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Environmental health surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934299/a-novel-copro-diagnostic-molecular-method-for-qualitative-detection-and-identification-of-parasitic-nematodes-in-amphibians-and-reptiles
#1
Lucas G Huggins, Christopher J Michaels, Sheena M Cruickshank, Richard F Preziosi, Kathryn J Else
Anthropogenic disturbance via resource acquisition, habitat fragmentation and climate change, amongst other factors, has led to catastrophic global biodiversity losses and species extinctions at an accelerating rate. Amphibians are currently one of the worst affected classes with at least a third of species categorised as being threatened with extinction. At the same time, they are also critically important for many habitats and provide man with a powerful proxy for ecosystem health by acting as a bioindicator group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931688/a-selective-bottleneck-shapes-the-evolutionary-mutant-spectra-of-enterovirus-a71-during-viral-dissemination-in-humans
#2
Sheng-Wen Huang, Yi-Hui Huang, Huey-Pin Tsai, Pin-Hwa Kuo, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Jen-Ren Wang
RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Utilizing deep sequencing and haplotype analyses of viruses from various tissues of an autopsy patient, we sought to define the evolutionary pathway by which enterovirus A71 evolves fitness for invading the central nervous system in humans...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929098/the-degree-of-one-health-implementation-in-the-west-nile-virus-integrated-surveillance-in-northern-italy-2016
#3
REVIEW
Giulia Paternoster, Laura Tomassone, Marco Tamba, Mario Chiari, Antonio Lavazza, Mauro Piazzi, Anna R Favretto, Giacomo Balduzzi, Alessandra Pautasso, Barbara R Vogler
West Nile virus (WNV) is endemic in the Po valley area, Northern Italy, and within the legal framework of the national plan for the surveillance of human vector-borne diseases, WNV surveillance has over time been implemented. The surveillance plans are based on the transdisciplinary and trans-sectorial collaboration between regional institutions involved in public, animal, and environmental health. This integrated surveillance targets mosquitoes, wild birds, humans, and horses and aims at early detecting the viral circulation and reducing the risk of infection in the human populations...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919119/global-regional-and-national-comparative-risk-assessment-of-84-behavioural-environmental-and-occupational-and-metabolic-risks-or-clusters-of-risks-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910926/-survey-on-a-public-health-emergency-event-caused-by-norovirus
#5
Y Xing, C Jiang, W Y Hua, F Liu, Z Zhao, Y J Ding, L Wang, J Li
Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak caused by norovirus infection in a school in Haidian district, Beijing. Methods: Basic information of the school and data related to patients in the fields survey were collected and analyzed descriptively. Laboratory tests were performed to test the stool and anal swab specimens of both patients and cooks as well as the environmental specimens. Risk factors related to the incidence were analyzed through a case-control study. Results: A total number of 119 patients were identified in the school...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890593/examples-of-applied-public-health-through-the-work-of-the-epidemic-intelligence-service-officers-at-cdc-s-national-center-for-environmental-health-2006-2015
#6
Yulia I Carroll, Fauzia A Rashid, Henry Falk, Meredith M Howley
The Epidemic Intelligence Service officers (EISOs) at the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) respond to public health outbreaks, assist public health surveillance, and recommend public health actions. We summarize the breadth of work done by EISOs assigned to NCEH/ATSDR during 2006-2015. We used the Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases to identify articles authored by the EISOs, number and types of epidemiologic assistance field investigations (Epi-Aids), and interviewed NCEH/ATSDR programs with EISO assignees...
2017: Public Health Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880856/update-increase-in-human-infections-with-novel-asian-lineage-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-viruses-during-the-fifth-epidemic-china-october-1-2016-august-7-2017
#7
James C Kile, Ruiqi Ren, Liqi Liu, Carolyn M Greene, Katherine Roguski, A Danielle Iuliano, Yunho Jang, Joyce Jones, Sharmi Thor, Ying Song, Suizan Zhou, Susan C Trock, Vivien Dugan, David E Wentworth, Min Z Levine, Timothy M Uyeki, Jacqueline M Katz, Daniel B Jernigan, Sonja J Olsen, Alicia M Fry, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, C Todd Davis
Among all influenza viruses assessed using CDC's Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT), the Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (Asian H7N9), first reported in China in March 2013,* is ranked as the influenza virus with the highest potential pandemic risk (1). During October 1, 2016-August 7, 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China; CDC, Taiwan; the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection; and the Macao CDC reported 759 human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses, including 281 deaths, to the World Health Organization (WHO), making this the largest of the five epidemics of Asian H7N9 infections that have occurred since 2013 (Figure 1)...
September 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875769/understanding-the-cryptic-nature-of-lassa-fever-in-west-africa
#8
Rory Gibb, Lina M Moses, David W Redding, Kate E Jones
Lassa fever (LF) is increasingly recognized by global health institutions as an important rodent-borne disease with severe impacts on some of West Africa's poorest communities. However, our knowledge of LF ecology, epidemiology and distribution is limited, which presents barriers to both short-term disease forecasting and prediction of long-term impacts of environmental change on Lassa virus (LASV) zoonotic transmission dynamics. Here, we synthesize current knowledge to show that extrapolations from past research have produced an incomplete picture of the incidence and distribution of LF, with negative consequences for policy planning, medical treatment and management interventions...
September 6, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868994/fine-temporal-forecasting-of-outbreak-probability-and-severity-ross-river-virus-in-western-australia
#9
I S Koolhof, S Bettiol, S Carver
Health warnings of mosquito-borne disease risk require forecasts that are accurate at fine-temporal resolutions (weekly scales); however, most forecasting is coarse (monthly). We use environmental and Ross River virus (RRV) surveillance to predict weekly outbreak probabilities and incidence spanning tropical, semi-arid, and Mediterranean regions of Western Australia (1991-2014). Hurdle and linear models were used to predict outbreak probabilities and incidence respectively, using time-lagged environmental variables...
September 4, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859689/remote-sensing-measurements-of-sea-surface-temperature-as-an-indicator-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-oyster-meat-and-human-illnesses
#10
Stephanie Konrad, Peggy Paduraru, Pablo Romero-Barrios, Sarah B Henderson, Eleni Galanis
BACKGROUND: Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a naturally occurring bacterium found in marine environments worldwide. It can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, primarily through raw oyster consumption. Water temperatures, and potentially other environmental factors, play an important role in the growth and proliferation of Vp in the environment. Quantifying the relationships between environmental variables and indicators or incidence of Vp illness is valuable for public health surveillance to inform and enable suitable preventative measures...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859266/optimization-of-human-animal-and-environmental-health-by-using-the-one-health-approach
#11
REVIEW
Jonathan M Sleeman, Thomas DeLiberto, Natalie Nguyen
Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858265/spatial-variability-of-geriatric-depression-risk-in-a-high-density-city-a-data-driven-socio-environmental-vulnerability-mapping-approach
#12
Hung Chak Ho, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Ruby Yu, Dan Wang, Jean Woo, Timothy Chi Yui Kwok, Edward Ng
Previous studies found a relationship between geriatric depression and social deprivation. However, most studies did not include environmental factors in the statistical models, introducing a bias to estimate geriatric depression risk because the urban environment was found to have significant associations with mental health. We developed a cross-sectional study with a binomial logistic regression to examine the geriatric depression risk of a high-density city based on five social vulnerability factors and four environmental measures...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854484/oncogenic-papillomavirus-and-polyomavirus-in-urban-sewage-in-egypt
#13
Hazem Hamza, Ibrahim Ahmed Hamza
Recently, the occurrence of oncogenic viruses in contaminated water and their potential for waterborne transmission has been reported. We addressed an environmental surveillance of both HPyVs (JCPyV and BKPyV) and HPVs in three wastewater treatment plants in Egypt. A high level of dissemination was found for both viruses. HPyVs (JCPyV and BKPyV) were found in ~73% of examined samples, while HPVs were detected in 30.5%. Sequence analysis of HPV positive samples revealed a wide variety of circulating genotypes representing both anogenital (HPV-6, HPV-16, HPV-53, HPV-44, HPV-31, HPV-43) and cutaneous (HPV-37, HPV-21, HPV-120, HPV-111, HPV-5) types...
August 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843682/herd-level-prevalence-of-selected-endemic-infectious-diseases-of-dairy-cows-in-great-britain
#14
Martina Velasova, Angela Damaso, Bhagyalakshmi Chengat Prakashbabu, Jenny Gibbons, Nick Wheelhouse, David Longbottom, Steven Van Winden, Martin Green, Javier Guitian
To implement appropriate and effective disease control programs at the national level, up-to-date and unbiased information on disease frequency is needed. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected endemic infectious diseases in the population of dairy herds in Great Britain. Bulk milk tank (BMT) samples from 225 randomly selected dairy farms, stratified by region and herd size, were tested for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1, Mycobacterium avium ssp...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843417/evaluation-of-primitive-ground-water-supplies-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-major-waterborne-zoonosis-in-egyptian-children-living-in-rural-areas
#15
Hassan A Elfadaly, Nawal A Hassanain, Mohey A Hassanain, Ashraf M Barakat, Raafat M Shaapan
BACKGROUND: Endemic waterborne zoonosis frequently occurs in both developed and less developed countries. Thus, bio-surveillance of waterborne zoonosis is a "necessity" for the implementation of effective preventive public health measures in Egyptian rural areas. The primitive individual water supplies created by the rural agriculture population, primarily from ground water, usually maximize the customers' exposure to impurity pathogens via diffused humans and animal excreta or wastages...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840820/ecological-therapeutic-opportunities-for-oral-diseases
#16
Anilei Hoare, Philip D Marsh, Patricia I Diaz
The three main oral diseases of humans, that is, caries, periodontal diseases, and oral candidiasis, are associated with microbiome shifts initiated by changes in the oral environment and/or decreased effectiveness of mucosal immune surveillance. In this review, we discuss the role that microbial-based therapies may have in the control of these conditions. Most investigations on the use of microorganisms for management of oral disease have been conducted with probiotic strains with some positive but very discrete clinical outcomes...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836651/surveillance-of-communicable-diseases-for-decisionmaking-in-egypt-2006-2013
#17
Madiha S M Abdel-Razik, Hoda I I Rizk, Mahmoud H M Hassan
The Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population surveillance system provides data about notifiable communicable diseases. This study aimed to provide information for decision-making to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in Egypt by analysis of the surveillance data for 2006-2013 to identify trends in the incidence of the diseases by governorate, season, age and sex. Composite risk-index scores were estimated to rank the 27 Egyptian governorates into 3 groups: high, medium and low risk. The 15 diseases with the highest incidence were food and waterborne diseases (5 diseases), vaccine-preventable diseases (7 diseases) and others, e...
August 20, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830660/population-characteristics-associated-with-pharmacy-based-influenza-vaccination-in-united-states-survey-data
#18
Sushmitha Inguva, Jessica M Sautter, Grace J Chun, Brandon J Patterson, William F McGhan
OBJECTIVES: To examine the population characteristics associated with the health behavior of receiving an influenza vaccine from a pharmacy-based setting. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from states that participated in an optional influenza module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based observational survey of U.S. adults. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Analytic sample of 28,954 respondents from 8 states and Puerto Rico who reported receiving an influenza vaccination in the past year...
August 19, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827124/human-biomonitoring-of-food-contaminants-in-spanish-children-design-sampling-and-lessons-learned
#19
Rosa Pérez, Eva Domenech, Clara Coscollà, Vicent Yusà
Human Biomonitoring (HBM) studies are highly useful for evaluating population exposure to environmental contaminants and are being carried out in increasing numbers all over the world. The use of HBM in the field of food safety, in a risk assessment context, presents a growing interest as more health-based guidance values (HBGV) in biological matrices are derived, and can be used in a complementary way to the external exposure approaches such as total diet studies or surveillance programmes. The aims of the present work are: i) to describe the methodological framework of the BIOVAL study, a cross-sectional HBM program carried out by the Health Department of the Regional Government of Valencia (Spain), that is linked to the food safety official control, and is focused on children from 6 to 11 years of age ii) to explain and discuss the pre-analytical results iii) to report and discuss on lessons learned from its design and implementation...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821245/ambient-ultraviolet-radiation-exposure-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-incidence-in-the-united-states
#20
Trang VoPham, Kimberly A Bertrand, Jian-Min Yuan, Rulla M Tamimi, Jaime E Hart, Francine Laden
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most commonly occurring type of primary liver cancer, has been increasing in incidence worldwide. Vitamin D, acquired from sunlight exposure, diet, and dietary supplements, has been hypothesized to impact hepatocarcinogenesis. However, previous epidemiologic studies examining the associations between dietary and serum vitamin D reported mixed results. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and HCC risk in the U...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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