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Environmental health surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776545/evolution-of-clinical-and-environmental-health-applications-of-exhaled-breath-research-review-of-methods-and-instrumentation-for-gas-phase-condensate-and-aerosols
#1
REVIEW
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Joachim D Pleil
Human breath, along with urine and blood, has long been one of the three major biological media for assessing human health and environmental exposure. In fact, the detection of odor on human breath, as described by Hippocrates in 400 BC, is considered the first analytical health assessment tool. Although less common in comparison to contemporary bio-fluids analyses, breath has become an attractive diagnostic medium as sampling is non-invasive, unlimited in timing and volume, and does not require clinical personnel...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776358/associations-between-local-descriptive-norms-for-overweight-obesity-and-insufficient-fruit-intake-individual-level-diet-and-10-year-change-in-body-mass-index-and-glycosylated-haemoglobin-in-an-australian-cohort
#2
Suzanne J Carroll, Theo Niyonsenga, Neil T Coffee, Anne W Taylor, Mark Daniel
BACKGROUND: Descriptive norms (what other people do) relate to individual-level dietary behaviour and health outcome including overweight and obesity. Descriptive norms vary across residential areas but the impact of spatial variation in norms on individual-level diet and health is poorly understood. This study assessed spatial associations between local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake (spatially-specific local prevalence), and individual-level dietary intakes (fruit, vegetable and sugary drinks) and 10-year change in body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c )...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774711/-health-impact-of-asbestos-fibres-naturally-occurring-in-mount-pollino-area-basilicata-region-southern-italy
#3
Angelo Caputo, Marco De Santis, Valerio Manno, Gabriella Cauzillo, Biagio Maria Bruni, Lorenzo Palumbo, Susanna Conti, Pietro Comba
OBJECTIVES: to estimate the health impact of asbestos fibres naturally occurring in Mount Pollino area (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy). DESIGN: geographic mortality, hospitalization, and incidence study. Setting and participant s: population resident in 12 Municipalities of Mount Pollino area with naturally occurring asbestos fibres. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and standardized hospitalization rate (SHR) for asbestos-related diseases; standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for mesotheliomas...
March 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772890/application-of-decision-tree-for-prediction-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-incidence-based-on-environmental-and-topographic-factors-in-isfahan-province-iran
#4
Roghieh Ramezankhani, Nooshin Sajjadi, Roya Nezakati Esmaeilzadeh, Seyed Ali Jozi, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease that continues to be a health problem in Iran. Nearly 350 million people are thought to be at risk. We investigated the impact of the environmental factors on CL incidence during the period 2007- 2015 in a known endemic area for this disease in Isfahan Province, Iran. After collecting data with regard to the climatic, topographic, vegetation coverage and CL cases in the study area, a decision tree model was built using the classification and regression tree algorithm...
May 8, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770080/public-health-surveillance-for-the-toronto-2015-pan-parapan-american-games
#5
E Chan, K Hohenadel, B Lee, M Helferty, J R Harris, L Macdonald, T Badiani
Background: Public health surveillance for previous Olympic and Paralympic Games have been described in the literature, but surveillance for regional, multisport events on a smaller scale have rarely been explored. Objective: To describe the public health surveillance planning, implementation, results, and lessons learned from the 2015 Pan/Parapan American Games in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Intervention: Public health surveillance planning for the Games began two years in advance and involved local, provincial and federal partners, primarily focusing on infectious disease...
July 6, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770048/synopsis-lyme-disease-in-canada-a-federal-framework
#6
(no author information available yet)
The Federal Framework on Lyme Disease Act required the federal government to develop a Federal Framework on Lyme Disease. To do this, the Public Health Agency of Canada held a conference with a wide variety of stakeholders who shared their experiences with Lyme disease, and discussed current knowledge and research. A draft version of the Framework was publicly posted on Canada.ca for a 30-day public consultation period. The final report, Lyme Disease in Canada: A Federal Framework was released in May 2017. The Framework includes the three pillars of surveillance; education and awareness; and guidelines and best practices...
October 5, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764520/investigation-of-a-typhoid-fever-epidemic-in-moyale-sub-county-kenya-2014-2015
#7
Dahabo Adi Galgallo, Zeinab Gura Roka, Waqo G Boru, Khalumi Abill, James Ransom
AIM: Typhoid fever is a vaccine-preventable bacterial disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality throughout Africa. This paper describes an upsurge of typhoid fever cases in Moyale Sub-County (MSC), Kenya, 2014-2015. METHODS: We conducted active hospital and health facility surveillance and laboratory and antimicrobial sensitivity testing for all patients presenting with headache, fever, stomach pains, diarrhea, or constipation at five MSC health facilities between December 2014 and January 2015...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757672/enzyme-based-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-biosensors-for-rapid-assessment-of-nitrite-toxicity-recent-advances-and-perspectives
#8
Anjum Gahlaut, Vinita Hooda, Ashish Gothwal, Vikas Hooda
In the present era of rapid international globalization and industrialization, intensive use of nitrite as a fertilizing agent in agriculture, preservative, dyeing agent, food additive and as corrosion inhibitor in industrial sectors is adversely effecting environment, natural habitats and human health. The issue of toxicity and carcinogenicity due to excessive ingestion of nitrites via the dietary intake has led to an imminent need for its efficient real-time monitoring in situ. Nitrite detection employing electrochemical biosensors has been gaining high credibility in the field of clinical research...
May 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751891/a-bayesian-spatio-temporal-framework-to-identify-outbreaks-and-examine-environmental-and-social-risk-factors-for-infectious-diseases-monitored-by-routine-surveillance
#9
Aparna Lal, Jonathan Marshall, Jackie Benschop, Aleisha Brock, Simon Hales, Michael G Baker, Nigel P French
Spatio-temporal disease patterns can provide clues to etiological pathways, but can be complex to model. Using a flexible Bayesian hierarchical framework, we identify previously undetected space-time clusters and environmental and socio-demographic risk factors for reported giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis at the New Zealand small area level. For giardiasis, there was no seasonal pattern in outbreak probability and an inverse association with density of dairy cattle (β^1  = -0.09, Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR) 0...
June 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743119/profiling-microbial-strains-in-urban-environments-using-metagenomic-sequencing-data
#10
Moreno Zolfo, Francesco Asnicar, Paolo Manghi, Edoardo Pasolli, Adrian Tett, Nicola Segata
BACKGROUND: The microbial communities populating human and natural environments have been extensively characterized with shotgun metagenomics, which provides an in-depth representation of the microbial diversity within a sample. Microbes thriving in urban environments may be crucially important for human health, but have received less attention than those of other environments. Ongoing efforts started to target urban microbiomes at a large scale, but the most recent computational methods to profile these metagenomes have never been applied in this context...
May 9, 2018: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732670/spores-and-soil-from-six-sides-interdisciplinarity-and-the-environmental-biology-of-anthrax-bacillus-anthracis
#11
Colin J Carlson, Wayne M Getz, Kyrre L Kausrud, Carrie A Cizauskas, Jason K Blackburn, Fausto A Bustos Carrillo, Rita Colwell, W Ryan Easterday, Holly H Ganz, Pauline L Kamath, Ole A Økstad, Wendy C Turner, Anne-Brit Kolstø, Nils C Stenseth
Environmentally transmitted diseases are comparatively poorly understood and managed, and their ecology is particularly understudied. Here we identify challenges of studying environmental transmission and persistence with a six-sided interdisciplinary review of the biology of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis). Anthrax is a zoonotic disease capable of maintaining infectious spore banks in soil for decades (or even potentially centuries), and the mechanisms of its environmental persistence have been the topic of significant research and controversy...
May 6, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729514/the-framework-of-urban-exposome-application-of-the-exposome-concept-in-urban-health-studies
#12
Xanthi D Andrianou, Konstantinos C Makris
Horizontal challenges, such as climate change or the growing populations, and their manifestations require the development of multidisciplinary research synergies in urban health that could benefit from concepts, such as the human exposome. Cities are composed of interconnected systems which are influenced, by global trends, national policies and local complexities. In this context, the exposome concept could be expanded having the city setting in its core, providing the conceptual framework for the new generation of urban studies...
May 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724223/estimating-the-incidence-of-enteric-fever-in-children-in-india-a-multi-site-active-fever-surveillance-of-pediatric-cohorts
#13
Jacob John, Ashish Bavdekar, Temsunaro Rongsen-Chandola, Shanta Dutta, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhi is responsible for about 20 million episodes of illness and over 140,000 deaths annually globally. South Asia has the highest documented burden of typhoid and is home to the multi-drug resistant H58 strain that makes treatment more challenging. The WHO recommends the use of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines in typhoid endemic countries. Decisions on the preferred immunization strategy should be based on an analysis of disease burden, availability, affordability, and operational feasibility...
May 3, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722006/a-one-year-survey-of-norovirus-in-uk-oysters-collected-at-the-point-of-sale
#14
J A Lowther, N E Gustar, A L Powell, S O'Brien, D N Lees
Contamination of bivalve shellfish, particularly oysters, with norovirus is recognised as a food safety risk and a potential contributor to the overall burden of gastroenteritis in the community. The United Kingdom (UK) has comprehensive national baseline data on the prevalence, levels, and seasonality of norovirus in oysters in production areas resulting from a previous two-year study (2009-2011). However, previously, data on final product as sold to the consumer have been lacking. As part of a wider project to establish the overall burden of foodborne norovirus in the UK, this study aimed to address this data gap...
May 2, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718943/biomonitoring-of-blood-cholinesterases-and-acylpeptide-hydrolase-activities-in-rural-inhabitants-exposed-to-pesticides-in-the-coquimbo-region-of-chile
#15
Muriel Ramírez-Santana, Cristián Farías-Gómez, Liliana Zúñiga-Venegas, Rodrigo Sandoval, Nel Roeleveld, Koos Van der Velden, Paul T J Scheepers, Floria Pancetti
In Chile, agriculture is a relevant economic activity and is concomitant with the use of pesticides to improve the yields. Acute intoxications of agricultural workers occur with some frequency and they must be reported to the surveillance system of the Ministry of Health. However the impacts of chronic and environmental pesticide exposure have been less studied. Among pesticides frequently used in Chile for insects control are organophosphates (OP) and carbamates (CB). They are inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717292/outbreak-investigation-following-the-2015-earthquake-disaster-in-nepal
#16
Geeta Shakya, Baburam Marasini, Khem Bahadur Karki, Bishnu Prasad Upadhaya, Jyoti Acharya, Shailaja Adhikari, Rosham Manjhi, Laxman Maharjan, Lilee Shrestha, Kamal Ranabhat, Sujan Babu Marahatta, Bikal Shrestha, Meghnath Dhimal
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease outbreaks following natural disasters are reported in literature. Outbreaks were documented following natural disasters in many countries including Haiti. Such possibility following 2015 Nepal earthquake was a public health concern. Risk factors needed evaluation by post-disaster outbreak investigation. Hence, present study was undertaken to investigate potentials for such outbreak and to generate evidence for public health intervention. METHODS: The study was conducted between April - May, 2015, with the cooperation of National Public Health Laboratory, Epidemiology and Disease Control Division, Nepal Health Research Council and the Chinese team...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716671/risk-factors-associated-with-seropositivity-to-california-serogroup-viruses-in-humans-and-pet-dogs-quebec-canada
#17
J P Rocheleau, P Michel, L R Lindsay, M Drebot, A Dibernardo, N H Ogden, A Fortin, J Arsenault
Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses are two emerging human pathogens associated with cases of neuroinvasive disease in North America. This study aimed to identify environmental and individual risk factors for seropositivity to these arboviruses in humans and pet dogs from Québec, Canada, 2012-2014. In humans, areas with moderate densities of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were associated with higher odds of seropositivity compared with areas with low densities of white-tailed deer (OR 2...
May 2, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710823/nanobody-technology-for-mycotoxin-detection-in-the-field-of-food-safety-current-status-and-prospects
#18
REVIEW
Ting He, Jiang Zhu, Yao Nie, Rui Hu, Ting Wang, Peiwu Li, Qi Zhang, Yunhuang Yang
Mycotoxins, which are toxic, carcinogenic, and/or teratogenic, have posed a threat to food safety and public health. Sensitive and effective determination technologies for mycotoxin surveillance are required. Immunoassays have been regarded as useful supplements to chromatographic techniques. However, conventional antibodies involved in immunoassays are difficult to be expressed recombinantly and are susceptible to harsh environments. Nanobodies (or VHH antibodies) are antigen-binding sites of the heavy-chain antibodies produced from Camelidae...
April 29, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705771/spatial-and-temporal-variation-in-the-community-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-bangladesh-an-integrated-surveillance-study-protocol
#19
Emily Rousham, Leanne Unicomb, Paul Wood, Michael Smith, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Mohammad Aminul Islam
INTRODUCTION: Increasing antibiotic resistance (ABR) in low-income and middle-income countries such as Bangladesh presents a major health threat. However, assessing the scale of the health risk is problematic in the absence of reliable data on the community prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We describe the protocol for a small-scale integrated surveillance programme that aims to quantify the prevalence of colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and concentrations of antibiotic-resistant genes from a 'One Health' perspective...
April 28, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698544/the-swiss-cystic-fibrosis-infant-lung-development-scild-cohort
#20
Insa Korten, Elisabeth Kieninger, Sophie Yammine, Nicolas Regamey, Sylvia Nyilas, Kathryn Ramsey, Carmen Casaulta, Philipp Latzin, For The Scild Study Group
The Swiss Cystic Fibrosis Infant Lung Development (SCILD) cohort is a prospective birth cohort study investigating the initiating events of cystic fibrosis lung disease during infancy, and their influence on the trajectory of disease progression throughout early childhood. Infants with cystic fibrosis are recruited throughout Switzerland after diagnosis by new-born screening. It is the first European population-based prospective cohort study of infants with cystic fibrosis taking advantage of a nationwide new-born screening programme...
April 26, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
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