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Candida antifungal resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548995/invasive-fungal-infections-following-liver-transplantation
#1
Rachel Hogen, Kiran Dhanireddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review outlines the microbiology, presentation, prophylactic strategies, resistance patterns, and consequences of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been an increase in the proportion of non-albicans Candida causing IFIs. The biomarkers galactomannan and β-D-glucan should not be routinely used in the diagnosis of IFIs in OLT recipients due to their limited accuracy...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545374/modulators-of-the-efflux-pump-cdr1p-of-candida-albicans-mechanisms-of-action-and-chemical-features
#2
Viet-Khoa Tran-Nguyen, Rajendra Prasad, Pierre Falson, Ahcène Boumendjel
The multicomponent primary active ATP-binding cassette transporter Cdr1p in the structure of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans is among the culprits of antifungal agent resistance reported in recent decades. So far, various potential novel inhibitors/ modulators of this protein have been purified, synthesized, and biologically tested, with results showing their ability to effectively reverse CaCdr1p-mediated drug resistance phenomenon. These compounds are of diverse origins, possess non-identical structural features and adopt different mechanisms of action...
May 22, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533234/differential-activity-of-the-oral-glucan-synthase-inhibitor-scy-078-against-wild-type-and-echinocandin-resistant-strains-of-candida-spp
#3
Michael A Pfaller, Shawn A Messer, Paul R Rhomberg, Mariana Castanheira
SCY-078 (formerly MK-3118) is a novel orally active inhibitor of fungal β- (1, 3)-glucan synthase (GS). SCY-078 is a derivative of enfumafungin and is structurally distinct from the echinocandin class of antifungal agents. We evaluated the in vitro activity of this compound against wild-type (WT) and echinocandin-resistant isolates containing mutations in the FKS genes of Candida spp. Against 36 Candida spp. FKS mutants tested, 30 (83.3%) were non-WT to 1 or more echinocandins and only 9 (25.0%) were non-WT (MIC, >WT-upper limit) to SCY-078...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530184/green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-mentha-pulegium-and-investigation-of-their-antibacterial-antifungal-and-anticancer-activity
#4
Ali Hamad Abd Kelkawi, Abolghasem Abbasi Kajani, Abdol-Khalegh Bordbar
A simple and eco-friendly method for efficient synthesis of stable colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Mentha pulegium extracts is described. A series of reactions was conducted using different types and concentrations of plant extract as well as metal ions to optimize the reaction conditions. AgNPs were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zetasizer, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515716/antifungal-activity-of-the-biphosphinic-cyclopalladate-c7a-against-candida-albicans-yeast-forms-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Julian E Muñoz, Diego C P Rossi, Kelly Ishida, Cristina C Spadari, Marcia S C Melhem, Daniel M Garcia, Antonio C F Caires, Carlos P Taborda, Elaine G Rodrigues
Vulvovaginal and invasive candidiasis are frequent conditions in immunosuppressed individuals caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. Fluconazole and Amphotericin B are the main drugs used to fight the infection. However, resistance to fluconazole and other azole antifungal drugs is an important clinical problem that encourages the search for new therapeutic alternatives. In this work, we evaluate the antifungal activity of the biphosphinic cyclopalladate C7a in the in vitro and in vivo model...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513771/species-distribution-and-antifungal-susceptibility-patterns-of-candida-isolates-from-a-public-tertiary-teaching-hospital-in-the-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#6
P Mnge, B I Okeleye, S D Vasaikar, T Apalata
Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine...
May 15, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512279/antimicrobial-potential-of-plant-extracts-and-chemical-fractions-of-sideroxylon-obtusifolium-roem-schult-t-d-penn-on-oral-microorganisms
#7
Thaíse Pd Sampaio, Nathália Ao Cartaxo-Furtado, Ana Cd de Medeiros, Harley S Alves, Pedro L Rosalen, Jozinete V Pereira
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and chemical fractions of Sideroxylon obtusifolium T.D. Penn on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Candida albicans as well as to identify the chemical classes found in the bioactive extracts possessing better activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Freeze-dried hydroalcoholic extracts of the bark and leaves (LC and LF respectively) and ethanol extracts of bark and leaves (EC and EF respectively) of S...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511604/duplicated-or-hybridized-peptide-functional-domains-promote-oral-homeostasis
#8
T Basiri, N D Johnson, E B Moffa, Y Mulyar, P L Serra Nunes, M A A M Machado, W L Siqueira
Proteins that have existed for millions of years frequently contain repeats of functional domains within their primary structure, thereby improving their functional capacity. In the evolutionary young statherin protein contained within the in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle (AEP), we identified a single functional domain (DR9) located within the protein N-terminal portion that exhibits a higher affinity for hydroxyapatite and more efficient protection against enamel demineralization compared to other native statherin peptides...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511380/fungal-profile-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#9
Krishnapriya Kalaiarasan, Rakesh Singh, Latha Chaturvedula
INTRODUCTION: Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is a common medical health problem of adult women. It is most commonly caused by Candida albicans. But there is a change in fungal profile. Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar (SDA) is the most common culture medium used where mixed fungal infection may be missed. It can be detected easily by using chromogenic culture medium. AIM: To know the fungal profile of vulvovaginal candidiasis using Candida CHROMagar and antifungal susceptibility pattern in patients attending tertiary care hospital...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507352/candidiasis-prevalence-and-resistance-profiling-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-pakistan
#10
Bushra Jamil, Mohammad Tauseef Mukhtar Bokhari, Azhar Saeed, Mohammad Zahid Mukhtar Bokhari, Zakir Hussain, Tayyaba Khalid, Habib Bokhari, Mohammad Imran, Shahid Ahmad Abbasi
OBJECTIVE: To determine Candida colonisation/infection in renal transplant patients and to determine the resistance pattern against antifungal drugs. METHODS: This prospective, observational study was conducted at Al-Sayyed Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to October 2014, in collaboration with the Microbiology and Public Health Laboratory's, Islamabad campus..The clinical specimens investigated included respiratory tract secretions, blood, urine, high vaginal swab, skin scrapings, and plastic devices samples...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506251/diversity-in-vitro-virulence-traits-and-antifungal-susceptibility-pattern-of-gastrointestinal-yeast-flora-of-healthy-poultry-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#11
Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Nawal Kishor Sharan, Bharat Prasad Baral, Deependra Hamal, Niranjan Nayak, Peralam Yegneswaran Prakash, Brijesh Sathian, Indira Bairy, Shishir Gokhale
BACKGROUND: Poultry farming and consumption of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) meat and eggs are common gastronomical practices worldwide. Till now, a detailed understanding about the gut colonisation of Gallus gallus domesticus by yeasts and their virulence properties and drug resistance patterns in available literature remain sparse. This study was undertaken to explore this prevalent issue. RESULTS: A total of 103 specimens of fresh droppings of broiler chickens (commercial G domesticus) and domesticated chickens (domesticated G domesticus) were collected from the breeding sites...
May 15, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501465/candiduria-evidence-based-approach-to-management-are-we-there-yet
#12
REVIEW
W A Alfouzan, R Dhar
Candiduria is considered one of the most controversial issues in patient management. Neither the diagnosis nor the optimal treatment options are standardized. This is further complicated by lack of defined laboratory criteria for diagnosis as most of the studies were set for bacterial rather than fungal urinary tract infection (UTI). Furthermore, since Candida species is a known commensal of the genitourinary tract its presence in the urine sample adds ambiguity to making a definitive diagnosis of candidal UTI...
May 10, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493889/characterization-of-a-novel-antibiofilm-effect-of-nitric-oxide-releasing-aspirin-ncx-4040-on-candida-albicans-isolates-from-denture-stomatitis-patients
#13
Francisco Madariaga-Venegas, Roberto Fernández-Soto, Luisa Fernanda Duarte, Nicole Suarez, Daniela Delgadillo, José A Jara, Ricardo Fernández-Ramires, Blanca Urzúa, Alfredo Molina-Berríos
Candida albicans biofilms play a key role in denture stomatitis, one of the most common oral pathologies in elderly people. Because biofilms are highly resistant to antifungals, new pharmacological strategies are needed. Aspirin and nitric oxide-donor molecules have both shown antibiofilm effects on C. albicans, making them promising candidates for treatment. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal/antibiofilm effect of a nitric-oxide releasing aspirin (NO-ASA) on C. albicans isolates from denture stomatitis patients in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493006/activity-of-combined-antifungal-agents-against-multidrug-resistant-candida-glabrata-strains
#14
Laura Bedin Denardi, Jéssica Tairine Keller, Vanessa Oliveira, Débora Alves Nunes Mario, Janio Morais Santurio, Sydney Hartz Alves
In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of echinocandins, azoles, and amphotericin B alone and in combination against echinocandin/azole-sensitive and echinocandin/azole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates. Susceptibility tests were performed using the broth microdilution method in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M27-A3. The checkerboard method was used to evaluate the fractional inhibitory concentration index of the interactions. Cross-resistance was observed among echinocandins; 15% of the isolates resistant to caspofungin were also resistant to anidulafungin and micafungin...
May 10, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491490/rapid-emergence-of-fks-mutations-in-candida-glabrata-isolates-in-a-peritoneal-candidiasis
#15
Milène Sasso, Claire Roger, Laurence Lachaud
We report a rapid acquisition of echinocandin resistance after 12 days of micafungin treatment, without prior exposure, in a patient with peritoneal candidiasis due to C. glabrata. Isolates recovered before and after treatment were compared by multilocus sequence typing. Results of antifungal susceptibility testing and FKS mutations were reported. The interest of repeating antifungal susceptibility testing for echinocandin molecules during the treatment is discussed and a strategy to research FKS mutations proposed...
June 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491253/isolation-molecular-identification-and-antifungal-susceptibility-profiles-of-vaginal-isolates-of-candida-species
#16
Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Shokoofe Shafiei, Ali Zarei-Mahmoudabadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common fungal infection among women during reproductive ages. Although, Candida albicans is accounted as the main etiologic agent of vaginitis, non-albicans species have arisen during last years. Resistant to antifungal drugs especially, fluconazole has been more reported by researchers from around the World. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among suspected patients with vaginitis, the frequency of Candida species, and the susceptibility profiles of isolates to caspofungin, fluconazole and clotrimazole...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491252/inhibitory-effects-of-carvacrol-on-the-expression-of-secreted-aspartyl-proteinases-1-3-in-fluconazole-resistant-candida-albicans-isolates
#17
Seyedeh Sedigheh Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Yadegari, Masoumeh Rajabibazl, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase (SAP) is one of the main virulence factors in the pathogenesis of Candida. This enzyme is encoded by a family of at least ten genes. Among these genes, the role of SAP1-3 in mucosal infections is evident. This study aimed to investigate the expression of SAP1-3 genes of Candida albicans isolates after treatment with Echinophora platyloba extract, carvacrol and caspofungin drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vaginal samples of 68 women with suspected vaginitis were obtained and cultured...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480775/drug-development-challenges-and-strategies-to-address-emerging-and-resistant-fungal-pathogens
#18
Matthew W McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
Invasive fungal infections represent an expanding threat to public health. The recent emergence of Candida auris, which is often resistant to existing antifungal agents and is associated with a high mortality rate, underscores the urgent need for novel drug development strategies. Areas covered: In this paper, we examine both challenges and opportunities associated with antifungal drug development and explore potential avenues to accelerate the development pipeline, including data sharing, surrogate endpoints, and the role of historical controls in clinical trials...
May 15, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475320/structure-based-rational-design-of-novel-inhibitors-against-fructose-1-6-bisphosphate-aldolase-from-candida-albicans
#19
Xinya Han, Xiuyun Zhu, Zongqin Hong, Lin Wei, Yanliang Ren, Fen Wan, Shuaihua Zhu, Hao Peng, Li Guo, Li Rao, Lingling Feng, Jian Wan
Class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBA-II) are attractive new targets for the discovery of drugs to combat invasive fungal infection, because they are absent in animals and higher plants. Although several FBA-II inhibitors have been reported, none of these inhibitors exhibit antifungal effect so far. In this study, several novel inhibitors of FBA-II from C. albicans (Ca-FBA-II) with potent antifungal effects were rationally designed by jointly using a specific protocols of molecular docking-based virtual screening, accurate binding-conformation evaluation strategy, synthesis and enzymatic assays...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473823/recombinant-human-ifn%C3%AE-2b-response-promotes-vaginal-epithelial-cells-defense-against-candida-albicans
#20
Ting Li, Xiaoxi Niu, Xu Zhang, Suxia Wang, Zhaohui Liu
Classical antifungal drugs have been subjected to restrictions due to drug toxicity, drug resistance, bioavailability, and detrimental drug interactions. Type I interferon (IFN) exerts direct distinct immunostimulatory or immunomodulatory actions; however, little is known regarding the anti-fungal reactions of vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) induced by the type I IFN response. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic activity, immunocompetent cytokine responses, and non-B IgG production of the VK2/E6E7 VEC line following recombinant human IFN α-2b (rhIFNα-2b) treatment in response to Candida albicans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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