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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164168/aids-related-endemic-mycoses-in-western-cape-south-africa-and-clinical-mimics-a-cross-sectional-study-of-adults-with-advanced-hiv-and-recent-onset-widespread-skin-lesions
#1
Ilan S Schwartz, Chris Kenyon, Rannakoe Lehloenya, Saskya Claasens, Zandile Spengane, Hans Prozesky, Rosie Burton, Arifa Parker, Sean Wasserman, Graeme Meintjes, Marc Mendelson, Jantjie Taljaard, Johann W Schneider, Natalie Beylis, Bonnie Maloba, Nelesh P Govender, Robert Colebunders, Sipho Dlamini
Background: Skin lesions are common in advanced HIV infection and are sometimes caused by serious diseases like systemic mycoses (SM). AIDS-related SM endemic to Western Cape, South Africa, include emergomycosis (formerly disseminated emmonsiosis), histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. We previously reported that 95% of patients with AIDS-related emergomycosis had skin lesions, although these were frequently overlooked or misdiagnosed clinically. Prospective studies are needed to characterize skin lesions of SM in South Africa and to help distinguish these from common HIV-related dermatoses...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154044/modulating-host-immune-responses-to-fight-invasive-fungal-infections
#2
REVIEW
James E Scriven, Mark W Tenforde, Stuart M Levitz, Joseph N Jarvis
Modulation of host immunity in invasive fungal infection is an appealing but as yet mostly elusive treatment strategy. Animal studies in invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis have demonstrated beneficial effects of colony stimulating factors, interferon-gamma and monoclonal antibodies. More recent studies transfusing leukocytes pre-loaded with lipophilic anti-fungal drugs, or modulated T-cells, along with novel vaccination strategies show great promise. The translation of immune therapies into clinical studies has been limited to date but this is changing and the results of new Candida vaccine trials are eagerly awaited...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153538/oral-paracoccidioidomycosis-in-a-single-center-retrospective-analysis-from-a-brazilian-southeastern-population
#3
Laís Moreira Dutra, Thiago Humberto Mendonça Silva, Aloísio Falqueto, Paulo Mendes Peçanha, Lucia Renata Meireles Souza, Sarah Santos Gonçalves, Tânia Regina Grão Velloso
BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most prevalent endemic systemic fungal infection in Latin America. In Brazil, it stands out as the eighth-highest cause of mortality among chronic or recurrent infections and has the highest mortality rate among systemic mycoses. Oral mucosal lesions may be the first visible physical manifestation of the disease. This study traced the epidemiological and clinical profiles of patients with oral lesions treated at the University Hospital Cassiano Antonio Moraes, Federal University of Espirito Santo...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147867/population-structure-of-candida-parapsilosis-no-genetic-difference-between-french-and-urugayan-isolates-using-microsatellite-length-polymorphism
#4
Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Victoria Bórmida, Philippe Poirier, Céline Nourrisson, Dinorah Pan, Stéphane Bretagne, Andrès Puime, Françoise Dromer
Candida parapsilosis is a human commensal yeast, frequently involved in infection worldwide and especially in neonates. It is the second species responsible for bloodstream infections in Uruguay and the third species in France. We were interested in knowing whether the population structure of isolates responsible for candidemia in France and in Uruguay was different. Genotyping methods based on microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) have been described and are especially used for investigation of local outbreaks...
November 16, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141535/sln-and-nlc-encapsulating-antifungal-agents-skin-drug-delivery-and-their-unexplored-potential-for-treating-onychomycosis
#5
Tais Gratieri, Anna Paula Krawczyk-Santos, Priscila Bianca Rodrigues da Rocha, Marcilio Cunha-Filho, Guilherme Martins Gelfuso, Ricardo Neves Marreto, Stephania Fleury Taveira
BACKGROUND: Lipid nanoparticles have been extensively studied for drug delivery of antifungal drugs, especially for dermatophytosis treatments. They can accumulate in skin appendages and release drugs in a controlled manner and also increase skin moisture, due to the formation of an occlusive film. Since moisture heavily influences nail and skin permeability, these systems seem to pose great potential for antifungal drug delivery. METHODS: We therefore compare skin and nail physiopathological structure and discuss the potential use of lipid nanoparticles in managing skin and nail mycoses, highlighting their unexplored use in onychomycosis...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128761/inborn-errors-of-immunity-underlying-fungal-diseases-in-otherwise-healthy-individuals
#6
REVIEW
Juan Li, Donald C Vinh, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel
It has been estimated that there are at least 1.5 million fungal species, mostly present in the environment, but only a few of these fungi cause human disease. Most fungal diseases are self-healing and benign, but some are chronic or life-threatening. Acquired and inherited defects of immunity, including breaches of mucocutaneous barriers and circulating leukocyte deficiencies, account for most severe modern-day mycoses. Other types of infection typically accompany these fungal infections. More rarely, severe fungal diseases can strike otherwise healthy individuals...
November 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114929/disfiguring-facial-mycoses-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#7
G H D C Janappriya, C N Gunasekera, B S D N Keragala, B S Dissanayake, P D Liyanagama, V Shanmuhathas, B Thanushah, L S M Sigera, P I Jayasekera
Some fungal infections may lead to devastating destruction of face, sometimes followed by fatal consequences. Conidiobolus coronatus is a rare, but serious emerging fungal pathogen of humans, causing Conidiobolomycosis, commonly infecting nasal mucosa and with potential to extend to involve vital structures such as brain and eyes. Treatment of this infection is extremely difficult and can cause significant disfiguring sequale, unless aggressively treated. We illustrate an interesting case, encountered within a short space of time affected by such infections and emphasize the need for thorough evaluation, investigation and aggressive initial treatment to achieve a good clinical response...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112282/antifungals-discovery-an-insight-into-new-strategies-to-combat-antifungal-resistance
#8
REVIEW
Alexandre M Fuentefria, Bruna Pippi, Daiane F Dalla Lana, Katarzyna K Donato, Saulo F de Andrade
Undeniably, new antifungal treatments are necessary against pathogenic fungi. Fungal infections have significantly increased in recent decades, being highlighted as important causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Five main antifungal classes are used: (i) azoles, (ii) echinocandins, (iii) polyenes, (iv) allylamines and (v) pyrimidine analogs. Moreover, the treatment of mycoses has several limitations, such as; undesirable side effects, narrow activity spectrum, a small number of targets and fungal resistance; which are still of major concern in clinical practice...
November 7, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094463/severe-dermatophytosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-french-retrospective-series-and-literature-review
#9
Claire Rouzaud, Olivier Chosidow, Anabelle Brocard, Sylvie Fraitag, Anne Scemla, Dany Anglicheau, Jean-David Bouaziz, Nicolas Dupin, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Roderick Hay, Olivier Lortholary, Fanny Lanternier
OBJECTIVE: Severe dermatophytosis is described in immunocompromised patients with defective cellular immunity. We report here a large series and a literature review of severe dermatophytosis in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. METHOD: The data main source was a national French retrospective study of severe dermatophytosis in SOT recipients between 2010 and 2016. Inclusion criteria were the presence of dermatophytes in skin culture and one severity criteria: dermal invasion by dermatophytes (invasive dermatophytosis) or involvement of at least two body sites or >10% of body surface area (extensive dermatophytosis) RESULTS: Twelve patients were included (8 men, median age of 56 years [range: 33-71])...
November 2, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093719/interaction-of-thp-1-monocytes-with-conidia-and-hyphae-of-different-curvularia-strains
#10
Eszter Judit Tóth, Éva Boros, Alexandra Hoffmann, Csilla Szebenyi, Mónika Homa, Gábor Nagy, Csaba Vágvölgyi, István Nagy, Tamás Papp
Interaction of the human monocytic cell line, THP-1 with clinical isolates of three Curvularia species were examined. Members of this filamentous fungal genus can cause deep mycoses emerging in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. It was found that monocytes reacted only to the hyphal form of Curvularia lunata. Cells attached to the germ tubes and hyphae and production of elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 and a low level of TNF-α were measured. At the same time, monocytes failed to produce IL-6...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090458/a-narrative-review-of-dermatologic-protocols-for-primary-care-medical-service-trips-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#11
Christopher Dainton, Charlene H Chu
BACKGROUND: Skin disorders are prevalent on primary care medical service trips in Latin America and the Caribbean and commonly include scabies, superficial mycoses, and pyoderma. There have been no previous attempts to describe protocols that international volunteer clinicians use in managing these patients. The purpose of this study was to collect North American clinical protocols used by sending organizations in their volunteer operations in Latin America and the Caribbean, summarize the most common pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic management strategies, and compare these to published international practice recommendations...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077791/prosthetic-valve-candida-spp-endocarditis-new-insights-into-long-term-prognosis-the-escape-study
#12
Claire Rivoisy, Antonio Vena, Laura Schaeffer, Caroline Charlier, Arnaud Fontanet, François Delahaye, Emilio Bouza, Olivier Lortholary, Patricia Munoz, Agnès Lefort
Background: Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Candida spp. (PVE-C) is rare and devastating, with international guidelines based on expert recommendations consisting in the combination of surgery and subsequent azole treatment. Methods: PVE-C collected in Spain and France between 2001 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed with a focus on management and outcome. Results: Forty-six cases were followed up for a median of 9 months. Twenty-two (48%) patients had a past history of endocarditis; 30 (65%) cases were nosocomial or healthcare-related, 9 (20%) patients were intravenous drug users...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050446/management-of-mycoses-in-daily-practice
#13
Lorenzo Drago, Giuseppe Micali, Manuela Papini, Bianca M Piraccini, Stefano Veraldi
The guideline recommendations, albeit founded on thorough reviews of clinically relevant literature data, are often not immediately adaptable to everyday life. Considering the marked heterogeneity of superficial mycoses, each of them requires specific management in a real life context; in all cases diagnostic confirmation is required with microscopic and culture examination. In tinea capitis oral therapy is necessary (minimum six weeks) and should be continued until clinical and, above all, mycological healing...
December 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992290/invasive-fungal-disease-in-pediatric-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#14
Shikha Saxena, Jerica Gee, Sarah Klieger, Adriana Kajon, Hans Petersen, Theoklis Zaoutis, Brian Fisher
Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk for invasive fungal disease (IFD). Data on IFD burden in pediatric patients are limited. We aimed to determine the incidence and outcome of IFD in a large cohort of pediatric patients who underwent SOT. Methods: A single-center cohort of pediatric patients who underwent SOT between 2000 and 2013 was assembled retrospectively. The patients were followed for 180 days after transplant or until death to determine the presence or absence of IFD...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988902/-evaluation-of-fusarium-spp-pathogenicity-in-plant-and-murine-models
#15
Consuelo M Forero-Reyes, Angela M Alvarado-Fernández, Ana M Ceballos-Rojas, Lady C González-Carmona, Melva Y Linares-Linares, Rubiela Castañeda-Salazar, Adriana Pulido-Villamarín, Manuel E Góngora-Medina, Jesús A Cortés-Vecino, María X Rodríguez-Bocanegra
The genus Fusarium is widely recognized for its phytopathogenic capacity. However, it has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Thus, it can be considered a microorganism of interest in pathogenicity studies on different hosts. Therefore, this work evaluated the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolates from different origins in plants and animals (murine hosts). Twelve isolates of Fusarium spp. from plants, animal superficial mycoses, and human superficial and systemic mycoses were inoculated in tomato, passion fruit and carnation plants, and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mice...
October 5, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988704/fungal-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-small-animals-clinical-features-diagnosis-and-management
#16
REVIEW
R Timothy Bentley, Amanda R Taylor, Stephanie A Thomovsky
Small animal mycoses vary geographically. Different clinical presentations are seen in animals with infection of the central nervous system (CNS), including multifocal meningoencephalomyelitis, intracranial lesions that accompany sinonasal lesions, rapidly progressive ventriculitis, or solitary granuloma of the brain or spinal cord. Systemic, nasal, or extraneural clinical signs are common but, especially in granuloma cases, do not always occur. Surgery may have a diagnostic and therapeutic role in CNS granuloma...
October 5, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987173/parasitic-and-fungal-infections
#17
Nikolaus Deigendesch, Jean Costa Nunez, Werner Stenzel
Parasitic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) comprise a plethora of infectious agents leading to a multitude of different disease courses and thus diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The prevalence of different pathogens is basically dependent on geographic and ethnic backgrounds, its infectious route frequently involving a third party, such as flies or domestic animals. The present review focuses on cerebral malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection, and Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis. Fungi produce a large variety of inflammatory conditions of the CNS with a variegated spectrum of signs and symptoms, which may involve the meninges and the brain parenchyma, where they produce cerebritis or abscesses and granulomatous lesions, respectively...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974395/scedosporium-boydii-cata1-and-sodc-recombinant-proteins-new-tools-for-serodiagnosis-of-scedosporium-infection-of-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#18
Sara Mina, Cindy Staerck, Agnès Marot, Charlotte Godon, Alphonse Calenda, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Maxime J J Fleury
Scedosporium species rank the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), after Aspergillus fumigatus. In CF, these fungi may cause various respiratory infections similar to those caused by A. fumigatus, including bronchitis and allergic broncho-pulmonary mycoses. Diagnosis of these infections relies on the detection of serum antibodies using crude antigenic extracts. However, many components of these extracts are common to Scedosporium and Aspergillus species, leading to cross-reactions...
August 26, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959790/proteolytic-activity-and-cooperative-hemolytic-effect-of-dermatophytes-with-different-species-of-bacteria
#19
K Pakshir, T Mohamadi, H Khodadadi, M Motamedifar, K Zomorodian, S Alipour, M Motamedi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Globally, dermatophytes are the most common filamentous group of fungi causing cutaneous mycoses. Dermatophytes were shown to secrete a multitude of enzymes that play a role in their pathogenesis. There is limited data on co-hemolytic (CAMP-like) effect of different bacterial species on dermatophyte species. In this study, we sought to the evaluate exoenzyme activity and co-hemolytic effect of four bacteria on clinical dermatophytes isolated from patients in Shiraz, Iran...
December 2016: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958862/antifungal-therapy-in-equine-ocular-mycotic-infections
#20
REVIEW
Eric C Ledbetter
Fungi are clinically important causes of ocular infections in the horse. Keratomycosis is the most common; however, a diverse range of mycotic infections, affecting numerous ocular tissues, may be encountered. Many equine mycoses are diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Prompt and appropriate treatment is essential to minimize morbidity and reduce the likelihood of vision loss. Knowledge of the characteristics and properties of equine ophthalmology antifungal medications is essential to selecting an optimal treatment strategy, including selection of appropriate medication and effective administration route...
September 25, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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