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Fungal acetaldehyde

Puspendu Sardar, Frank Kempken
Plants, bacteria and some fungi are known to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by employing various pathways. Among these pathways, the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) pathway is the best studied in green plants and plant-associated beneficial microbes. While IAA production circuitry in plants has been studied for decades, little is known regarding the IAA biosynthesis pathway in fungal species. Here, we present the first data for IAA-producing genes and the associated biosynthesis pathway in a non-pathogenic fungus, Neurospora crassa...
2018: PloS One
Chutima Tanapichatsakul, Sakon Monggoot, Eleni Gentekaki, Patcharee Pripdeevech
Fifty-two strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from flowers of the medicinal plant Melodorum fruticosum. Seven genera were identified including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Greeneria and Nigrospora. All strains were cultured for 30 days and further macerated in ethyl acetate solvent for 3 days. The obtained fungal extracts were examined for antibacterial activity using agar disc diffusion against nine pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae and V...
April 2018: Current Microbiology
Heidi R Schoen, Walter Berk Knighton, Brent M Peyton
Volatile organic compound (VOC) production from an endophytic fungus was quantified at four oxygen concentrations (0, 1, 13 and 21 %) throughout culture growth phases. The filamentous fungus, a Nodulisporium sp. (designated TI-13), was grown in a solid-state reactor with an agricultural byproduct, beet pulp, as the solid substrate. The VOCs, with potential applications as biofuels, natural flavour compounds and bioactive mixtures, were measured with a recently introduced platinum catalyst and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry quantification system...
November 7, 2017: Microbiology
Katja Backhaus, Lena Ludwig-Radtke, Xiulan Xie, Shu-Ming Li
The tryptophan derivative 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) is present in many plants and foods including fermentation products of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MTCA is formed from tryptophan and acetaldehyde via a Pictet-Spengler reaction. In this study, up to 9 mg/L of MTCA were detected as a mixture of (1S,3S) and (1R,3S) isomers in a ratio of 2.2:1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of MTCA in laboratory baker's yeast cultures...
June 16, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
A D Alnuaimi, A N Ramdzan, D Wiesenfeld, N M O'Brien-Simpson, S D Kolev, E C Reynolds, M J McCullough
OBJECTIVES: To compare biofilm-forming ability, hydrolytic enzymes and ethanol-derived acetaldehyde production of oral Candida isolated from the patients with oral cancer and matched non-oral cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fungal biofilms were grown in RPMI-1640 medium, and biofilm mass and biofilm activity were assessed using crystal violet staining and XTT salt reduction assays, respectively. Phospholipase, proteinase, and esterase production were measured using agar plate method, while fungal acetaldehyde production was assessed via gas chromatography...
November 2016: Oral Diseases
Katrin Krause, Catarina Henke, Theodore Asiimwe, Andrea Ulbricht, Sandra Klemmer, Doreen Schachtschabel, Wilhelm Boland, Erika Kothe
Fungus-derived indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which is involved in development of ectomycorrhiza, affects both partners, i.e., the tree and the fungus. The biosynthesis pathway, excretion from fungal hyphae, the induction of branching in fungal cultures, and enhanced Hartig net formation in mycorrhiza were shown. Gene expression studies, incorporation of labeled compounds into IAA, heterologous expression of a transporter, and bioinformatics were applied to study the effect of IAA on fungal morphogenesis and on ectomycorrhiza...
October 2015: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Hexon Angel Contreras-Cornejo, Jesús Salvador López-Bucio, Alejandro Méndez-Bravo, Lourdes Macías-Rodríguez, Maricela Ramos-Vega, Ángel Arturo Guevara-García, José López-Bucio
Trichoderma atroviride is a symbiotic fungus that interacts with roots and stimulates plant growth and defense. Here, we show that Arabidopsis seedlings cocultivated with T. atroviride have an altered root architecture and greater biomass compared with axenically grown seedlings. These effects correlate with increased activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6). The primary roots of mpk6 mutants showed an enhanced growth inhibition by T. atroviride when compared with wild-type (WT) plants, while T...
June 2015: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Terry Brown, Claire Dassonville, Mickael Derbez, Olivier Ramalho, Severine Kirchner, Derrick Crump, Corinne Mandin
BACKGROUND: To date, few studies have analyzed the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and indoor air quality (IAQ). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between socioeconomic and other factors and indoor air pollutant levels in French homes. METHODS: The indoor air concentrations of thirty chemical, biological and physical parameters were measured over one week in a sample of 567 dwellings representative of the French housing stock between September 2003 and December 2005...
July 2015: Environmental Research
Guangxiu Liu, Manxiao Zhang, Ximing Chen, Wei Zhang, Wei Ding, Qi Zhang
Threonine aldolases (TAs) catalyze the interconversion of threonine and glycine plus acetaldehyde in a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent manner. This class of enzymes complements the primary glycine biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), and was shown to be necessary for yeast glycine auxotrophy. Because the reverse reaction of TA involves carbon-carbon bond formation, resulting in a β-hydroxyl-α-amino acid with two adjacent chiral centers, TAs are of high interests in synthetic chemistry and bioengineering studies...
February 2015: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Caroline Mary Paget, Jean-Marc Schwartz, Daniela Delneri
Temperature is one of the leading factors that drive adaptation of organisms and ecosystems. Remarkably, many closely related species share the same habitat because of their different temporal or micro-spatial thermal adaptation. In this study, we seek to find the underlying molecular mechanisms of the cold-tolerant phenotype of closely related yeast species adapted to grow at different temperatures, namely S. kudriavzevii CA111 (cryo-tolerant) and S. cerevisiae 96.2 (thermo-tolerant). Using two different systems approaches, i...
November 2014: Molecular Ecology
Mikko T Nieminen, Lily Novak-Frazer, Wilma Rautemaa, Ranjith Rajendran, Timo Sorsa, Gordon Ramage, Paul Bowyer, Riina Rautemaa
The ability of C. albicans to form biofilms is a major virulence factor and a challenge for management. This is evident in biofilm-associated chronic oral-oesophageal candidosis, which has been shown to be potentially carcinogenic in vivo. We have previously shown that most Candida spp. can produce significant levels of mutagenic acetaldehyde (ACH). ACH is also an important mediator of candidal biofilm formation. We have also reported that D,L-2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) significantly inhibits planktonic growth of C...
2014: PloS One
Jing-juan Liang, Mei-ling Zhang, Meng Ding, Zhi-mao Mai, San-xing Wu, Yue Du, Jia-xun Feng
BACKGROUND: Kluyveromyces marxianus has recently become a species of interest for ethanol production since it can produce ethanol at high temperature and on a wide variety of substrates. However, the reason why this yeast can produce ethanol at high temperature is largely unknown. RESULTS: The ethanol fermentation capability of K. marxianus GX-UN120 at 40°С was found to be the same as that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 34°С. Zymogram analysis showed that alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (KmAdh1) was largely induced during ethanol production, KmAdh4 was constitutively expressed at a lower level and KmAdh2 and KmAdh3 were almost undetectable...
2014: BMC Biotechnology
Mikko T Nieminen, Lily Novak-Frazer, Vilma Rautemaa, Ranjith Rajendran, Timo Sorsa, Gordon Ramage, Paul Bowyer, Riina Rautemaa
The ability of C. albicans to form biofilms is a major virulence factor and a challenge for management. This is evident in biofilm-associated chronic oral-oesophageal candidosis, which has been shown to be potentially carcinogenic in vivo. We have previously shown that most Candida spp. can produce significant levels of mutagenic acetaldehyde (ACH). ACH is also an important mediator of candidal biofilm formation. We have also reported that D,L-2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) significantly inhibits planktonic growth of C...
2014: PloS One
Jared Nigg, Gary Strobel, W Berk Knighton, Jonathan Hilmer, Brad Geary, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, James K Harper, Domenic Valenti, Yuemin Wang
A Nodulisporium species (designated Ti-13) was isolated as an endophyte from Cassia fistula. The fungus produces a spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that includes ethanol, acetaldehyde and 1,8-cineole as major components. Initial observations of the fungal isolate suggested that reversible attenuation of the organism via removal from the host and successive transfers in pure culture resulted in a 50 % decrease in cineole production unrelated to an overall alteration in fungal growth. A compound (CPM1) was obtained from Betula pendula (silver birch) that increases the production of 1,8-cineole by an attenuated Ti-13 strain to its original level, as measured by a novel bioassay method employing a 1,8-cineole-sensitive fungus (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)...
August 2014: Microbiology
P L Phelan, H Lin
The chemical basis underlying orientation to fruit and fungal odors was investigated for the dried-fruit beetle,Carpophilus hemipterus (L.). In wind-tunnel bioassays of walking and flight response from 1.8 m, beetles were attracted to odors of the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae on agar, aseptic banana, or banana inoculated withS. cerevisiae, although both banana substrates elicited greater response than the yeast alone. When presented in a two-choice bioassay, the yeast-inoculated banana attracted approximately twice as many beetles as did the aseptic banana...
June 1991: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Alok Kumar Srivastava, Pratiksha Singh, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Prem Lal Kashyap, Hillol Chakdar, Sudheer Kumar, Arun Kumar Sharma
The indigenous fungal flora of three oil refinery contaminated sites (Bharuch, Valsad and Vadodara) of India has been documented in the present investigation. A total seventy-five fungal morphotypes were isolated from these sites and out of them, only fifteen isolates were capable of utilizing ethanol (0-8%; v:v) as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. Ten percent ethanol was completely lethal for the growth of all the isolated fungus. Biochemical characterization of the potent ethanol utilizing fungal isolates was studied based on substrate utilization profiles using BIOLOG phenotype microarray plates...
February 2014: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Mark E Corkins, Margot May, Kate M Ehrensberger, Ya-Mei Hu, Yi-Hsuan Liu, Sean D Bloor, Blair Jenkins, Kurt W Runge, Amanda J Bird
In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) is an abundant zinc-requiring enzyme that catalyses the conversion of acetaldehyde to ethanol during fermentation. In a zinc-replete cell, adh1 is highly expressed. However, in zinc-limited cells, adh1 gene expression is repressed, and cells induce the expression of an alternative alcohol dehydrogenase encoded by the adh4 gene. In our studies examining this zinc-dependent switch in alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression, we isolated an adh1Δ strain containing a partial loss of function mutation that resulted in higher levels of adh4 transcripts in zinc-replete cells...
September 17, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alberto Insuasty, Juan Ramírez, Marcela Raimondi, Carlos Echeverry, Jairo Quiroga, Rodrigo Abonia, Manuel Nogueras, Justo Cobo, María Victoria Rodríguez, Susana A Zacchino, Braulio Insuasty
New hetaryl- and alkylidenerhodanine derivatives 3a-d, 3e, and 4a-d were prepared from heterocyclic aldehydes 1a-d or acetaldehyde 1e. The treatment of several rhodanine derivatives 3a-d and 3e with piperidine or morpholine in THF under reflux, afforded (Z)-5-(hetarylmethylidene)-2-(piperidin-1-yl)thiazol-4(5H)-ones and 2-morpholinothiazol-4(5H)-ones 5a-d, 6a-d, and (Z)-5-ethylidene-2-morpholinothiazol-4(5H)-one (5e), respectively, in good yields. Structures of all compounds were determined by IR, 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry...
2013: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jesús Fierro-Risco, Ana María Rincón, Tahía Benítez, Antonio C Codón
Flor formation and flor endurance have been related to ability by Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeasts to resist hostile conditions such as oxidative stress and the presence of acetaldehyde and ethanol. Ethanol and acetaldehyde toxicity give rise to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of cell viability. Superoxide dismutases Sod1p and Sod2p and other proteins such as Hsp12p are involved in oxidative stress tolerance. In this study, genes SOD1, SOD2, and HSP12 were overexpressed in flor yeast strains FJF206, FJF414 and B16...
August 2013: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
E Marttila, P Bowyer, D Sanglard, J Uittamo, P Kaihovaara, M Salaspuro, M Richardson, R Rautemaa
UNLABELLED: Acetaldehyde is a carcinogenic product of alcohol fermentation and metabolism in microbes associated with cancers of the upper digestive tract. In yeast acetaldehyde is a by-product of the pyruvate bypass that converts pyruvate into acetyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) during fermentation. THE AIMS OF OUR STUDY WERE: (i) to determine the levels of acetaldehyde produced by Candida albicans in the presence of glucose in low oxygen tension in vitro; (ii) to analyse the expression levels of genes involved in the pyruvate-bypass and acetaldehyde production; and (iii) to analyse whether any correlations exist between acetaldehyde levels, alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity or expression of the genes involved in the pyruvate-bypass...
August 2013: Molecular Oral Microbiology
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