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Metabolism obesity health

Kristel Ehala-Aleksejev, Margus Punab
This study aimed to determine the effect of metabolic syndrome (MS) on the reproductive function in fertile (FM) and male partners of infertile couples (MPIC). We performed a cross-sectional study formatting two study groups: partners of pregnant women (n = 238; mean age 32.0) as FM and male partners of infertile couples (n = 2642; mean age 32.6) as MPIC. A standard semen analysis was performed and clinical, laboratory and lifestyle data were analysed. The adapted NCEP-ATPIII criteria were used to define MS...
2018: PloS One
Jessica H Hill, Claudia Solt, Michelle T Foster
Obesity and associated metabolic co-morbidities are a worldwide public health problem. Negative health outcomes associated with obesity, however, do not arise from excessive adiposity alone. Rather, deleterious outcomes of adipose tissue accumulation are a result of how adipocytes are distributed to individual regions in the body. Due to our increased understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between specific adipose depots and disease risk, an accurate characterization of total body adiposity as well as location is required to properly evaluate a population's disease risk...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Chien Wen Su, Chih-Yu Chen, Yali Li, Shao Rong Long, William Massey, Deepak Vijaya Kumar, W Allan Walker, Hai Ning Shi
Epidemiological studies indicate an inverse correlation between the prevalence of the so-called western diseases, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, and the exposure to helminths. Obesity, a key risk factor for many chronic health problems, is rising globally and is accompanied by low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues. The precise mechanism by which helminths modulate metabolic syndrome and obesity is not fully understood. We infected high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice with the intestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus and observed that helminth infection resulted in significantly attenuated obesity...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
So Yoon Han, Nan Hee Kim, Do Hoon Kim, Kyungdo Han, Seon Mee Kim
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity has significantly increased in Korea. This study aimed to use data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to investigate the association between sodium (Na) intake and insulin resistance in children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS: The study population consisted of 578 adolescents aged 12-18 years who were enrolled in the 2010 KNHANES. Subjects were classified into the following four groups based on their body mass index (BMI) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values: normal BMI and HOMA-IR (Group 1), normal BMI and ≥75% HOMA-IR (Group 2), ≥85% BMI and normal HOMA-IR (Group 3) and ≥85% BMI and ≥75% HOMA-IR (Group 4)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Maxine P Bonham, Gloria K W Leung, Rochelle Davis, Tracey L Sletten, Chiara Murgia, Morag J Young, Nina Eikelis, Elisabeth A Lambert, Catherine E Huggins
INTRODUCTION: Shift work is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Shift workers who are awake overnight and sleep during the day are misaligned with their body's endogenous circadian rhythm. Eating at night contributes to this increased risk of CVD by forcing the body to actively break down and process nutrients at night. This pilot study aims to determine whether altering meal timing overnight, in a shift working population, will impact favourably on modifiable risk factors for CVD (postprandial bplasma lipids and glucose concentration)...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Jun Morinaga, Jiabin Zhao, Motoyoshi Endo, Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu, Keishi Miyata, Taichi Sugizaki, Yusuke Okadome, Zhe Tian, Haruki Horiguchi, Kazuya Miyashita, Nobuhiro Maruyama, Masashi Mukoyama, Yuichi Oike
PURPOSE: Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) 3, 4, and 8 reportedly contribute to progression of metabolic disease, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether circulating ANGPTL levels are associated with CVD risk after adjustment for potential confounding factors. METHODS: We conducted a single center, cross-sectional study of 988 Japanese subjects undergoing routine health checks. Serum ANGPTL3, 4, and 8 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2018: PloS One
Robin A Wilson, William Deasy, Christos G Stathis, Alan Hayes, Matthew B Cooke
Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males ( n = 39) and females ( n = 49)) were fed a high fat (HF) and sugar (S) water diet (30% ( w / v )) for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1) 'obese' baseline control (OBC); (2) no intervention (CON); (3) intermittent fasting (IF); (4) high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) and (5) combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT)...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Consolacion Garcia-Contreras, Marta Vazquez-Gomez, Laura Torres-Rovira, Jorge Gonzalez, Esteban Porrini, Magali Gonzalez-Colaço, Beatriz Isabel, Susana Astiz, Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes
Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity are currently considered major global threats for health and well-being. However, there is a lack of adequate preclinical models for their study. The present trial evaluated the suitability of aged swine by determining changes in adiposity, fatty acids composition, antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation, development of metabolic disturbances and structural changes in tissues and organs. Iberian sows with clinical evidence of aging-related sarcopenia were fed a standard diet fulfilling their maintenance requirements or an obesogenic diet for 100 days...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elvira Larqué, Eva Morales, Rosaura Leis, José E Blanco-Carnero
BACKGROUND: To what extent does the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration help to meet the physiological needs of humans is an ongoing subject of debate. Remaining unexposed to the sun to reduce melanoma cancer risk, current lifestyle with less out door activities, and increasing obesity rates, which in turn increases the storage of vitamin D in the adipose tissue, are presumably factors that contribute to the substantial upsurge in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in humans...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Ami R Zota, Ruth J Geller, Laura E Romano, Kimberly Coleman-Phox, Nancy E Adler, Emily Parry, Miaomiao Wang, June-Soo Park, Angelo F Elmi, Barbara A Laraia, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can target immune and metabolic pathways. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined the influence of EDCs on measures of inflammation and cellular aging during pregnancy and postpartum. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between prenatal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDE metabolites (OH-PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and per- and polyfluorochemicals (PFASs) with repeated biomarker measurements of inflammation and cellular aging in women during pregnancy and the postpartum period...
March 10, 2018: Environment International
Thomas H Inge, Lori M Laffel, Todd M Jenkins, Marsha D Marcus, Natasha I Leibel, Mary L Brandt, Morey Haymond, Elaine M Urbina, Lawrence M Dolan, Philip S Zeitler
Importance: Because of the substantial increase in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in the pediatric population and the medical complications of this condition, therapies are urgently needed that will achieve better glycemic control than standard medical management. Objective: To compare glycemic control in cohorts of severely obese adolescents with type 2 diabetes undergoing medical and surgical interventions. Design, Setting, and Participants: A secondary analysis of data collected by the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) and Treatment Options of Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) consortia was performed...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Chaitanya Gopalrao Chinawale, Dipak V Parmar, Parth Kavathia, Twinkle Rangnani, Jainy Thakkar, Girija Kartha
Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder and a major health concern in developing countries. Data on MetS in Indian population show multiplicity. There are no published reports about the prevalence of MetS in population of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in adult population of this region. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was carried out among 473 participants who attended free health checkup camps...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Meghan McGee, Shannon Bainbridge, Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Sedigheh Asgary, Ali Rastqar, Mahtab Keshvari
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of CVD. Functional foods based on their basic nutritional functions can decrease the risk of many chronic diseases and have some physiological benefits. They contain physiologically active components either from plant or animal sources, marketed with the claim of their ability to reduce heart disease risk, focusing primarily on established risk factors, which are hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity/overweight, elevated lipoprotein A level, small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and elevated inflammatory marker levels...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Kelsey H Collins, Walter Herzog, Graham Z MacDonald, Raylene A Reimer, Jaqueline L Rios, Ian C Smith, Ronald F Zernicke, David A Hart
Inflammation can arise in response to a variety of stimuli, including infectious agents, tissue injury, autoimmune diseases, and obesity. Some of these responses are acute and resolve, while others become chronic and exert a sustained impact on the host, systemically, or locally. Obesity is now recognized as a chronic low-grade, systemic inflammatory state that predisposes to other chronic conditions including metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although obesity has received considerable attention regarding its pathophysiological link to chronic cardiovascular conditions and type 2 diabetes, the musculoskeletal (MSK) complications (i...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Parastoo Fazelzadeh, Roland W J Hangelbroek, Peter J Joris, Casper G Schalkwijk, Diederik Esser, Lydia Afman, Thomas Hankemeier, Doris M Jacobs, Velitchka V Mihaleva, Sander Kersten, John van Duynhoven, Mark V Boekschoten
Introduction: The response to dietary challenges has been proposed as a more accurate measure of metabolic health than static measurements performed in the fasted state. This has prompted many groups to explore the potential of dietary challenge tests for assessment of diet and lifestyle induced shifts in metabolic phenotype. Objectives: We examined whether the response to a mixed-meal challenge could provide a readout for a weight loss (WL)-induced phenotype shift in abdominally obese male subjects...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Trevor W Stone, Megan McPherson, L Gail Darlington
Existing explanations of obesity-associated cancer emphasise direct mutagenic effects of dietary components or hormonal imbalance. Some of these hypotheses are reviewed briefly, but recent evidence suggests a major role for chronic inflammation in cancer risk, possibly involving dietary content. These ideas include the inflammation-induced activation of the kynurenine pathway and its role in feeding and metabolism by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and by modulating synaptic transmission in the brain...
February 27, 2018: EBioMedicine
Susann Weihrauch-Blüher, Matthias Richter, Martin S Staege
Obesity is a complex disease which has reached epidemic dimensions. Thus, prevention of excessive weight gain and associated metabolic and cardiovascular diseases has to start as early in life as possible. The impact of epigenetic mechanisms on the regulation of genes involved in obesity is increasingly recognized. On the other hand, it is well known that socioeconomic factors influence the risk for obesity. These factors can also have an impact on epigenetic gene regulation. There is increasing body of evidence that several factors and interventions addressing extragenetic causes of obesity may not only improve individual health, but also the health of future generations by epigenetic alterations...
March 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Ines Delgado, Lison Huet, Sandra Dexpert, Cédric Beau, Damien Forestier, Patrick Ledaguenel, Agnès Aubert, Julie Sauvant, Bruno Aouizerate, Eric Magne, Lucile Capuron
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that the risk of depressive symptoms in obesity is potentiated in subjects presenting a metabolically unhealthy phenotype. Inflammation is often considered a defining criteria of metabolic health. However, this factor may drive the association of metabolic health with depressive symptoms given its well-known role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed at determining the relative contribution of inflammation and metabolic abnormalities to depressive symptoms in obesity...
March 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Banaz Al-Khalidi, Samantha M Kimball, Jennifer L Kuk, Chris I Ardern
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous studies assessing the prognosis of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) have been limited by a lack of a harmonized definition of MHO phenotype. Furthermore, obesity is a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency and low vitamin D status has been associated with a higher risk of mortality; however, few studies have evaluated the joint association between vitamin D, metabolic health phenotype, and mortality risk. Using a harmonized definition, we investigated whether MHO is associated with subsequent all-cause and cardiometabolic mortality, and whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] modifies these associations...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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