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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150791/16-channel-flexible-system-to-measure-electrophysiological-properties-of-bioengineered-hearts
#1
Betsy H Salazar, Kristopher A Hoffman, Anilkumar K Reddy, Sridhar Madala, Ravi K Birla
As tissue engineering continues to mature, it is necessary to develop new technologies that bring insight into current paradigms and guide improvements for future experiments. To this end, we have developed a system to characterize our bioartificial heart model and compare them to functional native structures. In the present study, the hearts of adult Sprague-Dawley were decellularized resulting in a natural three-dimensional cardiac scaffold. Neonatal rat primary cardiac cells were then cultured within a complex 3D fibrin gel, forming a 3-dimensional cardiac construct, which was sutured to the acellular scaffold and suspended in media for 24-48 h...
November 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150306/a-proposal-for-a-noninvasive-monitoring-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-patients-with-takotsubo-syndrome
#2
John E Madias
The pathophysiology of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is still elusive; many hypotheses of its cause have been proposed with a heightened activity of the peripheral autonomic sympathetic nervous system (PASNS) via local norepinephrine release, and direct cardiomyocyte toxicity mediated by blood-borne catecholamines, being among the most currently entertained. Monitoring of PASNS during hospitalization will provide a metric which could be of immense value in unraveling of the pathophysiology and aiding in the management of the patients with TTS by predicting in-hospital complications, long-term outcome, and its recurrence...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150201/nations-within-a-nation-variations-in-epidemiological-transition-across-the-states-of-india-1990-2016-in-the-global-burden-of-disease-study
#3
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: 18% of the world's population lives in India, and many states of India have populations similar to those of large countries. Action to effectively improve population health in India requires availability of reliable and comprehensive state-level estimates of disease burden and risk factors over time. Such comprehensive estimates have not been available so far for all major diseases and risk factors. Thus, we aimed to estimate the disease burden and risk factors in every state of India as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016...
November 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149872/process-quality-of-decision-making-in-multidisciplinary-cancer-team-meetings-a-structured-observational-study
#4
Pola Hahlweg, Sarah Didi, Levente Kriston, Martin Härter, Yvonne Nestoriuc, Isabelle Scholl
BACKGROUND: The quality of decision-making in multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) depends on the quality of information presented and the quality of team processes. Few studies have examined these factors using a standardized approach. The aim of this study was to objectively document the processes involved in decision-making in MDTMs, document the outcomes in terms of whether a treatment recommendation was given (none vs. singular vs. multiple), and to identify factors related to type of treatment recommendation...
November 17, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149583/why-traditional-metrics-may-not-adequately-represent-ethnic-minority-psychology
#5
Moin Syed
The first Perspectives on Psychological Science symposium on eminence in psychology focused almost exclusively on "traditional" markers of success (e.g., citation counts, awards, grants). In this essay, I argue that the context of the research and the context of the researchers are crucial components of ethnic minority psychology. First, I describe structural reasons for why ethnic minority researchers might have less impressive traditional markers of success; then, I highlight how the "minority tax" contours the scholarly activities of ethnic minority researchers...
November 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149581/family-matters-measuring-impact-through-one-s-academic-descendants
#6
Elizabeth J Marsh
Scientific contributions take many forms, not all of which result in fame or are captured in traditional metrics of success (e.g., h factor). My focus is on one of the most lasting and important contributions a scientist can make: training scientists who go on to train scientists, who in turn train more scientists, etc. Academic genealogies provide many examples of scientists whose names might not be recognizable today but who trained psychologists that went on to publish very influential work. Of course success results from a combination of many factors (including but not limited to the student's abilities and motivation, luck, institutional resources, mentoring, etc...
November 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149580/will-analytics-suppress-a-diversity-of-ideas-in-psychological-science
#7
Eve De Rosa
In this article, I suggest that an overreliance on analytics to assess faculty productivity and the diffusion of ideas may inadvertently suppress innovation. Even when these productivity-diffusion metrics are used to promote an individual's work, the use of such external guideposts may bias scientific choices and curb a psychological scientist's earnest inclination to synthesize or take scientific risks. Analytics are not inert but can change the path and progress of science itself, potentially reducing the diversity of ideas in psychological science...
November 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149063/estimating-stair-running-performance-using-inertial-sensors
#8
Lauro V Ojeda, Antonia M Zaferiou, Stephen M Cain, Rachel V Vitali, Steven P Davidson, Leia A Stirling, Noel C Perkins
Stair running, both ascending and descending, is a challenging aerobic exercise that many athletes, recreational runners, and soldiers perform during training. Studying biomechanics of stair running over multiple steps has been limited by the practical challenges presented while using optical-based motion tracking systems. We propose using foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) as a solution as they enable unrestricted motion capture in any environment and without need for external references. In particular, this paper presents methods for estimating foot velocity and trajectory during stair running using foot-mounted IMUs...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148787/acid-base-properties-of-xanthohumol-a-computational-and-experimental-investigation
#9
Marta Arczewska, Daniel M Kamiński, Barbara Gieroba, Mariusz Gagoś
UV-vis spectrophotometry has been applied to determine acid dissociation constants of the prenylated chalcone xanthohumol. The pKa values were compared with those derived from pH-metric titrations. The order of the deprotonation site in the xanthohumol molecule was estimated by quantum mechanical calculations as 2'-OH, 4'-OH, and 4-OH. Furthermore, the electronic and spectroscopic properties of xanthohumol have been investigated on the basis of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The TDDFT method, combined with a hybrid exchange-correlation functional using the B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP levels of theory in conjunction with the SMD solvation model, was used to optimize all geometries and predict the excitation energies of the neutral form and ionized species of the chalcone depending on pH value...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148120/mapping-brown-adipose-tissue-based-on-fat-water-fraction-provided-by-z-spectral-imaging
#10
Alessandro Scotti, Rong-Wen Tain, Weiguo Li, Victoria Gil, Chong Wee Liew, Kejia Cai
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a great relevance in metabolic diseases and has been shown to be reduced in obesity and insulin resistance patients. Currently, Dixon MRI is used to calculate fat-water fraction (FWF) and differentiate BAT from white adipose tissue (WAT). However, it may fail in areas of phase wrapping and introduce fat-water swapping artifacts. PURPOSE: To investigate the capacity of the Z-spectrum imaging (ZSI) for the identification of BAT in vivo...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148080/genetic-risk-factors-for-perception-of-symptoms-in-gerd-an-observational-cohort-study
#11
A Patel, S Hasak, B D Nix, G S Sayuk, R D Newberry, C P Gyawali
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms in G-protein beta-3 subunit (GNβ3) and beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) are associated with pain and gut hypersensitivity, which can overlap with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM: To evaluate relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GNβ3 and ADRB2 systems, and reflux symptom burden, GERD phenotypes from ambulatory reflux monitoring, and quality of life. METHODS: Symptomatic adults undergoing ambulatory reflux testing were recruited and phenotyped based on acid burden and symptom reflux association; major oesophageal motor disorders and prior foregut surgery were exclusions...
November 17, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147635/global-and-targeted-pathway-impact-of-gliomas-on-white-matter-integrity-based-on-lobar-localization
#12
David R Ormond, Shawn D'Souza, John A Thompson
Primary brain tumors comprise 28% of all tumors and 80% of malignant tumors. Pathophysiology of high-grade gliomas includes significant distortion of white matter architecture, necrosis, the breakdown of the blood brain barrier, and increased intracranial pressure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a diffusion weighted imaging technique, can be used to assess white matter architecture. Use of DTI as a non-invasive pathophysiological tool to analyze glioma impact on white matter microstructure has yet to be fully explored...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147497/mechanism-and-performance-of-lithium-oxygen-batteries-a-perspective
#13
Nika Mahne, Olivier Fontaine, Musthafa Ottakam Thotiyl, Martin Wilkening, Stefan A Freunberger
Rechargeable Li-O2 batteries have amongst the highest formal energy and could store significantly more energy than other rechargeable batteries in practice if at least a large part of their promise could be realized. Realization, however, still faces many challenges than can only be overcome by fundamental understanding of the processes taking place. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the chemistry of the Li-O2 cathode and provide a perspective on dominant research needs. We put particular emphasis on issues that are often grossly misunderstood: realistic performance metrics and their reporting as well as identifying reversibility and quantitative measures to do so...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146942/efficient-near-infrared-light-emitting-electrochemical-cell-nir-leec-based-on-new-binuclear-ruthenium-phenanthroimidazole-exhibiting-desired-charge-carrier-dynamics
#14
Babak Nemati Bideh, Hashem Shahroosvand
Near-infrared light-emitting electrochemical cell (NIR-LEEC) has emerged as a new and promising lighting sourcewhich could serve as low-cost alternatives in NIR light-emitting sources which are typically expensive. LECs were also shown advantages such as light weight, simplicity and low operation voltages. However, only a few examples of NIR-LEEC are reported in which external quantum efficiency(EQE) of devices limited to 0.1%. Here, we report, efficient NIR-LEEC based of two novel binuclear ruthenium phenanthroimidzole complex which differ by employing the type of ancillary ligand including 2, 2'bipyridine (bpy) (B1) and 4, 4' dimethyl bpy (B2) that realize maximum EQE of 0...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146583/comparison-of-chip-seq-data-and-a-reference-motif-set-for-human-krab-c2h2-zinc-finger-proteins
#15
Marjan Barazandeh, Sam Lambert, Mihai Albu, Timothy R Hughes
KRAB C2H2 zinc finger proteins (KZNFs) are the largest and most diverse family of human transcription factors, likely due to diversifying selection driven by novel endogenous retroelements (EREs), but the vast majority lack binding motifs or functional data. Two recent studies analyzed a majority of the human KZNFs using either ChIP-seq (60 proteins) or ChIP-exo (221 proteins) in the same cell type (HEK293). The ChIP-exo paper did not describe binding motifs, however. Thirty-nine proteins are represented in both studies, enabling the systematic comparison of the data sets presented here...
November 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146432/predictors-of-hospital-length-of-stay-and-30-day-readmission-in-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-patients-an-analysis-of-3057-patients-using-the-acs-nsqip-database
#16
Peter G Passias, Cyrus M Jalai, Nancy Worley, Shaleen Vira, Saqib Hasan, Samantha R Horn, Frank A Segreto, Cole A Bortz, Andrew P White, Michael Gerling, Virginie LaFage, Thomas Errico
BACKGROUND: Hospital length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmission rate, and other metrics are increasingly being used to evaluate quality of surgical care. The factors most relevant to cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) are not yet established. OBJECTIVE: To identify peri-operative factors associated with extended LOS and/or 30-day readmission following elective surgery for CSM. METHODS: Surgical CSM patients at institutions represented by the American-College-of-Surgeons-National-Surgical-Quality-Improvement-Program (ACS-NSQIP) from 2010-2012 were included...
November 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146253/isolation-and-characterisation-of-theobromine-degrading-filamentous-fungi
#17
Daniel Oduro-Mensah, Augustine Ocloo, Sammy T Lowor, Evelyn Y Bonney, Laud K N A Okine, Naa Ayikailey Adamafio
Strategies for achieving global food security include identification of alternative feedstock for use as animal feed, to contribute towards efforts at increasing livestock farming. The presence of theobromine in cocoa pod husks, a major agro-waste in cocoa-producing countries, hinders its utilisation for this purpose. Cheap treatment of cocoa pod husks to remove theobromine would allow largescale beneficial use of the millions of metric tonnes generated annually. The aim of this study was to isolate theobromine-degrading filamentous fungi that could serve as bioremediation agents for detheobromination of cocoa pod husks...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146227/bariatric-surgery-improves-lipoprotein-profile-in-morbidly-obese-patients-by-reducing-ldl-cholesterol-apob-and-saa-pon1-ratio-increasing-hdl-cholesterol-but-has-no-effect-on-cholesterol-efflux-capacity
#18
Christian Abendstein Kjellmo, Helen Karlsson, Torunn K Nestvold, Stefan Ljunggren, Karin Cederbrant, Maritha Marcusson-Ståhl, Monica Mathisen, Knut Tore Lappegård, Anders Hovland
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events and cause-specific mortality for coronary artery disease in obese patients. Lipoprotein biomarkers relating to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), their subfractions, and macrophage cholesterol efflux have all been hypothesized to be of value in cardiovascular risk assessment. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a lifestyle intervention followed by bariatric surgery on the lipid profile of morbidly obese patients...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145891/the-inuit-gut-microbiome-is-dynamic-over-time-and-shaped-by-traditional-foods
#19
Geneviève Dubois, Catherine Girard, François-Joseph Lapointe, B Jesse Shapiro
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiome represents a diverse microbial community that varies across individuals and populations, and is influenced by factors such as host genetics and lifestyle. Diet is a major force shaping the gut microbiome, and the effects of dietary choices on microbiome composition are well documented. However, it remains poorly known how natural temporal variation in diet can affect the microbiome. The traditional Inuit diet is primarily based on animal products, which are thought to vary seasonally according to prey availability...
November 16, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145861/hybrid-de-novo-genome-assembly-and-centromere-characterization-of-the-gray-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#20
Peter A Larsen, R Alan Harris, Yue Liu, Shwetha C Murali, C Ryan Campbell, Adam D Brown, Beth A Sullivan, Jennifer Shelton, Susan J Brown, Muthuswamy Raveendran, Olga Dudchenko, Ido Machol, Neva C Durand, Muhammad S Shamim, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Anne D Yoder, Jeffrey Rogers, Kim C Worley
BACKGROUND: The de novo assembly of repeat-rich mammalian genomes using only high-throughput short read sequencing data typically results in highly fragmented genome assemblies that limit downstream applications. Here, we present an iterative approach to hybrid de novo genome assembly that incorporates datasets stemming from multiple genomic technologies and methods. We used this approach to improve the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) genome from early draft status to a near chromosome-scale assembly...
November 16, 2017: BMC Biology
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