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Environmental health surveillance

Nathália Santos Serrão de Castro, Marcelo de Oliveira Lima
Many studies have assessed mercury (Hg) exposure in the Amazonian population. This article performs a literature search of the studies that used hair as a biomarker of Hg exposure in the Brazilian Amazonian population. The search covered the period from 1996 to 2016 and included articles which matched the following criteria: (1) articles related to Hg exposure into Brazilian Amazon; (2) articles that used hair as a biomarker of Hg exposure; (3) articles that used analytical tools to measure the Hg content on hair and (4) articles that presented arithmetic mean and/or minimum and maximum values of Hg...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Maria Grazia Dente, Flavia Riccardo, Gloria Nacca, Alessia Ranghiasci, Camille Escadafal, Lobna Gaayeb, Miguel Angel Jiménez-Clavero, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Marie Picard, Jovita Fernández-Pinero, Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Vincent Robert, Kathleen Victoir, Silvia Declich
In the context of One Health, there is presently an effort to integrate surveillance of human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. This aims to strengthen the prevention of, and preparedness against, arbovirus infections, also in the light of environmental and climate changes that could increase the risk of transmission. However, criteria to define integrated surveillance, and to compare different systems, still need to be identified and tested. We conducted a scoping review to identify and examine surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV), chikungunya virus (CHKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which involve human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
A Sommanustweechai, V Tangcharoensathien, K Malathum, N Sumpradit, N Kiatying-Angsulee, N Janejai, S Jaroenpoj
BACKGROUND: Thailand has developed a national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance (NSP-AMR) and endorsed by the Cabinet in August 2016. This study reviewed the main contents of the NSP-AMR and the mandates of relevant implementing agencies and identified challenges and recommends actions to mitigate implementation gaps. METHODS: This study analysed the contents of NSP-AMR, reviewed institutional mandates and assessed the implementation gaps among agencies responsible for NSP-AMR...
March 7, 2018: Public Health
V Ayano Ogawa, Cecilia M Shah, James M Hughes, Lonnie J King
Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to global health security. While the global community has made recent advances to mitigate the threat of antimicrobial resistance, we continue to face challenges in creating solutions and concrete actions that will yield the greatest immediate impact. To examine the critical areas in human, animal and environmental health that contribute to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance, the Forum on Microbial Threats of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine hosted a public workshop on June 20-21, 2017 in Washington, DC...
March 9, 2018: EcoHealth
Thibault Catry, Zhichao Li, Emmanuel Roux, Vincent Herbreteau, Helen Gurgel, Morgan Mangeas, Frédérique Seyler, Nadine Dessay
The prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, are important health issues in tropical areas. Malaria transmission is a multi-scale process strongly controlled by environmental factors, and the use of remote-sensing data is suitable for the characterization of its spatial and temporal dynamics. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is well-adapted to tropical areas, since it is capable of imaging independent of light and weather conditions. In this study, we highlight the contribution of SAR sensors in the assessment of the relationship between vectors, malaria and the environment in the Amazon region...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marnie F Hazlehurst, Paula S Nurius, Anjum Hajat
Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Elizabeth C Lee, Ali Arab, Sandra M Goldlust, Cécile Viboud, Bryan T Grenfell, Shweta Bansal
The surveillance of influenza activity is critical to early detection of epidemics and pandemics and the design of disease control strategies. Case reporting through a voluntary network of sentinel physicians is a commonly used method of passive surveillance for monitoring rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) worldwide. Despite its ubiquity, little attention has been given to the processes underlying the observation, collection, and spatial aggregation of sentinel surveillance data, and its subsequent effects on epidemiological understanding...
March 7, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Alessandro Marinaccio, Alessandra Binazzi, Michela Bonafede, Davide Di Marzio, Alberto Scarselli
Background: As a legacy of the large asbestos consumption until the definitive ban in 1992, Italy is currently suffering a severe epidemic of asbestos related diseases. The aim of this paper is to describe the surveillance system for mesothelioma incidence and to provide evidences regarding the occurrence of the disease in Italy and the circumstances of asbestos exposure. Methods: Italian National Register of Malignant Mesotheliomas (ReNaM) is a permanent surveillance system of mesothelioma incidence, with Regional Operating Centres (CORs) active in each Italian region, identifying incident malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases from health care structures...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Fabrizio Minichilli, Fabrizio Bianchi, Carla Ancona, Marco Cervino, Gianluigi De Gennaro, Cristina Mangia, Michele Santoro, Elisa Bustaffa
OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the associations among the emissions produced by "Centro olio Val d'Agri" (COVA), with mortality and hospitalization of residents in the Viggiano and Grumento Nova Municipalities, located in Val d'Agri (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy). DESIGN: residential cohort study. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Lagrangians dispersion models to estimate the level of exposure at the address of residence to NOX concentrations as tracers of COVA emissions...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Radhika Rible, Efren Aguilar, Angela Chen, Joshua L Bader, Leslie Goodyear-Moya, Karen Teekadai Singh, Suzanne E Paulson, Julie Friedman, Nilufar Izadpanah, Janet Pregler
Research has shown linkages between environmental exposures and population health metrics such as low birth weight and incidence of congenital anomalies. While the exact causal relationship between specific environmental teratogens and suspected corresponding congenital anomalies has largely not been established, spatial analysis of anomaly incidence can identify potential locations of increased risk. This study uses the Vital Statistics Birth Master File to map and analyze the rates of congenital anomalies of births from non-smoking mothers 15-35 years old within Los Angeles County...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Alessandra Torina, Valeria Blanda, Marcellocalogero Blanda, Michelangelo Auteri, Francesco La Russa, Salvatore Scimeca, Rosalia D'Agostino, Rosaria Disclafani, Sara Villari, Vittoria Currò, Santo Caracappa
Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are bloodsucking arthropods involved in pathogen transmission in animals and humans. Tick activity depends on various ecological factors such as vegetation, hosts, and temperature. The aim of this study was to analyse the spatial/temporal distribution of ticks in six sites within a peri-urban area of Palermo (Natural Reserve of Monte Pellegrino) and correlate it with field data using Geographical Information System (GIS) data. A total of 3092 ticks were gathered via dragging method from June 2012 to May 2014...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kathleen Abu-Saad, Shlomit Avni, Ofra Kalter-Leibovici
BACKGROUND: Health disparities are a persistent problem in many high-income countries. Health policymakers recognize the need to develop systematic methods for documenting and tracking these disparities in order to reduce them. The experience of the U.S., which has a well-established health disparities monitoring infrastructure, provides useful insights for other countries. MAIN BODY: This article provides an in-depth review of health disparities monitoring in the U...
February 28, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Gonza Namulanda, Judith Qualters, Ambarish Vaidyanathan, Eric Roberts, Max Richardson, Alicia Fraser, Katharine H McVeigh, Scott Patterson
Data from traditional public health surveillance systems can have some limitations, e.g., timeliness, geographic level, and amount of data accessible. Electronic health records (EHRs) could present an opportunity to supplement current sources of routinely collected surveillance data. The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) sought to explore the use of EHRs for advancing environmental public health surveillance practices. The Tracking Program funded four state/local health departments to obtain and pilot the use of EHR data to address several issues including the challenges and technical requirements for accessing EHR data, and the core data elements required to integrate EHR data within their departments' Tracking programs...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Heman Shakeri, Victoriya Volkova, Xuesong Wen, Andrea Deters, Charley Cull, James Drouillard, Christian Müller, Behnaz Moradijamei, Majid Jaberi-Douraki
To assess phenotypic bacterial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in different strata ( e.g. , host populations, environmental areas, manure, or sewage-effluents) for epidemiological purposes, isolates of target bacteria can be obtained from a stratum using various sample-types. Also, different sample-processing methods can be applied. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each target antimicrobial drug for each isolate is measured. Statistical-equivalence testing of the MIC data for the isolates allows evaluating whether different sample-types or sample-processing methods yield equivalent estimates of the bacterial antimicrobial-susceptibility in the stratum...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Victoria Wan, Lorraine McIntyre, Debra Kent, Dennis Leong, Sarah B Henderson
BACKGROUND: Data from poison centers have the potential to be valuable for public health surveillance of long-term trends, short-term aberrations from those trends, and poisonings occurring in near-real-time. This information can enable long-term prevention via programs and policies and short-term control via immediate public health response. Over the past decade, there has been an increasing use of poison control data for surveillance in the United States, Europe, and New Zealand, but this resource still remains widely underused...
February 23, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Martha Maria Pereira, Maria Cristina Schneider, Claudia Munoz-Zanzi, Federico Costa, Jackie Benschop, Rudy Hartskeerl, Julio Martinez, Michel Jancloes, Eric Bertherat
This report summarizes the presentations, discussions and the recommendations coming from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ International Workshop for Leptospirosis Research Based on Country Needs and the 5th Global Leptospirosis Environmental Action Network meeting, which was held in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 10-12 November 2015. The event focused on health policy and worked to develop a road map as a consensus document to help guide decision-making by policymakers, funding bodies, and health care professionals...
February 19, 2018: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
María F Rivadeneira, Sérgio L Bassanesi, Sandra C Fuchs
BACKGROUND: In 2011-2012, an outbreak of measles occurred in Ecuador. This study sought to ascertain which population characteristics were associated. METHODS: Case-control study of aggregate data. The unit of analysis was the parish (smallest geographic division). The national communicable disease surveillance database was used to identify 52 case parishes (with at least one confirmed case of measles) and 972 control parishes (no cases of measles). A hierarchical model was used to determine the association of measles with population characteristics and access to health care...
February 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Shweta Tikoo, Rohit Jain, Angela R M Kurz, Wolfgang Weninger
Cutaneous immunity represents a crucial component of the mammalian immune response. The presence of a large array of commensal microorganisms along with a myriad of environmental stresses necessitates constant immuno-surveillance of the tissue. To achieve a perfect balance between immune-tolerance and immune-activation, the skin harbours strategically localised immune cell populations that modulate these responses. To maintain homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune cells assimilate microenvironmental cues and coordinate cellular and molecular functions in a spatiotemporal manner...
February 19, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Keumseok Koh, Sue C Grady, Igor Vojnovic, Joe T Darden
OBJECTIVES: From 2000 to 2010, the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded 37 state health departments to address the obesity epidemic in their states through various interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall impacts of CDC-DNPAO statewide intervention programs on adult obesity prevalence in the United States. METHODS: We used a set of an individual-level, interrupted time-series regression and a quasi-experimental analysis to evaluate the overall effect of CDC-DNPAO intervention programs before (1998-1999) and after (2010) their implementation by using data from CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
Damarys Relova, Liliam Rios, Ana M Acevedo, Liani Coronado, Carmen L Perera, Lester J Pérez
The current global conditions, which include intensive globalization, climate changes, and viral evolution among other factors, have led to an increased emergence of viruses and new viral diseases; RNA viruses are key drivers of this evolution. Laboratory networks that are linked to central reference laboratories are required to conduct both active and passive environmental surveillance of this complicated global viral environment. These tasks require a continuous exchange of strains or field samples between different diagnostic laboratories...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
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