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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777696/sterilized-bifidobacteria-suppressed-fat-accumulation-and-blood-glucose-level
#1
Keita Kikuchi, Mahmoud Ben Othman, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium improve the balance of intestinal microflora and have various physiological functions beneficial to human health. It is not always known whether the ingested microbial cells are viable- or killed. However, even sterilized bacterial cells are functional. Bacterial cell functions are strain-specific and their modes of action are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of sterilized bifidobacteria in obesity and lipid metabolism...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777229/fate-of-the-metabolically-healthy-obese-is-this-term-a-misnomer-a-study-from-the-clinical-practice-research-datalink
#2
Osama Moussa, Chanpreet Arhi, Paul Ziprin, Ara Darzi, Omar Khan, Sanjay Purkayastha
INTRODUCTION: The metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype may express typical characteristics on long-term follow-up. Little is known about the initiation of this phenotypes and its future stability. AIM: The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is a large-scale primary care database. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of, and evaluate the factors associated with a transition into an unhealthy outcome in, a MHO population in the UK. METHODS: The CPRD was interrogated for a diagnosis of 'obesity' and cross-referenced with a body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m2 ; participants were further classified as MH using a clinical diagnostic code or a relative therapeutic code...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776004/knowledge-and-health-beliefs-about-gestational-diabetes-and-healthy-pregnancy-s-breastfeeding-intention
#3
Seungmi Park, Jung Lim Lee, Jang In Sun, Youngji Kim
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: If the knowledge and health beliefs relating to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy are associated with behaviours during pregnancy and lactation, this suggests potential educational interventions. BACKGROUNDS: Women with GDM are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and babies with GDM incur increased risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia and childhood obesity. Breastfeeding is an effective way to improve maternal and lipid metabolism of gestational diabetes mothers, and to lower the risk of T2DM after birth, to prevent conception...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775456/maternal-obesogenic-diet-induces-endometrial-hyperplasia-an-early-hallmark-of-endometrial-cancer-in-a-diethylstilbestrol-mouse-model
#4
Theresa O Owuor, Michaela Reid, Lauren Reschke, Ian Hagemann, Suellen Greco, Zeel Modi, Kelle H Moley
Thirty-eight percent of US adult women are obese, meaning that more children are now born of overweight and obese mothers, leading to an increase in predisposition to several adult onset diseases. To explore this phenomenon, we developed a maternal obesity animal model by feeding mice a diet composed of high fat/ high sugar (HF/HS) and assessed both maternal diet and offspring diet on the development of endometrial cancer (ECa). We show that maternal diet by itself did not lead to ECa initiation in wildtype offspring of the C57Bl/6J mouse strain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773464/sex-and-gender-differences-in-developmental-programming-of-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Laura Dearden, Sebastien G Bouret, Susan E Ozanne
BACKGROUND: The early life environment experienced by an individual in utero and during the neonatal period is a major factor in shaping later life disease risk-including susceptibility to develop obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The incidence of metabolic disease is different between males and females. How the early life environment may underlie these sex differences is an area of active investigation. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of how the early life environment influences metabolic disease risk in a sex specific manner...
April 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772560/impact-of-sugar-on-the-body-brain-and-behavior
#6
Clara R Freeman, Amna Zehra, Veronica Ramirez, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Sugar is highly palatable and rewarding, both in its taste and nutritive input. Excessive sugar consumption, however, may trigger neuroadaptations in the reward system that decouple eating behavior from caloric needs and leads to compulsive overeating. Excessive sugar intake is in turn associated with adverse health conditions, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory diseases. This review aims to use recent evidence to connect sugar's impact on the body, brain, and behavior to elucidate how and why sugar consumption has been implicated in addictive behaviors and poor health outcomes...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767698/mechanisms-by-which-dietary-fatty-acids-regulate-mitochondrial-structure-function-in-health-and-disease
#7
E Madison Sullivan, Edward Ross Pennington, William D Green, Melinda A Beck, David A Brown, Saame Raza Shaikh
Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles within a cell. Furthermore, mitochondria have a role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and proper calcium concentrations, building critical components of hormones and other signaling molecules, and controlling apoptosis. Structurally, mitochondria are unique because they have 2 membranes that allow for compartmentalization. The composition and molecular organization of these membranes are crucial to the maintenance and function of mitochondria. In this review, we first present a general overview of mitochondrial membrane biochemistry and biophysics followed by the role of different dietary saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in modulating mitochondrial membrane structure-function...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767680/propensity-for-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-african-american-women-may-be-explained-by-low-energy-expenditure-in-early-pregnancy
#8
Jasper Most, L Anne Gilmore, Abby D Altazan, Marshall St Amant, Robbie A Beyl, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman
Background: African-American (AA) women have poorer pregnancy outcomes and studies in nonpregnant women suggest a different etiology of weight gain in AA compared with white women. We hypothesized that physiologic factors such as low energy expenditure and physical activity would be present in AA compared with white women in pregnancy. Objective: We aimed to identify physiologic risk factors for disordered energy balance in AA and white women early in pregnancy...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766824/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-obesity-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-studies-on-preclinical-evidence
#9
Fatima Saleh, Leila Itani, Simona Calugi, Riccardo Dalle Grave, Marwan El Ghoch
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an increasing global health problem, but its treatment is not yet optimal, especially in the long term. For this reason, preclinical studies have been conducted relating to a new therapeutic strategy for obesity based on adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs). The aim of our systematic review is to summarize these findings deriving from the animal model in order to establish whether there is sufficient evidence to justify going forward to clinical studies...
May 15, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764908/management-of-endocrine-disease-which-metabolic-procedure-comparing-outcomes-in-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#10
Adrian T Billeter, Javier de la Garza Herrera, Katharina M Scheurlen, Felix Nickel, Franck Billmann, Beat Müller-Stich
Obesity and its associated comorbidities have become one of the largest challenges for health care in the near future. Conservative therapy for obesity and related comorbidities have a very high failure rate and poor long-term results. Similarly, the conservative and medical management of the majority of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are only able to slow down disease progression but have no causal effect on the disease process. Obesity surgery has evolved as a highly effect therapy for severe obesity achieving long-lasting weight loss...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763369/adipose-y5r-mrna-is-higher-in-obese-than-non-obese-humans-and-is-correlated-with-obesity-parameters
#11
Saimai Chatree, Chantacha Sitticharoon, Pailin Maikaew, Panapat Uawithya, Supornpim Chearskul
Neuropeptide Y is mainly expressed in the central nervous system to regulate food intake via its receptors, Y receptors, and in various peripheral tissues including adipose tissue. The objectives of this study were to compare Y5R mRNA and adipocyte parameters consisting of area, width, height, and perimeter either between obese and non-obese subjects or between subcutaneous and visceral fat as well as to compare between NPY, Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R mRNA expressions in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. In subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, Y5R was greater in obese than in non-obese humans (both P < 0...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762899/metagenomics-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-a-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-mouse-model-fed-with-epigallocatechin-3-o-3-o-methyl-gallate-egcg3-me
#12
Xin Zhang, Yuhui Chen, Jieyu Zhu, Man Zhang, Chi-Tang Ho, Qingrong Huang, Jinxuan Cao
SCOPE: (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3''Me) has been shown to have a modulatory effect on human intestinal microbiota, and the relationship between intestinal flora and obesity has attracted more and more attention recently. Here, we investigated the potential link between EGCG3''Me and gut microbiota composition, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the anti-obesity activity of EGCG3''Me. METHODS AND RESULTS: EGCG3''Me was prepared from oolong tea by column chromatography, and the influence of EGCG3''Me on intestinal microbiota was analysed using a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model by metagenomics...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762384/microbial-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-gut-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#13
Anne Hall, James Versalovic
Human intestinal microbes participate actively at the interface of diet, nutrition, and overall health status. These biodiverse communities of microorganisms have a broader metabolic repertoire compared with their host, and they are able to synthesize and degrade substrates that would be otherwise unavailable. In recent years, we have recognized that healthy microbial communities are important for energy harvest and the regulation of body systems outside the digestive tract. Microbial dysbiosis, however, has been implicated in a number of human disorders, including obesity and inflammation...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761750/obesity-disrupts-rhythmic-clock-gene-expression-in-maternal-adipose-tissue-during-rat-pregnancy
#14
Rachael C Crew, Peter J Mark, Brendan J Waddell
Obesity during pregnancy causes numerous maternal and fetal health complications, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity has previously been linked to disruption of the intrinsic adipose clock gene network that is crucial for normal metabolic function. This adipose clock also undergoes major change as part of the maternal metabolic adaptation to pregnancy, but whether this is affected by maternal obesity is unknown. Consequently, in this study we tested the hypothesis that obesity disturbs rhythmic gene expression in maternal adipose tissue across pregnancy...
June 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761610/pathways-and-mechanisms-linking-dietary-components-to-cardiometabolic-disease-thinking-beyond-calories
#15
REVIEW
K L Stanhope, M I Goran, A Bosy-Westphal, J C King, L A Schmidt, J-M Schwarz, E Stice, A C Sylvetsky, P J Turnbaugh, G A Bray, C D Gardner, P J Havel, V Malik, A E Mason, E Ravussin, M Rosenbaum, J A Welsh, C Allister-Price, D M Sigala, M R C Greenwood, A Astrup, R M Krauss
Calories from any food have the potential to increase risk for obesity and cardiometabolic disease because all calories can directly contribute to positive energy balance and fat gain. However, various dietary components or patterns may promote obesity and cardiometabolic disease by additional mechanisms that are not mediated solely by caloric content. Researchers explored this topic at the 2017 CrossFit Foundation Academic Conference 'Diet and Cardiometabolic Health - Beyond Calories', and this paper summarizes the presentations and follow-up discussions...
May 14, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760812/effects-of-glucan-and-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-obesity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#16
Martina Závorková, Vaclav Vetvicka, Josef Richter, Vlastimil Kral, Ivana Liehnova, Dobiasova L Rajnohova
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease manifested by an increase of blood glucose. Objective: To evaluate the effects of glucan and vitamin D supplementation in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Method: We evaluated the effects of 3-month supplementation with glucan and vitamin D in 54 patients with diabetic retinopathy. We measured levels of vitamin D, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results: The supplementation strongly decreased the cholesterol levels and improved the levels of HDL cholesterol...
2018: Open Biochemistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760179/time-restricted-feeding-prevents-ablation-of-diurnal-rhythms-in-gastric-vagal-afferent-mechanosensitivity-observed-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#17
Stephen J Kentish, George Hatzinikolas, Hui Li, Claudine A Frisby, Gary A Wittert, Amanda J Page
Mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents (GVAs) are involved in the regulation of food intake. GVAs exhibit diurnal rhythmicity in their response to food related stimuli allowing time of day specific satiety signalling. This diurnal rhythmicity is ablated in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Time restricted feeding (TRF) has a strong influence on peripheral clocks. This study aimed to determine whether diurnal patterns in GVA mechanosensitivity are entrained by TRF.Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice (N=256) were fed a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or HFD for 12wks...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755739/abdominal-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-exercise-as-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Carole A Paley, Mark I Johnson
Background: Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of at least three out of five clinical risk factors: abdominal (visceral) obesity, hypertension, elevated serum triglycerides, low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and insulin resistance. It is estimated to affect over 20% of the global adult population. Abdominal (visceral) obesity is thought to be the predominant risk factor for metabolic syndrome and as predictions estimate that 50% of adults will be classified as obese by 2030 it is likely that metabolic syndrome will be a significant problem for health services and a drain on health economies...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#19
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754863/relationships-of-anxiety-and-depression-with-cardiovascular-health-in-youth-with-normal-weight-to-severe-obesity
#20
Amy C Gross, Alexander M Kaizer, Justin R Ryder, Claudia K Fox, Kyle D Rudser, Donald R Dengel, Aaron S Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationships of depression and anxiety symptoms with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and measures of vascular health in youth. Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are considered CVD risk factors in youth. STUDY DESIGN: Participants (n = 202) were 8- to 18-year-olds from a cross-sectional study evaluating cardiovascular health across a wide range of body mass index values (normal weight to severe obesity). CVD risk measurement included blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, carotid artery intima-media thickness, compliance and distensibility, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, carotid-radial artery pulse wave velocity, body fat percentage, and a metabolic syndrome cluster score...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
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