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Environmental health surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076578/confirmed-clinical-case-of-chronic-kidney-disease-of-nontraditional-causes-in-agricultural-communities-in-central-america-a-case-definition-for-surveillance
#1
Alejandro Ferreiro, Guillermo Álvarez-Estévez, Manuel Cerdas-Calderón, Zulma Cruz-Trujillo, Elio Mena, Marina Reyes, Mabel Sandoval-Diaz, Vicente Sánchez-Polo, Régulo Valdés, Pedro Ordúnez
Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061853/location-location-location-environmental-factors-better-predict-malaria-positive-individuals-during-reactive-case-detection-than-index-case-demographics-in-southern-province-zambia
#2
David A Larsen, Tokozile Ngwenya-Kangombe, Sanford Cheelo, Busiku Hamainza, John Miller, Anna Winters, Daniel J Bridges
BACKGROUND: Decreasing malaria transmission leads to increasing heterogeneity with increased risk in both hot spots (locations) and hot pops (certain demographics). In Southern Province, Zambia, reactive case detection has formed a part of malaria surveillance and elimination efforts since 2011. Various factors may be associated with finding malaria infections during case investigations, including the demographics of the incident case and environmental characteristics of the location of the incident case...
January 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039136/laboratory-surveillance-of-polio-and-other-enteroviruses-in-high-risk-populations-and-environmental-samples
#3
Vasiliki Pogka, Stavroula Labropoulou, Mary Emmanouil, Androniki Voulgari-Kokota, Alexandra Vernardaki, Theano Georgakopoulou, Andreas F Mentis
: In the context of poliomyelitis eradication, a reinforced supplementary laboratory surveillance of enteroviruses was implemented in Greece. From 2008 to 2014, the Hellenic Polioviruses/Enteroviruses Reference Laboratory performed detailed supplementary surveillance of circulating enteroviruses among healthy individuals in high-risk population groups, among immigrants from poliovirus endemic countries as well as in environmental samples. In total, 722 stool samples and 179 sewage water samples were included in the study...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034593/one-health-proof-of-concept-bringing-a-transdisciplinary-approach-to-surveillance-for-zoonotic-viruses-at-the-human-wild-animal-interface
#4
Terra R Kelly, William B Karesh, Christine Kreuder Johnson, Kirsten V K Gilardi, Simon J Anthony, Tracey Goldstein, Sarah H Olson, Catherine Machalaba, Jonna A K Mazet
As the world continues to react and respond inefficiently to emerging infectious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome and the Ebola and Zika viruses, a growing transdisciplinary community has called for a more proactive and holistic approach to prevention and preparedness - One Health. Such an approach presents important opportunities to reduce the impact of disease emergence events and also to mitigate future emergence through improved cross-sectoral coordination. In an attempt to provide proof of concept of the utility of the One Health approach, the US Agency for International Development's PREDICT project consortium designed and implemented a targeted, risk-based surveillance strategy based not on humans as sentinels of disease but on detecting viruses early, at their source, where intervention strategies can be implemented before there is opportunity for spillover and spread in people or food animals...
December 14, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034372/public-health-response-to-the-silent-reintroduction-of-wild-poliovirus-to-israel-2013-2014
#5
REVIEW
J Moran-Gilad, E Kaliner, M Gdalevich, I Grotto
During 2013/14, Israel witnessed the silent reintroduction and sustained transmission of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) detected through routine environmental surveillance performed on sewage samples. The public health response to silent poliovirus transmission in a population with high inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) coverage poses an emerging challenge towards the 'End Game' of global poliovirus eradication. This paper reviews the risk assessment, risk management and risk communication aspects of this poliovirus incident...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004619/high-occurrence-and-unusual-serotype-diversity-of-non-typhoidal-salmonella-in-non-clinical-niches-angola
#6
P Antunes, J Campos, J Mourão, T G Ribeiro, C Novais, L Peixe
Non-typhoidal Salmonella is an important burden, particularly in developing countries of the African region. We report for the first time in Angola, a sub-Saharan African country with commercial/travel relationships with Europe, an unexpectedly high occurrence of Salmonella (n = 12/63, 19%) from a high diversity of sources, particularly farm and wild animals. The detection of diverse serotypes (n = 12), involving putative new S. enterica subsp. salamae serotypes, is also of note, reinforcing the need for a comprehensive surveillance in Angola critical to identify animal/food/environmental sources of salmonellosis with impact on animal health, local people, tourists and exported products...
December 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997935/exotic-mosquito-threats-require-strategic-surveillance-and-response-planning
#7
Cameron E Webb, Stephen L Doggett
Mosquito-borne diseases caused by endemic pathogens such as Ross River, Barmah Forest and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses are an annual concern in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. More than a dozen mosquito species have been implicated in the transmission of these pathogens, with each mosquito occupying a specialised ecological niche that influences their habitat associations, host feeding preferences and the environmental drivers of their abundance. The NSW Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Monitoring Program provides an early warning system for potential outbreaks of mosquito-borne disease by tracking annual activity of these mosquitoes and their associated pathogens...
December 14, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997817/on-the-reportability-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease-to-public-health-authorities
#8
Kevin L Winthrop, Emily Henkle, Aryn Walker, Maureen Cassidy, Katrina Hedberg, Sean Schafer
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental pathogens that are an increasingly common cause of pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease. Electronic laboratory-based reporting is a straightforward mechanism for identifying NTM infections, and for monitoring trends in disease. Oregon was the first state to make NTM reportable, although at this time the reporting requirement is limited to extrapulmonary infection. This has assisted authorities in detecting outbreaks and healthcare-related infections. Further consideration should be given to the reportability of pulmonary NTM disease...
December 20, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995098/evaluation-of-hygienic-quality-and-labelling-of-fish-distributed-in-public-canteens-of-northeast-italy
#9
Mariachiara Armani, Michele Civettini, Gabriella Conedera, Michela Favretti, Dorotea Lombardo, Rosaria Lucchini, Sabrina Paternolli, Alessandra Pezzuto, Michela Rabini, Giuseppe Arcangeli
Over the past few years, the demand for the introduction of fish products in public canteens (schools, hospitals and nursing-homes) has grown due to their good nutritional proprieties. The particular health conditions and sensitivity of some groups of consumers exposes them to greater risks of food poisoning. It is therefore important to monitor the raw materials that end up in mass catering implementing strategies of mass catering control, both with self-monitoring strategies and with regular controls performed by the competent health authorities...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986670/emerging-public-health-challenges-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-related-to-changes-in-the-pathogen-the-population-and-the-environment
#10
Mohamed A Karmali
Emerging public health challenges of Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) include the occurrence of more frequent or severe disease and risk factors shifts associated with changes, often interconnected, in the pathogen, the population, and the environment. In 3 outbreaks with heightened severity attributed to enhanced pathogen virulence, including the acquisition of an stx2 phage in 1 outbreak, population and environmental factors likely contributed significantly to disease outcomes. Evolving population risk factors that are associated with more severe disease include consumption of fresh produce, contact with STEC-contaminated environments, demographics, socioeconomic status, and immunity...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982304/anopheles-fauna-of-coastal-cayenne-french-guiana-modelling-and-mapping-of-species-presence-using-remotely-sensed-land-cover-data
#11
Antoine Adde, Isabelle Dusfour, Emmanuel Roux, Romain Girod, Sébastien Briolant
Little is known about the Anopheles species of the coastal areas of French Guiana, or their spatiotemporal distribution or environmental determinants. The present study aimed to (1) document the distribution of Anopheles fauna in the coastal area around Cayenne, and (2) investigate the use of remotely sensed land cover data as proxies of Anopheles presence. To characterise the Anopheles fauna, we combined the findings of two entomological surveys that were conducted during the period 2007-2009 and in 2014 at 37 sites...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929744/surveillance-of-poliomyelitis-in-northern-italy-results-of-acute-flaccid-paralysis-surveillance-and-environmental-surveillance-2012-2015
#12
Laura Pellegrinelli, Laura Bubba, Valeria Primache, Elena Pariani, Andrea Battistone, Roberto Delogu, Stefano Fiore, Sandro Binda
Although in the last years poliovirus (PV) transmission has been reported at the lowest levels ever recorded, the spread of virus from endemic countries endures; the high levels of immigration flows across the Mediterranean Sea jeopardize Italy for PV reintroduction. The World Health Organization (WHO) strategic plan for global poliomyelitis (polio) eradication indicates the nationwide surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) as the gold standard for detecting cases of polio. In addition, the Environmental Surveillance (ES), seeking the presence of PV and Non-Polio Enterovirus (NPEV) in sewage, is recognized as a powerful tool to confirm PV circulation in absence of AFP cases, especially in polio-free countries...
December 8, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917962/human-and-animal-health-surveys-among-pastoralists
#13
E Schelling, H Greter, H Kessely, M F Abakar, B N Ngandolo, L Crump, B Bold, J Kasymbekov, Z Baljinnyam, G Fokou, J Zinsstag, B Bonfoh, J Hattendorf, M Béchir
Valid human and livestock health surveys, including longitudinal follow-up, are feasible among mobile pastoralists and provide fundamental information to agencies for interventions that are responsive to realities and effective in addressing the needs of pastoralists. However, pastoralists are often excluded from studies, surveillance systems and health programmes. The occurrence of preventable and treatable diseases such as perinatal tetanus, measles and tuberculosis are indicative of limited access to health providers and information...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917960/a-vision-for-the-future-of-pastoralism
#14
J Zinsstag, B Bonfoh, G Zinsstag, L Crump, I O Alfaroukh, M F Abakar, J Kasymbekov, Z Baljinnyam, K Liechti, M A Seid, E Schelling
Pastoral regions are challenged by social and ecological changes. Yet, there is increasingly robust evidence that pastoralism is a viable and sustainable livelihood and that pastoralists play a role in attaining the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this issue of the Scientific and Technical Review of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the authors take a broad view of pastoralism and pastoral livestock production from a number of different perspectives, taking into account societal and ecological viewpoints as well as issues of animal and human health...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917164/longitudinal-study-of-two-irish-dairy-herds-low-numbers-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-and-o26-super-shedders-identified
#15
Brenda P Murphy, Evonne McCabe, Mary Murphy, James F Buckley, Dan Crowley, Séamus Fanning, Geraldine Duffy
A 12-month longitudinal study was undertaken on two dairy herds to ascertain the Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26 shedding status of the animals and its impact (if any) on raw milk. Cattle are a recognized reservoir for these organisms with associated public health and environmental implications. Animals shedding E. coli O157 at >10,000 CFU/g of feces have been deemed super-shedders. There is a gap in the knowledge regarding super-shedding of other STEC serogroups. A cohort of 40 lactating cows from herds previously identified as positive for STEC in a national surveillance project were sampled every second month between August, 2013 and July, 2014...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915108/how-should-we-respond-to-the-emergence-of-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-humans-and-animals
#16
REVIEW
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Marc Mendelson
OBJECTIVE: The widespread use of antibiotics in humans and animals has contributed to growing rates of antibiotic resistance. Previously treatable bacterial infections now require the last line of antibiotics or are untreatable. The current antibiotic of last resort for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections is often colistin. Evidence for the shifting pattern of colistin resistance and how the international community should respond are discussed in this review. METHODS: The literature on colistin resistance was reviewed...
January 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905983/current-tobacco-use-and-its-associated-factors-among-adults-in-a-country-with-comprehensive-ban-on-tobacco-findings-from-the-nationally-representative-steps-survey-bhutan-2014
#17
Mongal Singh Gurung, Dorji Pelzom, Tandin Dorji, Wangchuk Drukpa, Chador Wangdi, Palanivel Chinnakali, Sonu Goel
BACKGROUND: Despite a comprehensive ban on cultivation, manufacture, distribution, and sale of tobacco products since 2004, two nationwide surveys conducted in 2012 and 2013 reported high tobacco use in Bhutan. National Health Survey 2012 reported that 4 % of the population aged 15-75 years used smoked tobacco and about 48 % used smokeless tobacco. Similarly, Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of Bhutan reported tobacco use prevalence of 30.3 % in 2013. However, factors associated with this high tobacco use were not systematically studied...
August 8, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903326/characterizing-areas-of-potential-human-exposure-to-eastern-equine-encephalitis-virus-using-serological-and-clinical-data-from-horses
#18
J-P Rocheleau, J Arsenault, N H Ogden, L R Lindsay, M Drebot, P Michel
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but severe emerging vector-borne disease affecting human and animal populations in the northeastern United States where it is endemic. Key knowledge gaps remain about the epidemiology of EEE virus (EEEV) in areas where its emergence has more recently been reported. In Eastern Canada, viral activity has been recorded in mosquitoes and horses throughout the 2000s but cases of EEEV in humans have not been reported so far. This study was designed to provide an assessment of possible EEEV human exposure by modelling environmental risk factors for EEEV in horses, identifying high-risk environments and mapping risk in the province of Quebec, Canada...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903060/satellite-imagery-technology-in-public-health-analysis-of-site-catchment-areas-for-assessment-of-poliovirus-circulation-in-nigeria-and-niger
#19
Marina Takane, Shizu Yabe, Yumiko Tateshita, Yusuke Kobayashi, Akihiko Hino, Kazuo Isono, Hiromasa Okayasu, Ousmane M Diop, Takeo Tadono
Environmental surveillance supplements the surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis by monitoring wastewater for poliovirus circulation. Building on previous work, we analysed wastewater flow to optimise selection and placement of sampling sites with higher digital surface model (DSM) resolution. The newly developed 5-m mesh DSM from the panchromatic, remote-sensing instruments for stereo mapping on-board the Japanese advanced land observing satellite was used to estimate catchment areas and flow of sewage water based on terrain topography...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902453/environmental-and-occupational-exposure-to-cadmium-in-iran-a-systematic-review
#20
Leila Tavakkoli, Narges Khanjani
INTRODUCTION: Cadmium (Cd) is one of the heavy metals that have negative effects on human health. In Iran, there is no policy to regularly measure Cd in the general population. However, some studies have been performed on special groups and in different cities of Iran. This paper has reviewed these studies and human contamination levels in Iran. METHOD AND MATERIALS: All accessible electronic information resources such as Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran, IranMedex, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar and Science Direct were searched, with relevant phrases and their Persian translations...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
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