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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150035/thoracic-surgery-considerations-in-obese-patients
#1
REVIEW
Douglas Z Liou, Mark F Berry
The obesity epidemic in the United States has increased greatly over the past several decades, and thoracic surgeons are likely to see obese patients routinely in their practices. Obesity has direct deleterious health effects such as metabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease, and is associated with many cancers. Obese patients who need thoracic surgery pose practical challenges to many of the routine elements in perioperative management. Preoperative assessment of obesity-related comorbid conditions and risk stratification for surgery, thorough intraoperative planning for anesthesia and surgery, and postoperative strategies to optimize pulmonary hygiene and mobility minimize the risk of adverse outcomes...
February 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147909/the-role-of-the-antioxidant-protein-dj-1-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Daniel Eberhard, Eckhard Lammert
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide escalating health disorder resulting from insulin resistance and functional loss of insulin-producing beta cells that finally cause chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations. Here we review the role of ubiquitously expressed antioxidant protein DJ-1 in the pathogenesis of T2DM. In beta cells, DJ-1 protects against oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and streptozotocin- and cytokine-induced stress and preserves beta cell viability and insulin secretion...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146481/central-obesity-is-the-key-component-in-the-association-of-metabolic-syndrome-with-left-ventricular-global-longitudinal-strain-impairment
#3
Wilson Cañon-Montañez, Angela B S Santos, Lisandra A Nunes, Julio C G Pires, Claudia M V Freire, Antonio L P Ribeiro, José G Mill, Marina Bessel, Bruce B Duncan, Maria Inês Schmidt, Murilo Foppa
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Subclinical systolic dysfunction is one of the proposed mechanisms for increased cardiovascular risk associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). This study investigated the association between MS and impaired left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) and the role of each MS criteria in this association. METHODS: We analyzed a random sample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) after excluding participants with prevalent heart disease...
November 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145569/immune-system-an-emerging-player-in-mediating-effects-of-endocrine-disruptors-on-metabolic-health
#4
Amita Bansal, Jorge Henao Mejia, Rebecca A Simmons
The incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and obesity continue to increase. In addition to the well-known contributors such as food intake and sedentary lifestyle, recent research in the exposure science discipline provides new evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals like bisphenol A and phthalates via multiple routes (food, drink and skin contact) also contribute to the increased risk of metabolic disorders. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can disrupt any aspect of hormone action...
November 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144833/low-dietary-fiber-intake-increases-collinsella-abundance-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women
#5
Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Shelley A Wilkinson, Leonie K Callaway, H David McIntyre, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of glucose metabolism in pregnancy. Abundance of the genus Collinsella is positively correlated with circulating insulin; however, it is unclear what determines Collinsella abundance. This study aims to validate the correlation between Collinsella and insulin and to elucidate if macronutrient intake alters Collinsella abundance and gut microbiota composition. Gut microbiota profiles were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing in 57 overweight and 73 obese pregnant women from the SPRING (Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes) trial at 16 weeks gestation and correlated with metabolic hormone levels and macronutrient intake...
November 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143783/metformin-potentiates-the-benefits-of-dietary-restraint-a-metabolomic-study
#6
Marta Riera-Borrull, Anabel García-Heredia, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Noemí Cabré, Elisabet Cuyàs, Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Jordi Camps, Javier A Menendez, Jorge Joven
Prevention of the metabolic consequences of a chronic energy-dense/high-fat diet (HFD) represents a public health priority. Metformin is a strong candidate to be incorporated in alternative therapeutic approaches. We used a targeted metabolomic approach to assess changes related to the multi-faceted metabolic disturbances provoked by HFD. We evaluated the protective effects of metformin and explored how pro-inflammatory and metabolic changes respond when mice rendered obese, glucose-intolerant and hyperlipidemic were switched to diet reversal with or without metformin...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142243/genetic-risk-scores-for-body-fat-distribution-attenuate-weight-loss-in-women-during-dietary-intervention
#7
M Svendstrup, K H Allin, T I A Sørensen, T H Hansen, N Grarup, T Hansen, H Vestergaard
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141994/type-ii-diabetes-and-incidence-of-estrogen-receptor-negative-breast-cancer-in-african-american-women
#8
Julie R Palmer, Nelsy Castro-Webb, Kimberly Bertrand, Traci N Bethea, Gerald V Denis
White women with type II diabetes (T2D) have an estimated 20% increased risk of developing breast cancer. Little is known about associations by breast cancer subtype or among African American (AA) women, who are disproportionately affected by T2D and estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer. We assessed the relation of T2D to incidence of ER- and ER+ breast cancer in data from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort of AA women enrolled in 1995 and followed biennially. During 847,934 person-years of follow-up, there were 1,851 incident invasive breast cancers, including 914 ER+ and 468 ER- cases...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140289/cats-and-carbohydrates-the-carnivore-fantasy
#9
REVIEW
Adronie Verbrugghe, Myriam Hesta
The domestic cat's wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat's metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138984/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-and-hypertension-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Matthew A Bailey
The metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of risk factors-visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and salt-sensitive hypertension-that increases mortality related to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of these concurrent comorbidities is ~ 25-30% worldwide, and metabolic syndrome therefore presents a significant global public health burden. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that glucocorticoid excess is a key causal feature of metabolic syndrome...
November 14, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138692/transcriptomics-driven-lipidomics-tdl-identifies-the-microbiome-regulated-targets-of-ileal-lipid-metabolism
#11
Anirikh Chakrabarti, Mathieu Membrez, Delphine Morin-Rivron, Jay Siddharth, Chieh Jason Chou, Hugues Henry, Stephen Bruce, Sylviane Metairon, Frederic Raymond, Bertrand Betrisey, Carole Loyer, Scott J Parkinson, Mojgan Masoodi
The gut microbiome and lipid metabolism are both recognized as essential components in the maintenance of metabolic health. The mechanisms involved are multifactorial and (especially for microbiome) poorly defined. A strategic approach to investigate the complexity of the microbial influence on lipid metabolism would facilitate determination of relevant molecular mechanisms for microbiome-targeted therapeutics. E. coli is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome and we used this association in conjunction with gnotobiotic models to investigate the impact of E...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138586/association-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-sensorineural-hearing-loss-a-cross-sectional-study-of-11-114-participants
#12
Javad Aghazadeh-Attari, Behnam Mansorian, Mohammad Mirza-Aghazadeh-Attari, Jamal Ahmadzadeh, Iraj Mohebbi
Background/objectives: Hearing loss (HL) is associated with certain diseases and affects health, resulting in a low quality of life. Some components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) coincide with the risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). To date, very few studies have examined the link between MetS and HL. The aim of the current study was to try to understand the potential association between MetS and HL. Methods: Using Iranian health surveys of professional drivers, we enrolled 11,114 individuals aged 20-60 years, whose main job is to operate a motor vehicle...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138414/potential-application-of-1-h-nmr-for-routine-serum-lipidome-analysis-evaluation-of-effects-of-bariatric-surgery
#13
Adriana Mika, Zbigniew Kaczynski, Piotr Stepnowski, Maciej Kaczor, Monika Proczko-Stepaniak, Lukasz Kaska, Tomasz Sledzinski
Routine laboratory lipid assays include simple measurements of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols and HDL. However, lipids are a large group of compounds involved in many metabolic pathways, and their alterations may have serious health consequences. In this study, we used (1)H NMR to analyze lipids extracted from sera of 16 obese patients prior to and after bariatric surgeries. We observed a post-surgery decrease in serum concentrations of lipids from various groups. The hereby presented findings imply that (1)H NMR is suitable for rapid, simple and non-invasive detection of lipids from 30 structural groups, among them triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin, total phospholipids, total, free and esterified cholesterol, total and unsaturated fatty acids...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133317/association-between-visceral-obesity-and-hepatitis-c-infection-stratified-by-gender-a-cross-sectional-study-in-taiwan
#14
Yu-Chung Tsao, Jau-Yuan Chen, Wei-Chung Yeh, Yun-Shing Peng, Wen-Cheng Li
OBJECTIVES: The global prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is approximately 2%-3%, and the prevalence of the positive anti-HCV antibody has been increasing. Several studies have evaluated regional adipose tissue distribution and metabolism over the past decades. However, no study has focused on the gender difference in visceral obesity among patients with HCV infection. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: We reviewed the medical records of patients who visited a hospital in Southern Taiwan for health check-up from 2013 to 2015...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132732/the-role-of-artificial-and-natural-sweeteners-in-reducing-the-consumption-of-table-sugar-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Arshag D Mooradian, Meridith Smith, Masaaki Tokuda
The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide has been partially attributed to the overconsumption of added sugars. Recent guidelines call for limiting the consumption of simple sugars to less than 10% of daily caloric consumption. High intensity sweeteners are regulated as food additives and include aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate and alitame. Steviol glycosides and Luo Han Guo fruit extracts are high intensity sweeteners that are designated as generally recognized as safe (GRAS)...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130065/metabolic-syndrome-in-apparently-healthy-ghanaian-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Richard Ofori-Asenso, Akosua Adom Agyeman, Amos Laar
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. We systematically reviewed the literature towards estimating the prevalence of MetS among apparently "healthy" Ghanaian adults. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Africa Journals Online, African Index Medicus, and Google scholar as well as the websites of the Ministry of Health and Ghana Health service through September 2016. Only studies conducted among apparently "healthy" (no established disease, e...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128565/obesity-and-triple-negative-breast-cancer-disparities-controversies-and-biology
#17
REVIEW
Eric C Dietze, Tanya A Chavez, Victoria L Seewaldt
Once considered a problem of Western nations, obesity (body mass index ≥30kg/m(2)) has rapidly increased since the 1970s to become a major threat to world health. Since 1970, the face of obesity has changed from a disease of affluence and abundance to a disease of poverty. Over the last 10 years, studies have mechanistically linked obesity and an obese tumor microenvironment with signaling pathways that predict aggressive breast cancer biology. For example, in the United States African-American women are more likely than non-Hispanic European-American women to be obese and to be diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127566/monitoring-and-treating-metabolic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-early-psychosis-initiated-on-antipsychotic-medications
#18
Kevin M Bozymski, Jessica A Whitten, Mary E Blair, Ashley M Overley, Carol A Ott
Antipsychotic medications carry an established lifetime risk of metabolic syndrome. This retrospective chart review evaluated feasibility of a metabolic monitoring clinical decision support tool (CDST) for weight, lipid, blood glucose, and blood pressure management of 163 clients in an early psychosis outpatient clinic over 2 years. Each parameter had at least 98 (60.1%) clients with a recorded value, the most being documented for weight with 112 (68.7%) clients. CDST adherence ranged from at least 54.3-100% for non-pharmacologic interventions (e...
November 11, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127476/co-supplementation-of-isomalto-oligosaccharides-potentiates-metabolic-health-benefits-of-polyphenol-rich-cranberry-extract-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-via-enhanced-gut-butyrate-production
#19
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Shashank Singh, Vandana Bijalwan, Vijay Kumar, Pragyanshu Khare, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Paramdeep Singh, Ravneet Kaur Boparai, Jagdeep Singh, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
PURPOSE: Cranberries are a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. Purified sugars or artificial sweeteners are being added to cranberry-based food products to mask tartness. Refined sugar and artificial sweeteners intake modulate gut microbiota and result in metabolic complications. We evaluated effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs; sweet tasting non-digestible oligosaccharides) with cranberry extract (CRX) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic alterations in mice. METHODS: Male Swiss albino mice were fed normal chow or HFD (58% fat kcal), and were administered either CRX (200 mg/kg) alone or in combination with IMOs (1 g/kg)...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127035/the-high-production-volume-fungicide-pyraclostrobin-induces-triglyceride-accumulation-associated-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-independent-of-ppar%C3%AE-activation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#20
Anthony L Luz, Christopher D Kassotis, Heather M Stapleton, Joel N Meyer
Pyraclostrobin is one of the most heavily used fungicides, and has been detected on a variety of produce, suggesting human exposure occurs regularly. Recently, pyraclostrobin exposure has been linked to a variety of toxic effects, including neurodegeneration and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. As pyraclostrobin inhibits electron transport chain complex III, and as mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic syndrome (cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity), we designed experiments to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies its adipogenic activity...
November 7, 2017: Toxicology
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