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Depression, mood disorder, bipolar

Emanuele F Osimo, Rudolf N Cardinal, Peter B Jones, Golam M Khandaker
Low-grade inflammation is a risk factor for depression, psychosis and other major psychiatric disorders. It is associated with poor response to antidepressant and antipsychotics, and could potentially be a treatment target. However, there is limited data on the prevalence of low-grade inflammation in major psychiatric disorders, and on the characteristics of patients who show evidence of inflammation. We examined the prevalence of low-grade inflammation and associated socio-demographic and clinical factors in acute psychiatric inpatients...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Bruno Romeo, Lisa Blecha, Katia Locatelli, Amine Benyamina, Catherine Martelli
The objective of this meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy and safety of partial and complete dopamine agonists in the treatment of acute mood disorder episodes. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials of dopamine agonists in the treatment of acute mood disorder episodes were identified in the MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and included in the meta-analysis. In monotherapy of mania, improved remission rates were found for cariprazine (odds ratio (OR): 2.08, P < 0.01) and for high-dose aripiprazole (OR: 3...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Gordon Parker, Amelia Paterson, Mia Romano, Isabelle Granville Smith
OBJECTIVES: To increase awareness of the sensory changes experienced during hypo/manic and depressive states by those with a bipolar disorder and determine if the prevalence of such features is similar across differing bipolar sub-types. METHODS: We interviewed 66 patients who acknowledged sensory changes during hypo/manic states. They were allocated to bipolar I, bipolar II and soft bipolar diagnostic categories and the prevalence of 10 differing sensory changes was quantified during hypo/manic and depressive phases...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Sally-Ann Cooper, Elita Smiley, Linda Allan, Jillian Morrison
BACKGROUND: Incidence and determinants of affective disorders among adults with intellectual disabilities are unknown. Aims To investigate affective disorder incidence, and determinants of unipolar depression, compared with general population reports. METHOD: Prospective cohort study measuring mental ill health of adults with mild to profound intellectual disabilities living within a defined community, over 2 years. RESULTS: There was 70% cohort retention (n = 651)...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Gin S Malhi, Tim Outhred, Grace Morris, Philip M Boyce, Richard Bryant, Paul B Fitzgerald, Malcolm J Hopwood, Bill Lyndon, Roger Mulder, Greg Murray, Richard J Porter, Ajeet B Singh, Kristina Fritz
In December 2015, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists published a comprehensive set of mood disorder clinical practice guidelines for psychiatrists, psychologists and mental health professionals. This guideline summary, directed broadly at primary care physicians, is an abridged version that focuses on bipolar disorder. It is intended as an aid to the management of this complex disorder for primary care physicians working in collaboration with psychiatrists to implement successful long term management...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Benjamin Wu, Eric J Bruns, Ming-Hui Tai, Bethany R Lee, Ramesh Raghavan, Susan dosReis
OBJECTIVE: The study examined differences in psychotropic polypharmacy among youths with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who received coordinated care services (CCS) that used a wraparound model and a matched sample of youths who received traditional services. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design compared psychotropic polypharmacy one year before and one year after discharge from CCS. The cohort was youths with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who were enrolled in CCS from December 2009 through May 2014...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Lakshmi N Yatham, Sidney H Kennedy, Sagar V Parikh, Ayal Schaffer, David J Bond, Benicio N Frey, Verinder Sharma, Benjamin I Goldstein, Soham Rej, Serge Beaulieu, Martin Alda, Glenda MacQueen, Roumen V Milev, Arun Ravindran, Claire O'Donovan, Diane McIntosh, Raymond W Lam, Gustavo Vazquez, Flavio Kapczinski, Roger S McIntyre, Jan Kozicky, Shigenobu Kanba, Beny Lafer, Trisha Suppes, Joseph R Calabrese, Eduard Vieta, Gin Malhi, Robert M Post, Michael Berk
The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) previously published treatment guidelines for bipolar disorder in 2005, along with international commentaries and subsequent updates in 2007, 2009, and 2013. The last two updates were published in collaboration with the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD). These 2018 CANMAT and ISBD Bipolar Treatment Guidelines represent the significant advances in the field since the last full edition was published in 2005, including updates to diagnosis and management as well as new research into pharmacological and psychological treatments...
March 14, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Mario Gennaro Mazza, Sara Lucchi, Agnese Grazia Maria Tringali, Aurora Rossetti, Eugenia Rossana Botti, Massimo Clerici
The immune and inflammatory system is involved in the etiology of mood disorders. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and monocyte/lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are inexpensive and reproducible biomarkers of inflammation. This is the first meta-analysis exploring the role of NLR and PLR in mood disorder. We identified 11 studies according to our inclusion criteria from the main Electronic Databases. Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) between index and healthy controls (HC)...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Brawnie Petrov, Ayat Aldoori, Cindy James, Kefeng Yang, Guillermo Perez Algorta, Aejin Lee, Liwen Zhang, Tao Lin, Reem Al Awadhi, Jonathan R Parquette, Arpad Samogyi, L Eugene Arnold, Mary A Fristad, Barbara Gracious, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
Genetic, dietary, and inflammatory factors contribute to the etiology of major mood disorders (MMD), thus impeding the identification of specific biomarkers to assist in diagnosis and treatment. We tested association of vitamin D and inflammatory markers in 36 adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) forms of MMD and without MMD (non-mood control). We also assessed the overall level of inflammation using a cell-based reporter assay for nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) activation and measuring antibodies to oxidized LDL...
March 13, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Deborah A Perlick, Carlos Jackson, Savannah Grier, Brittney Huntington, Andrew Aronson, Xiaodong Luo, David J Miklowitz
OBJECTIVES: Caregivers of people with bipolar disorder often have depression and health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the sustained effects of a 12-15 week psychoeducational intervention on the health and mental health of caregivers of persons with bipolar disorder. We also evaluated the effects of the intervention on patients' mood symptoms over 6 months post-treatment. METHODS: Caregivers of 46 persons with bipolar disorder were randomized to 12-15 weeks of a caregiver-only adaptation of family-focused treatment (FFT), in which caregivers were instructed on self-care strategies and ways to assist the patient in managing the illness, or to 8-12 sessions of standard health education...
March 12, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Jose de Leon, Edoardo Spina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with bipolar disorder are frequently treated with polypharmacy. This article should provide clinicians with an understanding of how polypharmacy can contribute to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions (DDIs). RECENT FINDINGS: The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lithium and other mood stabilizers (valproate, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and eslicarbazepine), antipsychotics, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were reviewed and summarized in the first four tables describing their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms...
March 12, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Farnaz Hooshmand, Dennis Do, Saloni Shah, Anda Gershon, Dong Yeon Park, Hyun Kim, Laura D Yuen, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Po W Wang, Terence A Ketter, Shefali Miller
AIMS: Antidepressant use is controversial in bipolar disorder (BD) due to questionable efficacy/psychiatric tolerability. We assessed demographic/clinical characteristics of baseline antidepressant use in BD patients. METHODS: Prevalence and correlates of baseline antidepressant use in 503 BD I and BD II outpatients referred to the Stanford Bipolar Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kyla A McKay, Helen Tremlett, John D Fisk, Tingting Zhang, Scott B Patten, Lorne Kastrukoff, Trudy Campbell, Ruth Ann Marrie
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that comorbidity may influence disability outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS); we investigated the association between psychiatric comorbidity and MS disability progression in a large multiclinic population. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study accessed prospectively collected information from linked clinical and population-based health administrative databases in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Nova Scotia...
March 9, 2018: Neurology
Sergio Apfelbaum, Pilar Regalado, Laura Herman, Pablo Gagliesi
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) spend around 10 years without a diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The difficulty in distinguishing bipolar from unipolar depression, the prevalence of depressive symptoms along the course of BD and patients' bias in recalling their hypomanic symptoms are some of the factors that contribute to this problem. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the efficiency of several screening instruments for BD detection in a group of patients (n=63) with mood disorders, or cluster B personality disorders...
May 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Sakina J Rizvi, Clare Lambert, Sidney Kennedy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To focus on the clinical and behavioral presentation of anhedonia in mood disorders, as well as the differences and commonalities in the underlying neurocircuitry. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence suggests that depression is characterized by hypofunction of the reward system, while bipolar disorder manifests dysregulation of the behavioral activation system that increases goal-directed reward behavior. Importantly, strong evidence does not exist to suggest significant differences in anhedonia severity between depressed unipolar and bipolar patients, suggesting that there are more nuanced fluctuations in reward processing deficits in bipolar patients depending on their state...
March 8, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Eduard Vieta, Michael Berk, Thomas G Schulze, André F Carvalho, Trisha Suppes, Joseph R Calabrese, Keming Gao, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Iria Grande
Bipolar disorders are chronic and recurrent disorders that affect >1% of the global population. Bipolar disorders are leading causes of disability in young people as they can lead to cognitive and functional impairment and increased mortality, particularly from suicide and cardiovascular disease. Psychiatric and nonpsychiatric medical comorbidities are common in patients and might also contribute to increased mortality. Bipolar disorders are some of the most heritable psychiatric disorders, although a model with gene-environment interactions is believed to best explain the aetiology...
March 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Maria Faurholt-Jepsen
Major reasons for the insufficient effects of current treatment options in bipolar disorder include delayed intervention for prodromal depressive and manic symptoms and decreased adherence to psychopharmacological treatment. The reliance on subjective information and clinical evaluations when diagnosing and assessing the severity of depressive and manic symptoms calls for less biased and more objective markers. By using electronic devices, fine-grained data on complex psychopathological aspects of bipolar disorder can be evaluated unobtrusively over the long term...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Man Amanat, Mona Salehi, Nima Rezaei
Psoriasis used to be known as a skin disorder; however, it can now be considered as a systemic disease with the involvement of multiple organs. Neurological and psychiatric disorders are some of the associated problems that can be observed in patients with psoriasis. Stroke, multiple sclerosis, seizure, migraine, restless leg syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and myasthenia gravis are the reported neurological diseases, while depression, bipolar mood disorder, anxiety, psychosis, cognitive impairment, personality disorders, sexual disorders, sleep disturbance, and eating disorders are the recognized psychiatric presentations in patients with psoriasis...
March 6, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Bethany Ober Mannon
The field of narrative medicine holds that personal narratives about illness have the potential to give illness meaning and to create order out of disparate facets of experience, thereby aiding a patient's treatment and resisting universalizing medical discourse. Two narratives of bipolar disorder, Kay Redfield Jamison's prose memoir An Unquiet Mind (1995) and Ellen Forney's graphic memoir Marbles (2012) challenge these ideas. These writers demonstrate that one result of bipolar disorder is a rupture to their sense of identity, making straightforward and verbal forms of narrative impossible...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
Maria Ly, Carmen Andreescu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mood and anxiety disorders are very commonly experienced by older adults and are becoming a growing concern due to the rapidly aging global population. Recent advances in neuroimaging may help in improving outcomes in late-life mood and anxiety disorders. The elucidation of mechanisms contributing to late-life mental health disorders may ultimately lead to the identification of novel therapeutic interventions. Alternatively, clinically validated imaging biomarkers may allow for the prediction of treatment response and identification of better therapeutic approaches in late-life mood and anxiety disorders...
March 1, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
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