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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933245/an-adaptive-switching-filter-based-on-approximated-variance-for-detection-of-impulse-noise-from-color-images
#1
K Pritamdas, Kh Manglem Singh, L Lolitkumar Singh
A new adaptive switching algorithm is presented where two adaptive filters are switched correspondingly for lower and higher noise ratio of the image. An adaptive center weighted vector median filter is used for the lower noise ratio whereas for higher noise ratio the noisy pixels are detected based on the comparison of the difference between the mean of the vector pixels in the window and the approximated variance of the vector pixels in the window. Then the window comprising the detected noisy pixel is further considered where the pixels are given exponential weights according to their similarity to the other neighboring pixels, spatially and radio metrically...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933166/sex-specific-ecophysiological-responses-to-environmental-fluctuations-of-free-ranging-hermann-s-tortoises-implication-for-conservation
#2
Adélaïde Sibeaux, Catherine Louise Michel, Xavier Bonnet, Sébastien Caron, Kévin Fournière, Stephane Gagno, Jean-Marie Ballouard
Physiological parameters provide indicators to evaluate how organisms respond to conservation actions. For example, individuals translocated during reinforcement programmes may not adapt to their novel host environment and may exhibit elevated chronic levels of stress hormones and/or decreasing body condition. Conversely, successful conservation actions should be associated with a lack of detrimental physiological perturbation. However, physiological references fluctuate over time and are influenced by various factors (e...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933046/phylogenetic-signals-of-salinity-and-season-in-bacterial-community-composition-across-the-salinity-gradient-of-the-baltic-sea
#3
Daniel P R Herlemann, Daniel Lundin, Anders F Andersson, Matthias Labrenz, Klaus Jürgens
Understanding the key processes that control bacterial community composition has enabled predictions of bacterial distribution and function within ecosystems. In this study, we used the Baltic Sea as a model system to quantify the phylogenetic signal of salinity and season with respect to bacterioplankton community composition. The abundances of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing reads were analyzed from samples obtained from similar geographic locations in July and February along a brackish to marine salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932531/development-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-phenotyping-framework-using-expert-knowledge-and-machine-learning-approach
#4
Rina Kagawa, Yoshimasa Kawazoe, Yusuke Ida, Emiko Shinohara, Katsuya Tanaka, Takeshi Imai, Kazuhiko Ohe
BACKGROUND: Phenotyping is an automated technique that can be used to distinguish patients based on electronic health records. To improve the quality of medical care and advance type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) research, the demand for T2DM phenotyping has been increasing. Some existing phenotyping algorithms are not sufficiently accurate for screening or identifying clinical research subjects. OBJECTIVE: We propose a practical phenotyping framework using both expert knowledge and a machine learning approach to develop 2 phenotyping algorithms: one is for screening; the other is for identifying research subjects...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932270/prognostic-value-of-lymph-node-yield-during-nephroureterectomy-for-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#5
Andrew G Winer, Emily A Vertosick, Mazyar Ghanaat, Renato B Corradi, Sigrid Carlsson, Daniel D Sjoberg, Alexander I Sankin, John P Sfakianos, Eugene K Cha, Guido Dalbagni, Jonathan A Coleman
INTRODUCTION: Lymph node dissection (LND) performed during radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) remains controversial and difficult to evaluate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether removal of more lymph nodes during RNU is safe and improves oncologic outcomes. METHODS: We evaluated 422 patients who underwent RNU with concomitant LND for upper tract urothelial carcinoma between 1976 and 2015, assessing for an association between total nodes removed, recurrence-free survival, and cancer-specific survival using Cox proportional hazards models...
December 5, 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931179/structural-and-functional-integrity-of-the-intraparietal-sulcus-in-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Chandler Sours, Prashant Raghavan, Alexandre Medina de Jesus, Steven R Roys, Li Jiang, Jiachen Zhuo, Rao P Gullapalli
Severe and Moderate TBI (sTBI) often results in long-term cognitive deficits such as reduced processing speed and attention. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is a neocortical structure that plays a crucial role in the deeply interrelated processes of multisensory processing and top down attention. Therefore, we hypothesized that disruptions in the functional and structural connections of the IPS may play a role in the development of such deficits. To examine these connections we used resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in a cohort of 27 sTBI patients (29...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931046/perivascular-pdgfr-%C3%AE-is-an-independent-marker-for-prognosis-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#7
Magnus Frödin, Artur Mezheyeuski, Sara Corvigno, Ulrika Harmenberg, Per Sandström, Lars Egevad, Martin Johansson, Arne Östman
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a highly vascularised tumour, where anti-angiogenic treatment with multi-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor, is used for first-line treatment of metastatic disease. Variations in vascular characteristics are likely to contribute to variations in intrinsic aggressiveness of the disease. Emerging studies are identifying perivascular status, including perivascular PDGFR-β, as a determinant of prognosis in other tumour types. METHODS: This work explored the impact on prognosis of vascular characteristics in RCC through analyses of a population-based collection of tumours from surgery-alone-treated patients...
December 8, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930958/protected-areas-and-agricultural-expansion-biodiversity-conservation-versus-economic-growth-in-the-southeast-of-brazil
#8
Mayra Cristina Prado de Moraes, Kaline de Mello, Rogério Hartung Toppa
The conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural land and urban areas plays a threat to the protected areas and the natural ecosystems conservation. The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the agricultural expansion and its impact on the landscape spatial and temporal patterns in a buffer zone of a protected area located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The land use and land cover were mapped between 1971 and 2008 and landscape metrics were calculated to provide a spatiotemporal analysis of the forest structure and the expansion of the croplands...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930833/moving-beyond-the-concept-of-primary-forest-as-a-metric-of-forest-environment-quality
#9
P Y Bernier, D Paré, G Stinson, S R J Bridge, B E Kishchuk, T C Lemprière, E Thiffault, B D Titus, W Vasbinder
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been reporting country-level area in primary forests in its Global Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) since 2005. The FAO definition of a primary forest (naturally regenerated forest of native species where there are no clearly visible indications of human activities and the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed) is generally accepted as authoritative and is being used in policy making. However, problems with this definition undermine our capacity to obtain globally-coherent estimates...
December 8, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930806/the-search-engine-for-multi-proteoform-complexes-an-online-tool-for-the-identification-and-stoichiometry-determination-of-protein-complexes
#10
Owen S Skinner, Luis F Schachner, Neil L Kelleher
Recent advances in top-down mass spectrometry using native electrospray now enable the analysis of intact protein complexes with relatively small sample amounts in an untargeted mode. Here, we describe how to characterize both homo- and heteropolymeric complexes with high molecular specificity using input data produced by tandem mass spectrometry of whole protein assemblies. The tool described is a "search engine for multi-proteoform complexes," (SEMPC) and is available for free online. The output is a list of candidate multi-proteoform complexes and scoring metrics, which are used to define a distinct set of one or more unique protein subunits, their overall stoichiometry in the intact complex, and their pre- and post-translational modifications...
December 8, 2016: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930689/determination-of-a-screening-metric-for-high-diversity-dna-libraries
#11
Nicholas J Guido, Steven Handerson, Elaine M Joseph, Devin Leake, Li A Kung
The fields of antibody engineering, enzyme optimization and pathway construction rely increasingly on screening complex variant DNA libraries. These highly diverse libraries allow researchers to sample a maximized sequence space; and therefore, more rapidly identify proteins with significantly improved activity. The current state of the art in synthetic biology allows for libraries with billions of variants, pushing the limits of researchers' ability to qualify libraries for screening by measuring the traditional quality metrics of fidelity and diversity of variants...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930446/prediction-of-overuse-injuries-in-professional-u18-u21-footballers-using-metrics-of-training-distance-and-intensity
#12
Christopher S Bacon, Alexis R Mauger
The most common injury in professional football is an overuse injury to the lower limb. A significant external risk factor of this injury is the mismanagement of training and match loads. The aim of the current study was to examine the predictability of overuse injuries in professional youth soccer players using volume and intensity variables derived from Global Positioning Systems (GPS). A total of 41 players (Age - 17.8 yrs±1.1 yrs) training and match loads were assessed. These external loads were measured over two competitive seasons for every training session and match for each individual...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930405/the-cost-of-crohn-s-disease-varied-health-care-expenditure-patterns-across-distinct-disease-trajectories
#13
Bhavana B Rao, Benjamin H Click, Ioannis E Koutroubakis, Claudia Ramos Rivers, Miguel Regueiro, Jason Swoger, Marc Schwartz, Jana Hashash, Arthur Barrie, Michael A Dunn, David G Binion
BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) encompass a heterogeneous disease spectrum, with variable health care utilization and expenditure patterns. Lémann Index (LI) is a metric that quantifies cumulative bowel damage and has shown utility in delineating distinct disease phenotypes. We aimed to characterize the financial burden from all medical care in CD cohort in relation to the variations in LI-based disease phenotypes. METHODS: CD patients with 5-year (y) follow-up from a prospective registry were included...
December 7, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930394/the-changing-face-of-epidemiology-gender-disparities-in-citations
#14
Enrique F Schisterman, Chandra W Swanson, Ya-Ling Lu, Sunni L Mumford
BACKGROUND: Female biomedical scientists tend to publish fewer articles as last author than their male colleagues and accrue fewer citations per publication. We seek to understand whether epidemiology follows this pattern. METHODS: We gathered aggregate information on the current gender distribution of epidemiology departments (n=29 of 71 surveyed), societies (n=4 of 8), and journal editorial boards (n=6 of 6) using two online surveys and publicly available online information...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929505/a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-adaptive-daily-planning-for-cervical-cancer-hdr-brachytherapy
#15
Rebecca Meerschaert, Adrian Nalichowski, Jay Burmeister, Arun Paul, Steven Miller, Zhenghui Hu, Ling Zhuang
The purpose of this study was to evaluate adaptive daily planning for cervi-cal cancer patients who underwent high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-BT) using comprehensive interfractional organ motion measurements. This study included 22 cervical cancer patients who underwent 5 fractions of HDR-BT. Regions of interest (ROIs) including high-risk clinical tumor volume (HR-CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were manually contoured on daily CT images. All patients were clinically treated with adaptive daily plans (ADP), which involved ROI delineation and dose optimization at each treatment fraction...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929497/a-comparison-of-methods-for-monitoring-photon-beam-energy-constancy
#16
Song Gao, Peter A Balter, Mark Rose, William E Simon
In extension of a previous study, we compared several photon beam energy metrics to determine which was the most sensitive to energy change; in addition to those, we accounted for both the sensitivity of each metric and the uncertainty in determining that metric for both traditional flattening filter (FF) beams (4, 6, 8, and 10 MV) and for flattening filter-free (FFF) beams (6 and 10 MV) on a Varian TrueBeam. We examined changes in these energy metrics when photon energies were changed to ± 5% and ± 10% from their nominal energies: 1) an attenuation-based metric (the percent depth dose at 10 cm depth, PDD(10)) and, 2) profile-based metrics, including flatness (Flat) and off-axis ratios (OARs) measured on the orthogonal axes or on the diagonals (diagonal normalized flatness, FDN)...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929481/how-dose-sparing-of-cardiac-structures-correlates-with-in-field-heart-volume-and-sternal-displacement
#17
Taeho Kim, Kelli Reardon, Daniel M Trifiletti, Constance Geesey, Kaitlyn Sukovich, Edwin Crandley, Paul W Read, Krishni Wijesooriya
Cardiac irradiation increases the risk of coronary artery disease in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Techniques exist to reduce cardiac irradiation, but the optimum technique depends on individual patient anatomy and physiology. We investigated the correlation of delta heart volume in field (dHVIF) and sternal excursion with dose sparing in heart and left anterior descending artery (LAD) to develop quantitative predictive models for expected dose to heart and LAD. A treatment planning study was performed on 97 left-breast cancer patients who underwent whole breast radiotherapy (prescription dose = 50 Gy) under deep inspiratory breath hold (DIBH)...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929433/cramer-rao-lower-bound-evaluation-for-linear-frequency-modulation-based-active-radar-networks-operating-in-a-rice-fading-environment
#18
Chenguang Shi, Sana Salous, Fei Wang, Jianjiang Zhou
This paper investigates the joint target parameter (delay and Doppler) estimation performance of linear frequency modulation (LFM)-based radar networks in a Rice fading environment. The active radar networks are composed of multiple radar transmitters and multichannel receivers placed on moving platforms. First, the log-likelihood function of the received signal for a Rician target is derived, where the received signal scattered off the target comprises of dominant scatterer (DS) component and weak isotropic scatterers (WIS) components...
December 6, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929002/performance-metrics-forge-a-clearer-path-for-technical-careers
#19
Michael Ball, Rob Hardwick, Kelly Vere
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928664/laparoscopic-skill-assessment-of-practicing-surgeons-prior-to-enrollment-in-a-surgical-trial-of-a-new-laparoscopic-procedure
#20
Benjamin Zendejas, James W Jakub, Alicia M Terando, Amod Sarnaik, Charlotte E Ariyan, Mark B Faries, Sabino Zani, Heather B Neuman, Nabil Wasif, Jeffrey M Farma, Bruce J Averbook, Karl Y Bilimoria, Douglas Tyler, Mary Sue Brady, David R Farley
BACKGROUND: Outcomes of surgical trials hinge on surgeon selection and their underlying expertise. Assessment of expertise is paramount. We investigated whether surgeons' performance measured by the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) assessment program could predict their performance in a surgical trial. METHODS: As part of a prospective multi-institutional study of minimally invasive inguinal lymphadenectomy (MILND) for melanoma, surgical oncologists with no prior MILND experience underwent pre-trial FLS assessment...
December 7, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
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