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Candida antifungal resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317391/in-vitro-inhibitory-effects-of-farnesol-and-interactions-between-farnesol-and-antifungals-against-biofilms-of-candida-albicans-resistant-strains
#1
Jinping Xia, Fang Qian, Wenqian Xu, Zhenzhen Zhang, Xin Wei
Antifungal resistance is a serious problem in clinical infections. Farnesol, which is a potential antifungal agent against biofilms formed by Candida albicans resistant strains (a fluconazole-resistant isolate derived from SC5314 and two clinical Candida resistant isolates), was investigated in this study. The inhibitory effects of farnesol on biofilms were examined by XTT assay. The morphological changes and biofilm thicknesses were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively...
March 20, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303159/antifungal-activity-of-the-ethanol-extract-from-flos-rosae-chinensis-with-activity-against-fluconazole-resistant-clinical-candida
#2
Lulu Zhang, Hui Lin, Wei Liu, Baodi Dai, Lan Yan, YongBing Cao, Yuan-Ying Jiang
This study was designed to investigate the antifungal activity of a hydroalcoholic extract from Flos Rosae Chinensis (FRC) combined with fluconazole (FCZ) against clinical isolates of Candida albicans resistant to FCZ. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of FRC was determined using a checkerboard microdilution assay. The synergistic effects of the combination of FRC and FCZ against clinical isolates of C. albicans resistant to FCZ were further confirmed by constructing time-growth curves and performing an agar diffusion test...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303122/antifungal-drug-susceptibility-of-candida-species-isolated-from-hiv-positive-patients-recruited-at-a-public-hospital-in-s%C3%A3-o-lu%C3%A3-s-maranh%C3%A3-o-brazil
#3
Ana L G Terças, Sirlei G Marques, Eduardo B Moffa, Márcia B Alves, Conceição M P S de Azevedo, Walter L Siqueira, Cristina A Monteiro
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in hospitalized patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Its progression results in invasive infections, which are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to quickly and accurately identify Candida spp. from oral mucosa of AIDS patients recruited at Presidente Vargas Hospital, in São Luís city, Brazil and to evaluate the sensitivity profile of these fungi to antifungals by using an automated system. Isolates were collected from oropharyngeal mucosa of 52 hospitalized AIDS patients, under anti-viral and antifungal therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296357/antibacterial-antifungal-and-antiviral-effects-of-three-essential-oil-blends
#4
Amandine Brochot, Angèle Guilbot, Laïla Haddioui, Christine Roques
New agents that are effective against common pathogens are needed particularly for those resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. Essential oils (EOs) are known for their antimicrobial activity. Using the broth microdilution method, we showed that (1) two unique blends of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis EOs (AB1 and AB2; cinnamon EOs from two different suppliers) were active against the fourteen Gram-positive and -negative bacteria strains tested, including some antibiotic-resistant strains...
March 14, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295690/azole-resistance-in-candida-albicans-from-animals-highlights-on-efflux-pump-activity-and-gene-overexpression
#5
Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha, Silviane Praciano Bandeira, Lucas Pereira de Alencar, Luciana Magalhães Melo, Jamille Alencar Sales, Manoel de Araújo Neto Paiva, Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro Teixeira, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira-Neto, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante
This study investigated potential mechanisms of azole resistance among Candida albicans from animals, including efflux pump activity, ergosterol content and gene expression. For this purpose, 30 azole-resistant C. albicans strains from animals were tested for their antifungal susceptibility, according to document M27-A3, efflux pump activity by rhodamine 6G test, ergosterol content and expression of the genes CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, ERG11 by RT-qPCR. These strains were resistant to at least one azole derivative...
March 10, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292981/vaginal-heparan-sulfate-linked-to-neutrophil-dysfunction-in-the-acute-inflammatory-response-associated-with-experimental-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#6
Junko Yano, Mairi C Noverr, Paul L Fidel
Despite acute inflammation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) during vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), clearance of Candida fails to occur. The purpose of this study was to uncover the mechanism of vaginal PMN dysfunction. Designs included assessing PMN migration, proinflammatory mediators, and tissue damage (by analysis of the activity of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) in mice susceptible (C3H/HeN-C57BL/6) or resistant (CD-1) to chronic VVC (CVVC-S or CVVC-R) and testing morphology-specific Candida albicans strains under conditions of preinduced PMN migration (CVVC-S mice) or PMN depletion (CVVC-R mice)...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289028/assessment-and-optimizations-of-candida-albicans-in-vitro-biofilm-assays
#7
Matthew B Lohse, Megha Gulati, Ashley Valle Arevalo, Adam Fishburn, Alexander D Johnson, Clarissa J Nobile
Candida albicans biofilms have a significant medical impact due to their rapid growth on implanted medical devices, their resistance to antifungal drugs, and their ability to seed disseminated infections. Biofilm assays performed in vitro allow for rapid, high-throughput screening of gene deletion libraries or antifungal compounds and typically serve as precursors to in vivo studies. Here, we compile and discuss the protocols for several recently published C. albicans biofilm in vitro assays. We also describe improved versions of these protocols as well as novel in vitro assays...
March 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287299/effect-of-serine-protease-kex2-on-candida-albicans-virulence-under-halogenated-methyl-sulfones
#8
Monika Staniszewska, Małgorzata Bondaryk, Michalina Kazek, Aleksandra Gliniewicz, Christina Braunsdorf, Martin Schaller, Hector M Mora-Montes, Zbigniew Ochal
AIM: The effect of KEX2 mutations on C. albicans virulence and resistance to halogenated methyl sulfones was assessed. MATERIALS & METHODS: The mechanism of action of sulfones was studied using flow cytometry and microscopy. Expression of KEX2 and SAP5 was assessed using quantitative Real-Time-PCR. 2,3-Bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide and lactate dehydrogenase assays were elaborated to study, respectively, metabolism of Candida treated with sulfones and their cytotoxicity against tissues...
March 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286016/fluconazole-prophylaxis-in-preterm-infants-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Juliana Ferreira da Silva Rios, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Luísa Petri Corrêa, Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli
OBJECTIVE: This article aims to review the use of antifungal prophylaxis with intravenous fluconazole in premature newborns and the occurrence of Invasive Candidiasis. METHODS: This is a systematic review with search at databases: PubMed, Capes Portal, Virtual Health Library (BVS - Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde)/Lilacs, Scopus and Cochrane. The keywords used were: "Antifungal", "Candida" "Fluconazole prophylaxis" and "Preterm infants". RESULTS: Invasive Candidiasis was evaluated in all the twelve items...
March 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274059/-rhetoric-to-reality-efficacy-of-punica-granatum-peel-extract-on-oral%C3%A2-candidiasis-an-in-vitro-study
#10
Preethi Madugula, Sudhakara Reddy, Jyothirmai Koneru, Atla Srinivasa Rao, Rayapureddi Sruthi, Divya Teja Dalli
INTRODUCTION: Global usage of synthetic drugs inadvertently has resulted in deleterious effects and antimicrobial resistance. Phytoextarcts with therapeutic properties appear to be appropriate substitutes for synthetic drugs. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) is a fruit rich in nutraceuticals and therapeutic properties that has lead to its widespread use as folk-medicine for treating innumerable diseases. AIM: To determine the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum peel extract against the oral Candida compared with clotrimazole...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264842/contributions-of-both-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-and-cyp51a-proteins-are-essential-for-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#11
Sanjoy Paul, Daniel Diekema, W Scott Moye-Rowley
While azole drugs targeting the biosynthesis of ergosterol are effective antifungal agents, their extensive use has led to the development of resistant organisms. Infections involving azole resistant forms of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are often associated with genetic changes in the cyp51A gene encoding the lanosterol α14 demethylase target enzyme. Both a sequence duplication in the cyp51A promoter (TR34) as well as a substitution mutation in the coding sequence (L98H) are required for full expression of azole resistance...
March 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261570/human-salivary-protein-histatin-5-has-potent-bactericidal-activity-against-eskape-pathogens
#12
Han Du, Sumant Puri, Andrew McCall, Hannah L Norris, Thomas Russo, Mira Edgerton
ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens have characteristic multiple-drug resistance and cause an increasing number of nosocomial infections worldwide. Peptide-based therapeutics to treat ESKAPE infections might be an alternative to conventional antibiotics. Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary cationic histidine-rich peptide produced only in humans and higher primates. It has high antifungal activity against Candida albicans through an energy-dependent, non-lytic process; but its bactericidal effects are less known...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258218/structural-analyses-of-candida-albicans-sterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-complexed-with-azole-drugs-address-the-molecular-basis-of-azole-mediated-inhibition-of-fungal-sterol-biosynthesis
#13
Tatiana Y Hargrove, Laura Friggeri, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Aidong Qi, William J Hoekstra, Robert J Schotzinger, John D York, F Peter Guengerich, Galina I Lepesheva
With some advances in modern medicine (such as cancer chemotherapy, broad exposure to antibiotics, and immunosuppression) the incidence of opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans has increased. Cases of drug resistance among these pathogens have become more frequent, requiring the development of new drugs and a better understanding of the targeted enzymes. Sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme required for biosynthesis of sterols in eukaryotic cells and the major target of clinical drugs for managing fungal pathogens, but some of the CYP51 key features important for rational drug design have remained obscure...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257640/risk-factors-for-candida-parapsilosis-bloodstream-infection-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-case-control-study
#14
Carmine Garzillo, Maria Bagattini, Lidija Bogdanović, Anna Di Popolo, Vita Dora Iula, Maria Rosaria Catania, Francesco Raimondi, Maria Triassi, Raffaele Zarrilli
BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis is increasingly responsible for invasive candidiasis in neonates. This study investigates phenotypic and genotypic features of C. parapsilosis microbial isolates and underlying clinical conditions associated with acquisition of C. parapsilosis in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Italy. METHODS: Identification of C. parapsilosis was performed by VITEK® 2 and MALDI TOF and confirmed by analysis of internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequences...
January 19, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243540/retrospective-observation-of-drug-susceptibility-of-candida-strains-in-the-years-1999-2004-and-2015
#15
Cecylia Łukaszuk, Elżbieta Krajewska-Kułak, Wojciech Kułak
INTRODUCTION: There is much literature devoted to the problem of drug resistance and decreased susceptibility of fungi to commonly used antifungals. AIM: To analyze drug susceptibility of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans strains isolated from the hands of people without any symptoms of disease over a 16-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included a total of 1,274 Candida-type strains isolated from the hands of people without any symptoms of disease, including: in 1999, 432 strains; in 2004, 368; and in 2015, 454 strains...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242548/new-azole-derivatives-showing-antimicrobial-effects-and-their-mechanism-of-antifungal-activity-by-molecular-modeling-studies
#16
İnci Selin Doğan, Selma Saraç, Suat Sari, Didem Kart, Şebnem Eşsiz Gökhan, İmran Vural, Sevim Dalkara
Azole antifungals are potent inhibitors of fungal lanosterol 14α demethylase (CYP51) and have been used for eradication of systemic candidiasis clinically. Herein we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of 1-phenyl/1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanol esters. Many of these derivatives showed fungal growth inhibition at very low concentrations. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 15 was 0.125 μg/mL against Candida albicans. Additionally, some of our compounds, such as 19 (MIC: 0...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238268/aryl-alkyl-lysines-membrane-active-fungicides-that-act-against-biofilms-of-candida-albicans
#17
Chandradhish Ghosh, Vikas Yadav, Waleed Younis, Haroon Mohammad, Youssef A Hegazy, Mohamed N Seleem, Kaustuv Sanyal, Jayanta Haldar
Mortality due to pathogenic fungi has been exacerbated by the rapid development of resistance to frontline antifungal drugs. Fungicidal compounds with novel mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Aryl-alkyl-lysines, which are membrane-active small molecules, were earlier shown to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with potency in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we report the antifungal properties of aryl-alkyl-lysines. After identifying the most active compound (NCK-10), we tested its activity against a panel of clinically relevant pathogenic fungi and examined NCK-10's effect against immature and mature biofilms of Candida albicans...
March 14, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224196/calcium-and-oxidative-stress-mediate-perillaldehyde-induced-apoptosis-in-candida-albicans
#18
Hui Tian, Su Qu, Yanzhen Wang, Zhaoqun Lu, Man Zhang, Yeyun Gan, Peng Zhang, Jun Tian
New anti-Candida albicans drugs are needed due to the emergence of resistant cases in recent years. Perillaldehyde (PAE) is a natural monoterpenoid compound derived from Perilla frutescens. The minimum inhibitory concentration of PAE against C. albicans was 0.4 μL/mL. We aimed to elucidate the antifungal mode of action of PAE against C. albicans. The antifungal activity of PAE against C. albicans was found to correlate with an elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) and accumulation of ROS. Several downstream apoptosis events such as the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, cytochrome c release, and metacaspase activation were observed in PAE-treated cells...
February 21, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223388/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antifungal-profile-of-a-novel-and-long-acting-inhaled-azole-pc945-on-aspergillus-fumigatus-infection
#19
Thomas Colley, Alexandre Alanio, Steven L Kelly, Gurpreet Sehra, Yasuo Kizawa, Andrew G S Warrilow, Josie E Parker, Diane E Kelly, Genki Kimura, Lauren Anderson-Dring, Takahiro Nakaoki, Mihiro Sunose, Stuart Onions, Damien Crepin, Franz Lagasse, Matthew Crittall, Jonathan Shannon, Michael Cooke, Stéphane Bretagne, John King-Underwood, John Murray, Kazuhiro Ito, Pete Strong, Garth Rapeport
The profile of PC945, a novel triazole antifungal, designed for administration via inhalation, has been assessed in a range of in vitro and in vivo studies. PC945 was characterized as a potent, tight-binding inhibitor of Aspergillus fumigatus sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51A and CYP51B) activity (IC50, 0.23 μM and 0.22 μM, respectively), with characteristic type II azole binding spectra. Against 96 clinically isolated A. fumigatus strains, the MIC values of PC945 ranged from 0.032∼>8 μg/ml, whilst those of voriconazole ranged from 0...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223387/activity-of-sanguinarine-against-candida-albicans-biofilms
#20
Hua Zhong, Dan-Dan Hu, Gan-Hai Hu, Juan Su, Shuang Bi, Zhuo-Er Zhang, Zheng Wang, Ri-Li Zhang, Zheng Xu, Yuan-Ying Jiang, Yan Wang
C. albicans biofilms show resistance to many clinical antifungal agents, and play a considerable contributing role in the process of C. albicans infections. New antifungal agents against C. albicans biofilms are sorely needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate sanguinarine (SAN) for its activity against Candida albicans biofilms and explore the underlying mechanism. The MIC50 of SAN was 3.2 μg/mL. While ≥ 0.8 μg/mL SAN could suppress C. albicans biofilms. Further mechanism study revealed that ≥ 0...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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