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Environmental health surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211313/detection-and-elimination-of-corynebacterium-bovis-from-barrier-rooms-by-using-an-environmental-sampling-surveillance-program
#1
Christopher A Manuel Umarani Pugazhenthi Shannon P Spiegel And Jori K Leszczynski
Rodent health-monitoring programs based on sampling an IVC system's exhaust air dust (EAD) has enhanced and evenreplaced traditional sentinels for some rodent pathogens. EAD testing by qPCR assay is an optimal surveillance methodfor the rapid detection of Corynebacterium bovis-infected immunodeficient mice. Here we demonstrate that an active EADsurveillance program for C. bovis can be used to maintain nude mice C. bovis-free after the transition from historically enzootically infected colonies. During 3 events over 3 y, rapid detection of infection, elimination of infected mice, aggressivequarantine measures, and local decontamination prevented the spread of C...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208075/socioeconomic-and-air-pollution-correlates-of-adult-asthma-heart-attack-and-stroke-risks-in-the-united-states-2010-2013
#2
Louis Anthony Tony Cox
Asthma in the United States has become an important public health issue, with many physicians, regulators, and scientists elsewhere expressing concern that criterion air pollutants have contributed to a rising tide of asthma cases and symptoms. This paper studies recent associations (from 2008 to 2012) between self-reported asthma experiences and potential predictors, including age, sex, income, education, smoking, and county-level average annual ambient concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184301/detection-of-diverse-genotypes-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-hospital-personnel-and-the-environment-in-armenia
#3
Hermine V Mkrtchyan, Zhen Xu, Maria Yacoub, Mary M Ter-Stepanyan, Hayk D Karapetyan, Angela M Kearns, Ronald R Cutler, Bruno Pichon, Armen Dz Hambardzumyan
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern internationally. Studies examining a range of cohorts have been reported from various regions of the world, but little is known about the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in Armenia. METHODS: Between May and September 2013, twenty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; mecA positive) were recovered from hospital personnel (n = 10; 9 females, 1 male) and environmental sites (n = 10) in the maternity ward of one of the teaching hospitals in Armenia...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166854/an-outbreak-of-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-infections-associated-with-contaminated-liquid-docusate
#4
Lucila Marquez, Katie N Jones, Elaine M Whaley, Tjin H Koy, Paula A Revell, Ruston S Taylor, M Brooke Bernhardt, Jeffrey L Wagner, James J Dunn, John J LiPuma, Judith R Campbell
OBJECTIVE To investigate an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex and describe the measures that revealed the source. SETTING A 629-bed, tertiary-care, pediatric hospital in Houston, Texas. PATIENTS Pediatric patients without cystic fibrosis (CF) hospitalized in the pediatric and cardiovascular intensive care units. METHODS We investigated an outbreak of B. cepacia complex from February through July 2016. Isolates were evaluated for molecular relatedness with repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR); specific species identification and genotyping were performed at an independent laboratory...
February 7, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159627/utilization-of-a-molecular-serotyping-method-for-salmonella-enterica-in-a-routine-laboratory-in-alberta-canada
#5
Christina Ferrato, Linda Chui, Robin King, Marie Louie
Salmonella is one of the most common enteric pathogens related to foodborne illness. Alberta's Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab) provides Outbreak and Surveillance support by performing serotyping. The Check&Trace Salmonella™ (CTS) assay (Check-Points, Netherlands), a commercial DNA microarray system, can determine the serotype designation of a Salmonella isolate with automated interpretation. Here we evaluate 1028 Salmonella isolates of human clinical or environmental sources in Alberta, Canada with the CTS assay...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153514/association-of-acute-toxic-encephalopathy-with-litchi-consumption-in-an-outbreak-in-muzaffarpur-india-2014-a-case-control-study
#6
Aakash Shrivastava, Anil Kumar, Jerry D Thomas, Kayla F Laserson, Gyan Bhushan, Melissa D Carter, Mala Chhabra, Veena Mittal, Shashi Khare, James J Sejvar, Mayank Dwivedi, Samantha L Isenberg, Rudolph Johnson, James L Pirkle, Jon D Sharer, Patricia L Hall, Rajesh Yadav, Anoop Velayudhan, Mohan Papanna, Pankaj Singh, D Somashekar, Arghya Pradhan, Kapil Goel, Rajesh Pandey, Mohan Kumar, Satish Kumar, Amit Chakrabarti, P Sivaperumal, A Ramesh Kumar, Joshua G Schier, Arthur Chang, Leigh Ann Graham, Thomas P Mathews, Darryl Johnson, Liza Valentin, Kathleen L Caldwell, Jeffery M Jarrett, Leslie A Harden, Gary R Takeoka, Suxiang Tong, Krista Queen, Clinton Paden, Anne Whitney, Dana L Haberling, Ram Singh, Ravi Shankar Singh, Kenneth C Earhart, A C Dhariwal, L S Chauhan, S Venkatesh, Padmini Srikantiah
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of unexplained illness frequently remain under-investigated. In India, outbreaks of an acute neurological illness with high mortality among children occur annually in Muzaffarpur, the country's largest litchi cultivation region. In 2014, we aimed to investigate the cause and risk factors for this illness. METHODS: In this hospital-based surveillance and nested age-matched case-control study, we did laboratory investigations to assess potential infectious and non-infectious causes of this acute neurological illness...
January 30, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153277/paper-based-capacitive-sensors-for-identification-and-quantification-of-chemicals-at-the-point-of-care
#7
Jie Hu, Chee-Hong Takahiro Yew, Xiaoshuang Chen, Shangsheng Feng, Qu Yang, Shuqi Wang, Wei-Hong Wee, Belinda Pingguan-Murphy, Tian Jian Lu, Feng Xu
The identification and quantification of chemicals play a vital role in evaluation and surveillance of environmental health and safety. However, current techniques usually depend on costly equipment, professional staff, and/or essential infrastructure, limiting their accessibility. In this work, we develop paper-based capacitive sensors (PCSs) that allow simple, rapid identification and quantification of various chemicals from microliter size samples with the aid of a handheld multimeter. PCSs are low-cost parallel-plate capacitors (~$0...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145656/stressors-of-korean-disaster-relief-team-members-during-the-nepal-earthquake-dispatch-a-consensual-qualitative-research-analysis
#8
Kangeui Lee, So Hee Lee, Taejin Park, Ji Yeon Lee
We conducted in-depth interviews with 11 Korean Disaster Relief Team (KDRT) members about stress related to disaster relief work and analyzed the interview data using the Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) method in order to evaluate difficulties in disaster relief work and to develop solutions to these problems in cooperation with related organizations. Results showed that members typically experienced stress related to untrained team members, ineffective cooperation, and the shock and aftermath of aftershock experiences...
March 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141970/a-large-community-outbreak-of-legionnaires-disease-associated-with-a-cooling-tower-in-new-york-city-2015
#9
Don Weiss, Christopher Boyd, Jennifer L Rakeman, Sharon K Greene, Robert Fitzhenry, Trevor McProud, Kimberlee Musser, Li Huang, John Kornblum, Elizabeth J Nazarian, Annie D Fine, Sarah L Braunstein, Daniel Kass, Keren Landman, Pascal Lapierre, Scott Hughes, Anthony Tran, Jill Taylor, Deborah Baker, Lucretia Jones, Laura Kornstein, Boning Liu, Rodolfo Perez, David E Lucero, Eric Peterson, Isaac Benowitz, Kristen F Lee, Stephanie Ngai, Mitch Stripling, Jay K Varma
OBJECTIVES: Infections caused by Legionella are the leading cause of waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. We investigated a large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in New York City in summer 2015 to characterize patients, risk factors for mortality, and environmental exposures. METHODS: We defined cases as patients with pneumonia and laboratory evidence of Legionella infection from July 2 through August 3, 2015, and with a history of residing in or visiting 1 of several South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136698/breaking-the-cycles-of-poverty-strategies-achievements-and-lessons-learned-in-los-cuatro-santos-nicaragua-1990-2014
#10
Elmer Zelaya Blandón, Carina Källestål, Rodolfo Peña, Wilton Perez, Staffan Berglund, Mariela Contreras, Lars-Åke Persson
BACKGROUND: In a post-war frontier area in north-western Nicaragua that was severely hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, local stakeholders embarked on and facilitated multi-dimensional development initiatives to break the cycles of poverty. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe the process of priority-setting, and the strategies, guiding principles, activities, achievements, and lessons learned in these local development efforts from 1990 to 2014 in the Cuatro Santos area, Nicaragua...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125393/surveillance-systems-to-track-and-evaluate-obesity-prevention-efforts
#11
Deanna M Hoelscher, Nalini Ranjit, Adriana Pérez
To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115677/modeling-the-ecological-niche-of-bacillus-anthracis-to-map-anthrax-risk-in-kyrgyzstan
#12
Jason K Blackburn, Saitbek Matakarimov, Sabira Kozhokeeva, Zhyldyz Tagaeva, Lindsay K Bell, Ian T Kracalik, Asankadyr Zhunushov
Anthrax, caused by the environmental bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is an important zoonosis nearly worldwide. In Central Asia, anthrax represents a major veterinary and public health concern. In the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, ongoing anthrax outbreaks have been reported in humans associated with handling infected livestock and contaminated animal by-products such as meat or hides. The current anthrax situation has prompted calls for improved insights into the epidemiology, ecology, and spatial distribution of the disease in Kyrgyzstan to better inform control and surveillance...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110843/looking-for-effects-of-environmental-contaminants-in-a-large-birth-cohort-summarizing-results-of-the-norwegian-mother-and-child-cohort-study-moba
#13
Per Magnus
The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) includes about 113 000 pregnancies, recruited during the years 1999-2008. Using information from questionnaires and biological samples, a major purpose has been to estimate the association between exposures to environmental contaminants and disease occurrence in parents and children. The intention of this article is to describe the available data in MoBa together with a short synopsis of some recent MoBa-publications that relate to exposure assessment and associations between toxicants and health outcomes...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110007/human-health-and-ecological-assessment-programs-for-hebei-spirit-oil-spill-accident-of-2007-status-lessons-and-future-challenges
#14
Dawoon Jung, Jung-Ah Kim, Myung-Sook Park, Un Hyuk Yim, Kyungho Choi
Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) of December 2007 is one of the worst oil spill accidents that occurred in Yellow Sea. The affected coastline along the west coast of Korean Peninsula hosts one of the largest tidal flats worldwide, and is home to tens of thousands of human residents. Based on nation-wide concerns on ecosystem damages and adverse human health effects, two separate surveillance programs on ecosystem and human health were initiated: a 10-year follow-up program by Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries to assess ecological impacts of the oil spill, and an exposure and health effect assessment program by Ministry of Environment for the residents of Taean and its vicinity...
January 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099795/failures-of-foreseeability-risk-management-considerations-in-reducing-allegations-of-sexual-violence-in-psychiatric-units
#15
John D Banja
This article begins with a brief discussion of findings on causal factors leading to allegations of sexual violence in health care facilities and then offers the author's account of 4 such cases that he reviewed, 3 of which occurred in psychiatric units. These cases show remarkably similar variables, especially involving decisions to allow male and female patients to commingle, the inadequate physical layout of the units, poor or absent video surveillance, and staff unacquainted with institutional policies on patient safety or refusing to enforce relevant rules...
January 2017: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076578/confirmed-clinical-case-of-chronic-kidney-disease-of-nontraditional-causes-in-agricultural-communities-in-central-america-a-case-definition-for-surveillance
#16
Alejandro Ferreiro, Guillermo Álvarez-Estévez, Manuel Cerdas-Calderón, Zulma Cruz-Trujillo, Elio Mena, Marina Reyes, Mabel Sandoval-Diaz, Vicente Sánchez-Polo, Régulo Valdés, Pedro Ordúnez
Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061853/location-location-location-environmental-factors-better-predict-malaria-positive-individuals-during-reactive-case-detection-than-index-case-demographics-in-southern-province-zambia
#17
David A Larsen, Tokozile Ngwenya-Kangombe, Sanford Cheelo, Busiku Hamainza, John Miller, Anna Winters, Daniel J Bridges
BACKGROUND: Decreasing malaria transmission leads to increasing heterogeneity with increased risk in both hot spots (locations) and hot pops (certain demographics). In Southern Province, Zambia, reactive case detection has formed a part of malaria surveillance and elimination efforts since 2011. Various factors may be associated with finding malaria infections during case investigations, including the demographics of the incident case and environmental characteristics of the location of the incident case...
January 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039136/laboratory-surveillance-of-polio-and-other-enteroviruses-in-high-risk-populations-and-environmental-samples
#18
Vasiliki Pogka, Stavroula Labropoulou, Mary Emmanouil, Androniki Voulgari-Kokota, Alexandra Vernardaki, Theano Georgakopoulou, Andreas F Mentis
: In the context of poliomyelitis eradication, a reinforced supplementary laboratory surveillance of enteroviruses was implemented in Greece. From 2008 to 2014, the Hellenic Polioviruses/Enteroviruses Reference Laboratory performed detailed supplementary surveillance of circulating enteroviruses among healthy individuals in high-risk population groups, among immigrants from poliovirus endemic countries as well as in environmental samples. In total, 722 stool samples and 179 sewage water samples were included in the study...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034593/one-health-proof-of-concept-bringing-a-transdisciplinary-approach-to-surveillance-for-zoonotic-viruses-at-the-human-wild-animal-interface
#19
Terra R Kelly, William B Karesh, Christine Kreuder Johnson, Kirsten V K Gilardi, Simon J Anthony, Tracey Goldstein, Sarah H Olson, Catherine Machalaba, Jonna A K Mazet
As the world continues to react and respond inefficiently to emerging infectious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome and the Ebola and Zika viruses, a growing transdisciplinary community has called for a more proactive and holistic approach to prevention and preparedness - One Health. Such an approach presents important opportunities to reduce the impact of disease emergence events and also to mitigate future emergence through improved cross-sectoral coordination. In an attempt to provide proof of concept of the utility of the One Health approach, the US Agency for International Development's PREDICT project consortium designed and implemented a targeted, risk-based surveillance strategy based not on humans as sentinels of disease but on detecting viruses early, at their source, where intervention strategies can be implemented before there is opportunity for spillover and spread in people or food animals...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034372/public-health-response-to-the-silent-reintroduction-of-wild-poliovirus-to-israel-2013-2014
#20
REVIEW
J Moran-Gilad, E Kaliner, M Gdalevich, I Grotto
During 2013/14, Israel witnessed the silent reintroduction and sustained transmission of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) detected through routine environmental surveillance performed on sewage samples. The public health response to silent poliovirus transmission in a population with high inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) coverage poses an emerging challenge towards the 'End Game' of global poliovirus eradication. This paper reviews the risk assessment, risk management and risk communication aspects of this poliovirus incident...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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