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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749372/3d-printing-a-family-of-biomimetic-models-to-explain-armored-grasping-in-syngnathid-fishes
#1
Michael M Porter, Nakul Ravikumar
Seahorses and pipehorses evolved at least two independent strategies for tail grasping, despite being armored with a heavy body plating. To help explain mechanical trade-offs associated with the different designs, we created a "family" of 3D-printed models that mimic variations in the presence and size of their armored plates. We measured the performance of the biomimetic proxies across seven mechanical metrics, representative of their protective and prehensile capacities. Our results show that the models mimicking the tails of seahorses are the best all-around performers, while those of the distal-most, prehensile region of pipehorses are more flexible, but less protected...
July 27, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749353/mesh-denoising-with-geo-metric-fidelity
#2
Marco Centin, Alberto Signoroni
Working with noisy meshes and aiming at providing high-fidelity 3D object models without tampering the metric quality of the acquisitions, we propose a mesh denoising technique that, through a normal-diffusion process guided by a curvature saliency map, is able to preserve and emphasize the natural object features, concurrently allowing the introduction of a bound on the maximum distance from the original model. Moreover, both the position of the mesh vertices and the edge orientations are optimized through a tailored geometric-aliasing correction...
July 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749349/extensive-benchmark-and-survey-of-modeling-methods-for-scene-background-initialization
#3
Pierre-Marc Jodoin, Lucia Maddalena, Alfredo Petrosino, Yi Wang
Scene background initialization is the process by which a method tries to recover the background image of a video without foreground objects in it. Having a clear understanding about which approach is more robust and/or more suited to a given scenario is of great interest to many end users or practitioners. The aim of this paper is to provide an extensive survey of scene background initialization methods as well as a novel benchmarking framework. The proposed framework involves several evaluation metrics and state-of-the-art methods, as well as the largest video dataset ever made for this purpose...
July 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748779/disaster-metrics-a-comprehensive-framework-for-disaster-evaluation-typologies-corrigendum
#4
Diana F Wong, Caroline Spencer, Lee Boyd, Frederick M Burkle, Frank Archer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748706/the-development-of-new-composite-metrics-for-the-comprehensive-analytic-and-visual-assessment-of-hypoglycemia-using-the-hypo-triad
#5
Andreas Thomas, John Shin, Boyi Jiang, Chantal McMahon, Ralf Kolassa, Robert A Vigersky
BACKGROUND: Quantifying hypoglycemia has traditionally been limited to using the frequency of hypoglycemic events during a given time interval using data from blood glucose (BG) testing. However, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) captures three parameters-a Hypo-Triad-unavailable with BG monitoring that can be used to better characterize hypoglycemia: area under the curve (AUC), time (duration of hypoglycemia), and frequency of daily episodes below a specified threshold. METHODS: We developed two new analytic metrics to enhance the traditional Hypo-Triad of CGM-derived data to more effectively capture the intensity of hypoglycemia (IntHypo) and overall hypoglycemic environment called the "hypoglycemia risk volume" (HypoRV)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748705/the-comprehensive-glucose-pentagon-a-glucose-centric-composite-metric-for-assessing-glycemic-control-in-persons-with-diabetes
#6
Robert A Vigersky, John Shin, Boyi Jiang, Thorsten Siegmund, Chantal McMahon, Andreas Thomas
BACKGROUND: Composite metrics have the potential to provide more complete and clinically useful information about glycemic control than traditional individual metrics such as hemoglobin A1C, %/time/area under curve of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. METHODS: Using five key metrics that are derived from continuous glucose monitoring, we developed a new, multicomponent composite metric, the Comprehensive Glucose Pentagon (CGP) that demonstrates glycemic control both numerically and visually...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748504/whole-brain-analyses-of-age-related-microstructural-changes-quantified-using-different-diffusional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-methods
#7
Miho Ota, Noriko Sato, Norihide Maikusa, Daichi Sone, Hiroshi Matsuda, Hiroshi Kunugi
PURPOSE: The new diffusional magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) techniques, diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) have been developed to clarify the microstructural changes. To our knowledge, however, there is little information on the similarities and differences of these metrics evaluated by the image-by-image paired t test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent dMRI. We estimated the relationships of these metrics evaluated by the image-by-image paired t-test and compared aging effects on each metric...
July 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748465/automated-patch-clamp-methods-for-the-herg-cardiac-potassium-channel
#8
Sylvie Houtmann, Brigitte Schombert, Camille Sanson, Michel Partiseti, G Andrees Bohme
The human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene (hERG) product has been identified as a central ion channel underlying both familial forms of elongated QT interval on the electrocardiogram and drug-induced elongation of the same QT segment. Indeed, reduced function of this potassium channel involved in the repolarization of the cardiac action potential can produce a type of life-threatening cardiac ventricular arrhythmias called Torsades de Pointes (TdP). Therefore, hERG inhibitory activity of newly synthetized molecules is a relevant structure-activity metric for compound prioritization and optimization in medicinal chemistry phases of drug discovery...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748441/ozone-risk-assessment-in-three-oak-species-as-affected-by-soil-water-availability
#9
Yasutomo Hoshika, Barbara Moura, Elena Paoletti
To derive ozone (O3) dose-response relationships for three European oak species (Quercus ilex, Quercus pubescens, and Quercus robur) under a range of soil water availability, an experiment was carried out with 2-year-old potted seedlings exposed to three levels of water availability in the soil and three levels of O3 pollution for one growing season in an ozone free-air controlled exposure (FACE) facility. Total biomass losses were estimated relative to a hypothetical clean air at the pre-industrial age, i...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748134/genomic-characterization-reconfirms-the-taxonomic-status-of-lactobacillus-parakefiri
#10
Yasuhiro Tanizawa, Hisami Kobayashi, Eli Kaminuma, Mitsuo Sakamoto, Moriya Ohkuma, Yasukazu Nakamura, Masanori Arita, Masanori Tohno
Whole-genome sequencing was performed for Lactobacillus parakefiri JCM 8573(T) to confirm its hitherto controversial taxonomic position. Here, we report its first reliable reference genome. Genome-wide metrics, such as average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization, and phylogenomic analysis based on multiple genes supported its taxonomic status as a distinct species in the genus Lactobacillus. The availability of a reliable genome sequence will aid future investigations on the industrial applications of L...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747522/pet-imaging-stability-measurements-during-simultaneous-pulsing-of-aggressive-mr-sequences-on-the-ge-signa-pet-mr
#11
Timothy W Deller, Mohammad Mehdi Khalighi, Floris P Jansen, Gary H Glover
The recent introduction of simultaneous whole-body PET/MR scanners has enabled new research taking advantage of the complementary information obtainable with PET and MR imaging. One such application is kinetic modeling, which requires high levels of PET quantitative stability. This challenges the task of isolating the two imaging subsystems from mutual interference. Performance measurements have previously been published demonstrating sufficient PET stability in the presence of MR pulsing for typical clinical use; however, PET stability during radiofrequency (RF)-intensive and gradient-intensive sequences has not previously been evaluated for a clinical whole-body scanner...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747393/improving-validation-methods-for-molecular-diagnostics-application-of-bland-altman-deming-and-simple-linear-regression-analyses-in-assay-comparison-and-evaluation-for-next-generation-sequencing
#12
Maksym Misyura, Mahadeo A Sukhai, Vathany Kulasignam, Tong Zhang, Suzanne Kamel-Reid, Tracy L Stockley
AIMS: A standard approach in test evaluation is to compare results of the assay in validation to results from previously validated methods. For quantitative molecular diagnostic assays, comparison of test values is often performed using simple linear regression and the coefficient of determination (R(2)), using R(2) as the primary metric of assay agreement. However, the use of R(2) alone does not adequately quantify constant or proportional errors required for optimal test evaluation...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747241/developing-a-predictive-model-for-the-energy-content-of-goat-milk-as-the-basis-for-a-functional-unit-formulation-to-be-used-in-the-life-cycle-assessment-of-dairy-goat-production-systems
#13
P P Danieli, B Ronchi
Recent reports on livestock environmental impact based on life cycle assessment (LCA) did not fully consider the case of the dairy goat. Assignment of an environmental impact (e.g. global warming potential) to a specific product needs to be related to the appropriate 'unitary amount' or functional unit (FU). For milk, the energy content may provide a common basis for a definition of the FU. To date, no ad hoc formulations for the FU of goat milk have been proposed. For these reasons, this study aimed to develop and test one or more predictive models (DPMs) for the gross energy (GE) content of goat milk, based on published compositional data, such as fat (F), protein, total solids (TS), solid non-fat matter (SNF), lactose (Lac) and ash...
July 27, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746621/morphological-affinities-of-homo-naledi-with-other-plio-pleistocene-hominins-a-phenetic-approach
#14
Walter A Neves, Danilo V Bernardo, Ivan Pantaleoni
Recent fossil material found in Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, was initially described as a new species of genus Homo, namely Homo naledi. The original study of this new material has pointed to a close proximity with Homo erectus. More recent investigations have, to some extent, confirmed this assignment. Here we present a phenetic analysis based on dentocranial metric variables through Principal Components Analysis and Cluster Analysis based on these fossils and other Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Our results concur that the Dinaledi fossil hominins pertain to genus Homo...
July 24, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746136/using-organizational-philosophy-to-create-a-self-sustaining-compensation-plan-without-harming-academic-missions
#15
Robert Leverence, Richard Nuttall, Rachel Palmer, Mark Segal, Alicia Wood, Fay Yancey, Jonathon Shuster, Mark Brantly, Robert Hromas
PROBLEM: Academic physician reimbursement has moved to productivity-based compensation plans. To be sustainable, such plans must be self-funding. Additionally, unless research and education are appropriately valued, faculty involved in these efforts will become disillusioned, yet revenue generation in these activities is less robust than for clinical care activities. APPROACH: Faculty at the Department of Medicine, University of Florida Health, elected a committee of junior and senior faculty and division chiefs to restructure the compensation plan in fiscal year (FY) 2011...
August 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745902/disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-315-diseases-and-injuries-and-healthy-life-expectancy-hale-in-iran-and-its-neighboring-countries-1990-2015-findings-from-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#16
Sadaf G Sepanlou, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Kristopher J Krohn, Ashkan Afshin, Farshad Farzadfar, Gholamreza Roshandel, Chante Karimkhani, Sharzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Aliasghar Ahmad Kiadaliri, Hamid Ahmadieh, Shirin Djalalinia, Hedyeh Ebrahimi, Babak Eshrati, Ali Reza Esteghamati, Maryam S Farvid, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Pouria Heydarpour, Farhad Islami, Seyed M Karimi, Marzieh Katibeh, Ardeshir Khosravi, Jagdish Khubchandani, Mahdi Mahdavi, Farhad Pishgar, Mostafa Qorbani, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Sare Safi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Saeid Shahraz, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Alireza Mohammadi, Ali H Mokdad, Theo Vos, Christopher J L Murray, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Reza Malekzadeh
BACKGROUND: Summary measures of health are essential in making estimates of health status that are comparable across time and place. They can be used for assessing the performance of health systems, informing effective policy making, and monitoring the progress of nations toward achievement of sustainable development goals. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) as main summary measures of health...
July 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745574/age-discrimination-in-healthcare-institutions-perceived-by-seniors-and-students
#17
Beata Dobrowolska, Bernadeta Jędrzejkiewicz, Anna Pilewska-Kozak, Danuta Zarzycka, Barbara Ślusarska, Alina Deluga, Aneta Kościołek, Alvisa Palese
BACKGROUND: Old age-based discrimination is observed as the most tolerated prejudice in society and has also been witnessed in healthcare institutions. AIMS: The aim of this study is to explore age-based discrimination in healthcare institutions as perceived by seniors and students of Medicine and Nursing. RESEARCH DESIGN: A multi-method study design, by involving a triangulation design. Participants and research context: A purposeful sample of individuals aged 65+ (n = 80) and medical and nursing students (n = 100) in the eastern region of Poland...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745521/dynamic-value-assessments-in-oncology-supported-by-the-pace-continuous-innovation-indicators
#18
Silvia Paddock, Clifford Goodman, Scott Shortenhaus, David Grainger, Jacqueline Zummo, Samuel Thomas
AIM: Several recently developed frameworks aim to assess the value of cancer treatments, but the most appropriate metrics remain uncertain. METHODS: We use data from the Patient Access to Cancer care Excellence Continuous Innovation Indicators to examine the relationship between hazard ratios (HRs) from clinical trials and dynamic therapeutic value accumulating over time. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that HRs from initial clinical trials poorly predict the eventual therapeutic value of cancer treatments...
July 26, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745453/conscious-awareness-and-time-perception
#19
Carlos Montemayor
This paper examines Zhou, Pöppel, and Bao's 2014 proposal ("In the Jungle of Time: The Concept of Identity as a Way Out," https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00844) to unify the psychology of time through a biological principle concerning identity and homeostasis. Although the present analysis largely agrees with their proposal, it argues that a Dual Model of time (see Montemayor's 2013 monograph, Minding Time: A Philosophical and Theoretical Approach to the Psychology of Time) is needed to account for two important roles in time cognition, one related to navigation and the other to conscious awareness...
July 26, 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745402/fat-based-registration-of-breast-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-water-images
#20
Subashini Srinivasan, Brian A Hargreaves, Bruce L Daniel
PURPOSE: In this study, a 3D fat-based deformable registration algorithm was developed for registering dynamic contrast-enhanced breast images. METHODS: The mutual information similarity measure with free-form deformation motion correction in rapidly enhancing lesions can introduce motion. However, in Dixon-based fat-water separated acquisitions, the nonenhancing fat signal can directly be used to estimate deformable motion, which can be later used to deform the water images...
July 26, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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