are associated with reduced allograft and patient survival, increase in healthcare resource utilization, and newly appreciated but largely unrecognized immunologic sequelae, such as immune reconstitution syndrome. Given adverse outcomes associated with established infections, prophylaxis is a widely used strategy for the prevention of these infections...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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