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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#1
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781185/helper-t-cell-responses-and-pulmonary-fungal-infections
#2
REVIEW
Andrew J McDermott, Bruce S Klein
The mucosal surface of the respiratory tract encounters microbes, such as fungal particles, with every inhaled breath. When pathogenic fungi breach the physical barrier and innate immune system within the lung to establish an infection, adaptive immunity is engaged often in the form of helper CD4 T-cell responses. Type 1 responses, characterized by IFNγ production from CD4 cells, promote clearance of Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Likewise, IL-17A production from Th17 cells promotes immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis and Coccidiodes species infection by recruiting neutrophils...
May 20, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774605/mixed-infections-are-a-critical-factor-in-the-treatment-of-superficial-mycoses
#3
A Gawaz, G Weisel
BACKGROUND: Superficial fungal infections of the skin, nails and hair are common with Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans being the main pathogens. Yet, in some patients, mycological cultures show growth of more than one fungal agent in the same anatomical region. OBJECTIVE: This study analyses prevalence, frequency and fungal agents found in superficial fungal mixed infections and discusses consequences for diagnostics and treatment. METHODS: Mycological data obtained between January 2006 to December 2015 from clinical specimens from a total cohort of 7733 patients with suspected fungal infections were retrospectively analysed...
May 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767317/successful-sequential-treatment-with-itraconazole-and-ala-pdt-for-cutaneous-granuloma-by-candida-albicans-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Qing Cai, Lian-Juan Yang, Jia Chen, Hong Yang, Zhi-Qin Gao, Xiu-Li Wang
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a process that combines a photosensitizing drug and light and promotes phototoxic responses in target cells, mainly via oxidative damage. Antifungal photodynamic therapy has been successfully employed against Candida species, dermatophytes, and deep mycoses. We present a case of a cutaneous granuloma caused by C. albicans treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-PDT. A 64-year-old man presented with two plaques on his right hand and wrist for 2 years. The diagnosis was made based on histopathology, mycology, and molecular identification of paraffin-embedded tissues...
May 16, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764947/biological-roles-played-by-sphingolipids-in-dimorphic-and-filamentous-fungi
#5
REVIEW
Caroline Mota Fernandes, Gustavo H Goldman, Maurizio Del Poeta
Filamentous and dimorphic fungi cause invasive mycoses associated with high mortality rates. Among the fungal determinants involved in the establishment of infection, glycosphingolipids (GSLs) have gained increased interest in the last few decades. GSLs are ubiquitous membrane components that have been isolated from both filamentous and dimorphic species and play a crucial role in polarized growth as well as hypha-to-yeast transition. In fungi, two major classes of GSLs are found: neutral and acidic GSLs. Neutral GSLs comprise glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide, which utilize Δ4-Δ8-9-methyl-sphingadienine as a sphingoid base, linked to a C16-18 fatty acid chain, forming ceramide, and to a sugar residue, such as glucose or galactose...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762721/clinical-evaluation-of-the-dermagenius%C3%A2-nail-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-dermatophytes-and-candida-albicans-in-nails
#6
Marie-Pierre Hayette, Laurence Seidel, Caroline Adjetey, Rajae Darfouf, Marie Wéry, Raphaël Boreux, Rosalie Sacheli, Pierrette Melin, Jorge Arrese
Onychomycosis represents one of the most frequent mycoses in the world. Causative agents are mainly dermatophytes, but yeasts and nondermatophyte moulds can also be involved. Conventional diagnostic methods include direct microscopy (or histology) and culturing. However, molecular methods are becoming increasingly popular in this field. The DermaGenius® (DG) Nail multiplex assay (PathoNostics, The Netherlands) is a new commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit, which can detect Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale and Candida albicans directly in nails...
May 11, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761326/fusariosis-in-a-captive-south-american-sea-lion-otaria-flavescens-a-case-report
#7
Laura Reisfeld, Carlos Sacristán, Paloma Canedo, Bruna Schwarz, Ana Carolina Ewbank, Fernando Esperón, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Superficial mycoses are commonly reported in captive pinnipeds, usually maintained in wet and warm environments, favorable to fungal growth. Most superficial mycoses in pinnipeds have been described as difficult to treat; however, the majority of the reports come from past decades. Cutaneous lesions associated with opportunistic Fusarium sp. infections have been previously recognized in this taxon. We described the clinical signs, associated lesions and diagnosis (thermography, imprint cytology, histopathology, culture, electron microscopy, PCR) of a fusariosis case by Fusarium sp...
May 14, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753721/efficacy-of-modified-leeming-notman-media-in-a-resazurin-microtiter-assay-in-the-evaluation-of-in-vitro-activity-of-fluconazole-against-malassezia-furfur-atcc-14521
#8
F E Far, M M J Al-Obaidi, M N M Desa
BACKGROUND: Malassezia furfur is lipodependent yeast like fungus that causes superficial mycoses such as pityriasis versicolor and dandruff. Nevertheless, there are no standard reference methods to perform susceptibility test of Malassezia species yet. AIMS: Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the optimized culture medium for growth of this lipophilic yeast using modified leeming-Notman agar and colorimetric resazurin microtiter assay to assess antimycotic activity of fluconazole against M...
May 9, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740519/repurposing-drugs-to-fast-track-therapeutic-agents-for-the-treatment-of-cryptococcosis
#9
Megan Truong, Leigh G Monahan, Dee A Carter, Ian G Charles
Many infectious diseases disproportionately affect people in the developing world. Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the most common mycoses in HIV-AIDS patients, with the highest burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Current best treatment regimens still result in unacceptably high mortality rates, and more effective antifungal agents are needed urgently. Drug development is hampered by the difficulty of developing effective antifungal agents that are not also toxic to human cells, and by a reluctance among pharmaceutical companies to invest in drugs that cannot guarantee a high financial return...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739763/iatrogenic-immunosuppression-may-favour-alternaria-skin-lesion-flares
#10
Rosanna Satta, Maria Pina Dore, Giovanni Mario Pes, Gabriele Biondi
Alternaria spp may cause opportunistic mycoses in the skin after cutaneous inoculation or through blood dissemination in immune-suppressed patients. Here, we describe a case of cutaneous infection with Alternaria spp in a 62-year-old man, presenting with multifocal papules and erythematous nodules involving distal limbs bilaterally. The absence of inflammatory bowel disease was confirmed by a gastroenterologist. The patient was under treatment for uveitis of unknown origin with immunosuppressive doses of cyclosporin and prednisolone for approximately 3 months...
May 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730129/anticandidal-synergistic-activity-of-ocimum-sanctum-and-fluconazole-of-azole-resistance-strains-of-clinical-isolates
#11
K U Zaidi, F Shah, R Parmar, V Thawani
Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen in humans. It is the causative agent and most associated with serious fungal infection, accounting for more than 90% of cases. It is a most common cause of deep mycoses and vulvovaginal candidiasis. In the present study we found that methanolic extract of O. sanctum in combination of fluconazole shows higher zone of inhibition and lesser MIC values as compared to methanolic extract of leaves of O. sanctum or fluconazole when used alone. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was found when methanolic extract of leaves of O...
May 2, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726703/chemical-characterization-and-antifungal-activity-of-origanum-vulgare-thymus-vulgaris-essential-oils-and-carvacrol-against-malassezia-furfur
#12
Vittorio Vinciguerra, Florencia Rojas, Viviana Tedesco, Gustavo Giusiano, Letizia Angiolella
The composition of the essential oils (EOs) of O. vulgare L. EO and T. vulgaris EO, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activities of the EOs and its main component, carvacrol, were evaluated against 27 clinical isolates of Malassezia furfur. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the broth microdilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) modified for Malassezia spp. EOs and carvacrol showed low MIC values ranged 450-900 μg/ml against M. furfur...
May 4, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683289/antimicrobial-effects-of-photodynamic-therapy-an-overview
#13
Vanesa Pérez-Laguna, Ana J García-Malinis, Carmen Aspiroz, Antonio Rezusta, Yolanda Gilaberte
The microorganisms that cause infections are increasing their resistance to antibiotics. In this context, alternative treatments are necessary. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a therapeutic modality based on photosensitizing molecules that end up generating reactive oxygen species that induce the destruction of the target cells when are irradiated with light of a suitable wavelength and at a proper dose. The cells targeted by aPDT are all types of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and parasites) including viruses and has been proven effective against representative members of all of them...
April 19, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668128/tuberculosis-associated-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-antagonists-case-description-and-analysis-of-reported-cases-in-colombia
#14
Leandro Galvis, Ángel Y Sánchez, Leonardo F Jurado, Martha I Murcia
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important fundamental cytokine during the immune response against cancer and infections such as tuberculosis. This molecule also plays a key pathogenic role in complex and difficult-to-treat diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis and ulcerative colitis. The treatment of these diseases frequently needs TNF-α antagonists, which has been related to an increased risk of developing tuberculosis, mycoses, and other severe infections...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663416/autophagy-induction-by-trehalose-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-impacts
#15
REVIEW
Kiana Hosseinpour-Moghaddam, Michele Caraglia, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The balance between synthesis and degradation is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis and different mechanisms are known to keep this balance. In this review, we will provide a short overview on autophagy as an intracellular homeostatic degradative machinery. We will also describe the involvement of downregulation of autophagy in numerous diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, aging, metabolic disorders, and other infectious diseases. Therefore, modulation of autophagic processes can represent a promising way of intervention in different diseases including neurodegeneration and cancer...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601861/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-fungal-infection
#16
REVIEW
Constantin F Urban, Jeniel E Nett
Fungal infections are a continuously increasing problem in modern health care. Understanding the complex biology of the emerging pathogens and unraveling the mechanisms of host defense may form the basis for the development of more efficient diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Neutrophils play a pivotal role in the defense against fungal pathogens. These phagocytic hunters migrate towards invading fungal microorganisms and eradicate them by phagocytosis, oxidative burst and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
March 27, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601109/fungal-diseases-in-children-and-adolescents-in-a-referral-centre-in-bogota-colombia
#17
Alvarado Zulma, Pereira Claudia
A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at a dermatology referral centre in Bogotá to estimate the frequencies and aetiologies of mycoses in the population under 18 years of age attending the medical mycology laboratory over a 13-year period (2000-2012). A total of 1337 samples from 1221 patients were evaluated, involving direct examination and culture for 1279 samples, direct examination alone for 50 and culture alone for 8. During the study period, dermatophytosis was diagnosed via culture in 537 cases (40...
March 30, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571944/interleukin-17-il-17-mediated-immunity-controls-skin-infection-and-t-helper-1-response-during-experimental-microsporum-canis-dermatophytosis
#18
V L Burstein, L Guasconi, I Beccacece, M G Theumer, C Mena, I Prinz, L Cervi, M Herrero, D T Masih, L S Chiapello
Despite worldwide prevalence of superficial mycoses, the immune response in dermatophytosis has scarcely been investigated. In this study, we developed a model of superficial skin infection in C57BL/6 mice with Microsporum canis, a highly prevalent human pathogen. This model mimics mild inflammatory human dermatophytosis, characterized by neutrophil recruitment and fungal invasion limited to the epidermis, and exhibits the establishment of a specific T helper 17 (Th17) immune response during infection. By using IL-17RA or IL-17A/F deficient mice we showed that, in the absence of a functional IL-17 pathway, M...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562712/estimation-of-the-burden-of-serious-human-fungal-infections-in-malaysia
#19
Rukumani Devi Velayuthan, Chandramathi Samudi, Harvinder Kaur Lakhbeer Singh, Kee Peng Ng, Esaki M Shankar, David W Denning
Fungal infections (mycoses) are likely to occur more frequently as ever-increasingly sophisticated healthcare systems create greater risk factors. There is a paucity of systematic data on the incidence and prevalence of human fungal infections in Malaysia. We conducted a comprehensive study to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Malaysia. Our study showed that recurrent vaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) was the most common of all cases with a diagnosis of candidiasis ( n = 501,138). Oesophageal candidiasis ( n = 5850) was most predominant among individuals with HIV infection...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538732/fungal-infections-in-animals-a-patchwork-of-different-situations
#20
Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Sandra de M G Bosco, Sybren de Hoog, Frank Ebel, Daniel Elad, Renata R Gomes, Ilse D Jacobsen, An Martel, Bernard Mignon, Frank Pasmans, Elena Piecková, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Karuna Singh, Vania A Vicente, Gudrun Wibbelt, Nathan P Wiederhold, Jacques Guillot
The importance of fungal infections in both human and animals has increased over the last decades. This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans. In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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