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María da Fonseca, Inés Samengo
The accuracy with which humans detect chromatic differences varies throughout color space. For example, we are far more precise when discriminating two similar orange stimuli than two similar green stimuli. In order for two colors to be perceived as different, the neurons representing chromatic information must respond differently, and the difference must be larger than the trial-to-trial variability of the response to each separate color. Photoreceptors constitute the first stage in the processing of color information; many more stages are required before humans can consciously report whether two stimuli are perceived as chromatically distinguishable...
October 20, 2016: Neural Computation
David M Bogner, Mark A Kaemingk, Melissa R Wuellner
Little is known about how hatch phenology (e.g., the start, peak, and duration of hatching) could influence subsequent recruitment of freshwater fishes into a population. We used two commonly sympatric fish species that exhibit different hatching phenologies to examine recruitment across multiple life stages. Nine yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) annual cohorts were sampled from 2004 through 2013 across larval, age-0, age-1, and age-2 life stages in a Nebraska (U.S.A.) Sandhill lake...
2016: PloS One
Sebastian Sippel, Holger Lange, Miguel D Mahecha, Michael Hauhs, Paul Bodesheim, Thomas Kaminski, Fabian Gans, Osvaldo A Rosso
Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena...
2016: PloS One
Colleen Braun, David O Kessler, Marc Auerbach, Renuka Mehta, Anthony J Scalzo, James M Gerard
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to provide validity evidence for infant lumbar puncture (ILP) checklist and global rating scale (GRS) instruments when used by residents to assess simulated ILP performances and to compare these metrics to previously obtained attending rater data. METHODS: In 2009, the International Network for Simulation-based Pediatric Innovation, Research, and Education (INSPIRE) developed checklist and GRS scoring instruments, which were previously validated among attending raters when used to assess simulated ILP performances...
October 18, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Hendrik J F Helmerhorst, Derk L Arts, Marcus J Schultz, Peter H J van der Voort, Ameen Abu-Hanna, Evert de Jonge, David J van Westerloo
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence has shown the potential risks of arterial hyperoxia, but the lack of a clinical definition and methodologic limitations hamper the interpretation and clinical relevance of previous studies. Our purpose was to evaluate previously used and newly constructed metrics of arterial hyperoxia and systematically assess their association with clinical outcomes in different subgroups in the ICU. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Three large tertiary care ICUs in the Netherlands...
October 19, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
The application of physiological measures to conservation monitoring has been gaining momentum and, while a suite of physiological traits are available to ascertain disturbance and condition in wildlife populations, glucocorticoids (i.e., GCs; cortisol and corticosterone) are the most heavily employed. The interpretation of GC levels as sensitive indicators of population change necessitates that GCs and metrics of population persistence are linked. However, the relationship between GCs and fitness may be highly context-dependent, changing direction, or significance, depending on the GC measure, fitness metric, life history stage, or other intrinsic and extrinsic contexts considered...
July 27, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Joshua J Fenton, Kevin Fiscella, Anthony F Jerant, Francis Sousa, Mark Henderson, Tonya Fancher, Peter Franks
A diverse physician workforce is needed to increase access to care for underserved populations, particularly as the Affordable Care Act expands insurance coverage. Yet legal restrictions constrain the extent to which medical schools may use race/ethnicity in admissions decisions. We conducted simulations using academic metrics and socioeconomic data from applicants to a California public medical school from 2011 to 2013. The simulations systematically adjusted medical school applicants' academic metrics for socioeconomic disadvantage...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Kathryn J Fiorella, Giovanni Rapacciuolo, Christopher Trisos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Nature
Bandy X Lee, Finn Kjaerulf, Shannon Turner, Larry Cohen, Peter D Donnelly, Robert Muggah, Rachel Davis, Anna Realini, Berit Kieselbach, Lori Snyder MacGregor, Irvin Waller, Rebecca Gordon, Michele Moloney-Kitts, Grace Lee, James Gilligan
The United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes violence as a threat to sustainability. To serve as a context, we provide an overview of the Sustainable Development Goals as they relate to violence prevention by including a summary of key documents informing violence prevention efforts by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Violence Prevention Alliance (VPA) partners. After consultation with the United Nations (UN) Inter-Agency Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goal Indicators (IAEG-SDG), we select specific targets and indicators, featuring them in a summary table...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Encarni Marcos, Satoshi Tsujimoto, Aldo Genovesio
The estimation of space and time can interfere with each other, and neuroimaging studies have shown overlapping activation in the parietal and prefrontal cortical areas. We used duration and distance discrimination tasks to determine whether space and time share resources in prefrontal cortex (PF) neurons. Monkeys were required to report which of 2 stimuli, a red circle or blue square, presented sequentially, was longer and farther, respectively, in the duration and distance tasks. In a previous study, we showed that relative duration and distance are coded by different populations of neurons and that the only common representation is related to goal coding...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
H Felix Fischer, Matthias Rose
BACKGROUND: Recently, a growing number of Item-Response Theory (IRT) models has been published, which allow estimation of a common latent variable from data derived by different Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs). When using data from different PROs, direct estimation of the latent variable has some advantages over the use of sum score conversion tables. It requires substantial proficiency in the field of psychometrics to fit such models using contemporary IRT software. We developed a web application ( http://www...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Daniel J Beckett, Elaine Thomson, Lindsay Em Reid, Robert C Lloyd
Although there are national recommendations on the function of Acute Medicine Units (AMUs), there is no single agreed best model of care. Additionally, robust data is not always available to determine whether system changes have resulted in improvement. We designed an Excel file to interface with the hospital patient management system to provide real-time data on a number of metrics including AMU length of stay (AMULOS), mortality and readmissions. This demonstrated that improving consultant continuity of care was associated with a reduction in AMULOS and reduced variation in AMULOS...
2016: Acute Medicine
Chao Ji, Yue Zhang, Patricia Heller, Ying Guo
Melanocytic matrical carcinoma is a very uncommon malignant neoplasm with follicular differentiation. The lesion often presents as a solitary nodule on sun-exposed skin of elderly patients. Histopathologically, it is characterized by proliferation of atypical matrical cells admixed with an increased number of melanocytes, and some atypical matrical cells may have cytoplasmic pigment. When melanocytic proliferation or melanin pigment is prominent, melanocytic metrical carcinoma can mimic melanoma. Here, we present a novel case of melanocytic matrical carcinoma mimicking melanoma in an 80-year-old man with our findings in histopathologic and immunohistochemical study...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Mette H Hjorth, Maiken Stilling, Kjeld Søballe, Poul Torben Nielsen, Poul H Christensen, Søren Kold
Background and purpose - Short-term experimental studies have confirmed that there is superior fixation of cementless implants inserted with compaction compared to broaching of the cancellous bone. Patients and methods - 1-stage, bilateral primary THA was performed in 28 patients between May 2001 and September 2007. The patients were randomized to femoral bone preparation with broaching on 1 side and compaction on the other side. 8 patients declined to attend the postoperative follow-up, leaving 20 patients (13 male) with a mean age of 58 (36-70) years for evaluation...
October 19, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
Thomas Raap, Giulia Casasole, David Costantini, Hamada AbdElgawad, Han Asard, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Artificial light at night (ALAN), termed light pollution, is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may have profound effects on animal physiology, particularly during early life. Here, we experimentally investigated for the first time the impact of ALAN on body mass and oxidative status during development, using nestlings of a free-living songbird, the great tit (Parus major), an important model species. Body mass and blood oxidative status were determined at baseline (=13 days after hatching) and again after a two night exposure to ALAN...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zixiao Li, Chunjuan Wang, Xingquan Zhao, Liping Liu, Chunxue Wang, Hao Li, Haipeng Shen, Li Liang, Janet Bettger, Qing Yang, David Wang, Anxin Wang, Yuesong Pan, Yong Jiang, Xiaomeng Yang, Changqing Zhang, Gregg C Fonarow, Lee H Schwamm, Bo Hu, Eric D Peterson, Ying Xian, Yilong Wang, Yongjun Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a leading cause of death in China. Yet the adherence to guideline-recommended ischemic stroke performance metrics in the past decade has been previously shown to be suboptimal. Since then, several nationwide stroke quality management initiatives have been conducted in China. We sought to determine whether adherence had improved since then. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2 phases of China National Stroke Registries, which included 131 hospitals (12 173 patients with acute ischemic stroke) in China National Stroke Registries phase 1 from 2007 to 2008 versus 219 hospitals (19 604 patients) in China National Stroke Registries phase 2 from 2012 to 2013...
October 6, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Rosette J Chakkalakal, Justin P Fox, Jeremy C Green, Marcella Nunez-Smith, Brahmajee K Nallamothu, Romana Hasnain-Wynia
Concerns about the quality of race/ethnicity data collected by hospitals have limited our understanding of healthcare disparities affecting ethnic minorities in the United States. Using data from the New Jersey State Inpatient Databases and the American Community Survey, we calculated age-adjusted AMI hospitalization rates for Asian-American subgroups before (2005-2006) and after (2008-2009) New Jersey hospitals implemented standardized practices to collect more accurate granular race/ethnicity data from patients...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Lisa M Sweeney, Michael L Gargas
To help develop a comprehensive, quantitative understanding of the hazards of 1,2-dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride, EDC, CAS No. 107-06-2) exposure by the inhalation route, the results of existing subchronic studies and an extended one-generation reproductive toxicity (EOGRT) study recently conducted by the oral route in rats were extrapolated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The no observed adverse effects levels (NOAELs) for the endpoints of neurotoxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity were the highest tested doses of 169 and 155 mg/kg-day, respectively...
October 15, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Edward Johnston, Shonit Punwani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Radiology
Peter W Ganzlin, Michael J Gundale, Rachel E Becknell, Cory C Cleveland
Decades of fire suppression following extensive timber harvesting have left much of the forest in the intermountain western United States exceedingly dense, and forest restoration techniques (i.e., thinning and prescribed fire) are increasingly being used in an attempt to mitigate the effects of severe wildfire, to enhance tree growth and regeneration, and to stimulate soil nutrient cycling. While many of the short-term effects of forest restoration have been established, the long-term effects on soil biogeochemical and ecosystem processes are largely unknown...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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