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Environmental health surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160513/detection-of-schistosomiasis-in-an-area-directly-affected-by-the-s%C3%A3-o-francisco-river-large-scale-water-transposition-project-in-the-northeast-of-brazil
#1
José Damião da Silva, Marta Cristhiany Cunha Pinheiro, Mariana Silva Sousa, Vivian da Silva Gomes, Issis Maria Nogueira de Castro, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Fernando Schemelzer de Moraes Bezerra
INTRODUCTION: The development of the São Francisco River Integration Project [Projeto de Integração do Rio São Francisco (PISF)] in the State of Ceará, Brazil, has resulted in environmental and socioeconomic changes with potential risks to public health. We aimed to determine the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infections in schoolchildren (aged 7-14 years) and workers from the construction site in an area under the direct influence of the PISF in the municipality of Brejo Santo-CE, to aid in the prevention and control of schistosomiasis...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158661/policy-system-and-environmental-correlates-of-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-in-a-low-income-african-american-population-in-the-southeast
#2
Lori Brand Bateman, LaToya J O'Neal, Theolishia Smith, Yufeng Li, Theresa A Wynn, Chen Dai, Mona N Fouad
Objective: The current study seeks to identify policy, system and environmental (PSE) correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among a sample of low-income African Americans in two counties in Alabama (Jefferson and Mobile) and one county in Mississippi (Forrest). Design: A modified Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFFS) survey, which included multi-level ecological factors, was used to evaluate nutritional habits at the pre-intervention stage of a multi-state research study...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155661/zoonotic-disease-programs-for-enhancing-global-health-security
#3
Ermias D Belay, James C Kile, Aron J Hall, Casey Barton-Behravesh, Michele B Parsons, Stephanie Salyer, Henry Walke
Most infectious diseases that recently emerged in humans originated in animals. Besides close contact between animals and humans, other factors probably contribute to the cross-species transmission of infectious diseases. It is critical to establish effective mechanisms for coordination and collaboration between the animal, human, and environmental health sectors before new threats emerge by bringing the different sectors together to tackle endemic zoonotic diseases of greatest concern. Such multisectoral partnerships should begin by identifying priority zoonotic diseases for national engagement with equal input from the different sectors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155018/emerging-infections-are-an-increasingly-important-topic
#4
REVIEW
Eskild Petersen, Nicola Petrosillo, Marion Koopmans
OBJECTIVES: This paper review trends in emerging infections and the need for increased clinical and laboratory surveillance. METHODS: Factors that contributed to the emergence of recent outbreaks have been reviewed. Known, major outbreaks over the past two decades were reviewed. RESULTS: We identified at least four major drivers of emergent infections: i. increasing density of the human population; ii. stress from farmland expansion on the environment; iii...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144432/climate-change-and-schools-environmental-hazards-and-resiliency
#5
Perry E Sheffield, Simone A M Uijttewaal, James Stewart, Maida P Galvez
The changing climate is creating additional challenges in maintaining a healthy school environment in the United States (U.S.) where over 50 million people, mostly children, spend approximately a third of their waking hours. Chronic low prioritization of funds and resources to support environmental health in schools and lack of clear regulatory oversight in the U.S. undergird the new risks from climate change. We illustrate the extent of risk and the variation in vulnerability by geographic region, in the context of sparse systematically collected and comparable data particularly about school infrastructure...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138016/the-challenges-of-detecting-and-responding-to-a-lassa-fever-outbreak-in-an-ebola-affected-setting
#6
E L Hamblion, P Raftery, A Wendland, E Dweh, G S Williams, R N C George, L Soro, V Katawera, P Clement, A N Gasasira, E Musa, T K Nagbe
OBJECTIVES: Lassa fever(LF), a priority emerging pathogen likely to cause major epidemics, is endemic in much of West Africa and difficult to distinguish from other viral haemorrhagic fevers including Ebola virus disease(EVD). Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation not widely available in affected settings. We report the public health action to contain a LF outbreak and challenges encountered in an EVD-affected setting. METHODS: In February 2016 a rapid response team was deployed in Liberia in response to a cluster of LF cases...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129921/towards-a-genomics-informed-real-time-global-pathogen-surveillance-system
#7
REVIEW
Jennifer L Gardy, Nicholas J Loman
The recent Ebola and Zika epidemics demonstrate the need for the continuous surveillance, rapid diagnosis and real-time tracking of emerging infectious diseases. Fast, affordable sequencing of pathogen genomes - now a staple of the public health microbiology laboratory in well-resourced settings - can affect each of these areas. Coupling genomic diagnostics and epidemiology to innovative digital disease detection platforms raises the possibility of an open, global, digital pathogen surveillance system. When informed by a One Health approach, in which human, animal and environmental health are considered together, such a genomics-based system has profound potential to improve public health in settings lacking robust laboratory capacity...
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124846/prevalence-mechanisms-and-genetic-relatedness-of-the-human-pathogenic-fungus-aspergillus-fumigatus-exhibiting-resistance-to-medical-azoles-in-the-environment-of-taiwan
#8
Hsuan-Chen Wang, Jui-Chang Huang, Yong-Hong Lin, Yu-Hsin Chen, Ming-I Hsieh, Pui-Ching Choi, Hsiu-Jung Lo, Wei-Lun Liu, Ching-Shan Hsu, Hsin-I Shih, Chi-Jung Wu, Yee-Chun Chen
Emerging azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus poses a serious threat to human health. This nationwide surveillance study investigated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of azole-resistant A. fumigatus environmental isolates in Taiwan, an island country with increasing use of azole fungicides. Of the 2,760 air and soil samples screened from 2014-2016, 451 A. fumigatus isolates were recovered from 266 samples, and 34 isolates from 29 samples displayed resistance to medical azoles (itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole)...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111620/readying-community-water-fluoridation-advocates-through-training-surveillance-and-empowerment
#9
C Veschusio, M K Jones, J Mercer, A B Martin
This paper describes the Community Water Fluoridation Advocacy Training Project that was designed to develop networks of community water fluoridation advocates in rural communities. The South Carolina (SC) Department of Health and Environmental Control Division of Oral Health staff and the SC Dental Association were responsible for developing and facilitating the training sessions for key policy influencers, which included medical and dental providers, early childhood educators, and water system operators and managers...
November 10, 2017: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106558/anthropometric-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-parents-and-child-obesity-in-segamat-malaysia
#10
Uttara Partap, Elizabeth H Young, Pascale Allotey, Manjinder S Sandhu, Daniel D Reidpath
Background: There is little evidence regarding risk factors for child obesity in Asian populations, including the role of parental anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors. We examined the relation between parental risk factors and child obesity in a Malaysian population. Methods: We used data from health and demographic surveillance conducted by the South East Asia Community Observatory in Segamat, Malaysia. Analyses included 9207 individuals (4806 children, 2570 mothers and 1831 fathers)...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104250/a-pilot-study-in-cameroon-to-understand-safe-uses-of-pesticides-in-agriculture-risk-factors-for-farmers-exposure-and-management-of-accidental-cases
#11
Guy Bertrand Pouokam, William Lemnyuy Album, Alice S Ndikontar, Mohamed El Hady Sidatt
Chemical pesticides are widely used in Cameroon for agricultural production. In 2015, more than 600 pesticide products were approved for use in various foodstuffs. Much misuse of these chemicals by farmers has been documented in rural and urban settings. This pilot study aims to contribute to the improvement of the health of the population and the environmental preservation by identifying pesticide-poisoning cases, the most incriminated products and critical risk factors of exposure. Questionnaires were administered to pesticide vendors, farmers and health personnel, and observations made on farmers' practices at their work places...
November 1, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101696/effect-of-long-term-exposure-to-ambient-particulate-matter-on-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-and-hypertension-in-iranian-adults-an-ecologic-study
#12
Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Kazem Naddafi, Mojtaba Malek, Ameneh Ebrahim Valojerdi, Mohanad Mirzadeh, Tahereh Samavat, Alireza Mahdavi Hezaveh, Alieh Hodjatzadeh, Mohammad Ebrahim Khamseh
Air pollution is considered as an environmental risk to health worldwide. Current evidence is mostly from Western populations exposed to lower levels of pollutants. This study was to explore the association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension prevalence with exposure to high levels of air pollution in Iranian adults. The air pollution data were obtained from the air quality monitoring stations of five large cities in Iran from 2006 to 2011. The air quality monitoring stations could only detect ambient particulate matter_10 (PM10) during the study period; therefore, the average PM10 concentration was considered for comparison...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099113/mapeo-geoepidemiol%C3%A3-gico-en-la-nueva-vigilancia-de-salud-p%C3%A3%C2%BAblica-el-caso-de-la-malaria-en-chiapas-m%C3%A3-xico-en-2002
#13
Carlos Castillo-Salgado
The new public health surveillance requires at the global, national and local levels the use of new authoritative analytical approaches and tools for better recognition of the epidemiologic characteristics of the priority health events and risk factors affecting the population health. The identification of the events in time and space is of fundamental importance so that the geo-spatial description of the situation of diseases and health events facilitates the identification of social, environmental and health care related risks...
2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095808/harmful-algal-bloom-associated-illnesses-in-humans-and-dogs-identified-through-a-pilot-surveillance-system-new-york-2015
#14
Mary Figgatt, James Hyde, David Dziewulski, Eric Wiegert, Scott Kishbaugh, Grant Zelin, Lloyd Wilson
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are photosynthetic, aquatic organisms found in fresh, brackish, and marine water around the world (1). Rapid proliferation and accumulation of potentially toxin-producing cyanobacteria characterize one type of harmful algal bloom (HAB). HABs have the potential to cause illness in humans and animals (2,3); however, the epidemiology of these illnesses has not been well characterized. Statewide in 2015, a total of 139 HABs were identified in New York, 97 (70%) of which were confirmed through laboratory analysis; 77 independent beach closures were ordered at 37 beaches on 20 different bodies of water...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093352/prevalence-and-risk-of-birth-defects-observed-in-a-prospective-cohort-study-the-hokkaido-study-on-environment-and-children-s-health
#15
Tomoyuki Hanaoka, Naomi Tamura, Kumiko Ito, Seiko Sasaki, Atsuko Araki, Tamiko Ikeno, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Ito, Hisanori Minakami, Kazutoshi Cho, Toshiaki Endo, Tsuyoshi Baba, Toshinobu Miyamoto, Kazuo Sengoku, Reiko Kishi
BACKGROUND: Prevalence rates of all anomalies classified as birth defects, including those identified before the 22nd gestational week, are limited in published reports, including those from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). In our birth cohort study, we collected the data for all birth defects after 12 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Subjects in this study comprised 19,244 pregnant women who visited one of 37 associated hospitals in the Hokkaido Prefecture from 2003 through 2012, and completed follow-up...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084307/association-between-pesticide-residue-intake-from-consumption-of-fruits-and-vegetables-and-pregnancy-outcomes-among-women-undergoing-infertility-treatment-with-assisted-reproductive-technology
#16
Yu-Han Chiu, Paige L Williams, Matthew W Gillman, Audrey J Gaskins, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Irene Souter, Thomas L Toth, Jennifer B Ford, Russ Hauser, Jorge E Chavarro
Importance: Animal experiments suggest that ingestion of pesticide mixtures at environmentally relevant concentrations decreases the number of live-born offspring. Whether the same is true in humans is unknown. Objective: To examine the association of preconception intake of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables (FVs) with outcomes of infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis included 325 women who completed a diet assessment and subsequently underwent 541 ART cycles in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2007-2016) at a fertility center at a teaching hospital...
October 30, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084219/ecological-niche-modeling-and-distribution-of-ornithodoros-hermsi-associated-with-tick-borne-relapsing-fever-in-western-north-america
#17
Kylie M Sage, Tammi L Johnson, Michael B Teglas, Nathan C Nieto, Tom G Schwan
Tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is a zoonosis caused by the spirochete bacterium, Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the bite of infected Ornithodoros hermsi ticks. The pathogen is maintained in natural cycles involving small rodent hosts such as chipmunks and tree squirrels, as well as the tick vector. In order for these ticks to establish sustained and viable populations, a narrow set of environmental parameters must exist, primarily moderate temperatures and moderate to high amounts of precipitation...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069199/on-integrated-residency-in-health-with-emphasis-on-health-surveillance
#18
Andrei Fernandes da Rocha, Anelise Breier, Bianca de Souza, Camila Neves de Almeida, Caroline Mello Dos Santos, Claudia Cristina Rohloff, Estela Lopes Scariot, João Vinicius Ribeiro Azambuja, Joaquim Basso Cartana, Natalia Canal, Niura Massário Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves Menegotto Reinher
Taking into account the four underpinning areas of Health Surveillance (environmental, epidemiological, health and worker's health), the performance of professionals in this area requires a broad and complex set of information from many fields of knowledge, including that which is not classified as health. Considering the need to prepare professionals to work in Health Surveillance in the Unified Health System (SUS), integrating the four fields of knowledge, the Public Health School of Rio Grande do Sul (ESP/RS) and the surveillance areas of the municipality of Porto Alegre and Rio Grande do Sul State have established a new emphasis in the traditional residency of ESP/RS...
October 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069197/evaluation-of-health-surveillance-in-the-zona-da-mata-mineira-from-standards-to-practice
#19
Cíntia Pereira Donateli, Patrícia Silva Avelar, Ariadne Barbosa do Nascimento Einloft, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta, Glauce Dias da Costa
Health Surveillance is of paramount importance when confronted with the current Brazilian epidemiological setting. This study aims to evaluate the level of Health Surveillance in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. This is an evaluative study, and data were collected in the first half of 2016. The research universe consisted of seven municipalities in the Zona da Mata Mineira complex. Municipalities were selected with reference to available operational epidemiological, environmental and sanitary surveillance. The subjects under analysis were the Surveillance coordinators (n = 21), Health Surveillance coordinators (n = 7) and Health secretaries (n = 7)...
October 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069183/presence-of-pesticides-in-atmosphere-and-risk-to-human-health-a-discussion-for-the-environmental-surveillance
#20
Gustavo Dos Santos Souza, Luciana Cristina Alves da Costa, Alana Coelho Maciel, Fábio David Vasconcelos Reis, Ysabely de Aguiar Pontes Pamplona
Brazil is the main consumer of pesticides in the world. Large-scale use of these products is likely to contaminate major environmental compartments and expose more people to their toxic effects. Therefore, this literature review was carried out to seek supporting elements for a qualified discussion about the performance of Environmental Surveillance (HS) within the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) related to air contamination by pesticides and health risks. Twelve papers were selected and analyzed in this literature review...
October 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
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