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Axel Andres, Aldo Montano-Loza, Russell Greiner, Max Uhlich, Ping Jin, Bret Hoehn, David Bigam, James Andrew Mark Shapiro, Norman Mark Kneteman
Deciding who should receive a liver transplant (LT) depends on both urgency and utility. Most survival scores are validated through discriminative tests, which compare predicted outcomes between patients. Assessing post-transplant survival utility is not discriminate, but should be "calibrated" to be effective. There are currently no such calibrated models. We developed and validated a novel calibrated model to predict individual survival after LT for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC). We applied a software tool, PSSP, to adult patients in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (n = 2769) who received a LT for PSC between 2002 and 2013; this produced a model for predicting individual survival distributions for novel patients...
2018: PloS One
Simone de Campos Neitzke Winter, Rafael Michel de Macedo, Júlio Cesar Francisco, Paula Costa Santos, Ana Paula Sarraff Lopes, Leanderson Franco de Meira, Katherine A Teixeira de Carvalho, José Rocha Faria Neto, Ana Carolina Brandt de Macedo, Luiz César Guarita-Souza
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise should be part of the treatment of post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of two training prescription models (continuous x interval) and its impact on ventricular function in rats after AMI with normal ventricular function. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were evaluated by echocardiography 21 days after the AMI. Those with LVEF = 50% (n = 29) were included in the study and randomized to control group (CG n = 10), continuous training group (CTG n = 9) or interval training group (ITG, n = 10)...
March 12, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Vladica Stevanović, Ljiljana Gulan, Biljana Milenković, Aleksandar Valjarević, Tijana Zeremski, Ivana Penjišević
Activity levels of natural and artificial radionuclides and content of ten heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) were investigated in 41 soil samples collected from Toplica region located in the south part of Serbia. Radioactivity was determined by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector. The obtained mean activity concentrations ± standard deviations of radionuclides226 Ra,232 Th,40 K and137 Cs were 29.9 ± 9.4, 36.6 ± 11.5, 492 ± 181 and 13.4 ± 18.7 Bq kg-1 , respectively...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Yong-Geun Choi
Objectives: This study aimed to describe recent patterns in the types of statistical test used in original articles that were published in Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons . Materials and Methods: Thirty-six original articles published in the Journal in 2015 and 2016 were ascertained. The type of statistical test was identified by one researcher. Descriptive statistics, such as frequency, rank, and proportion, were calculated...
February 2018: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
C Shivaprasad, Amit Goel, Alice Vilier, Jean-Henri Calvet
Context: Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) test is a widely accepted objective technique for quantitatively assessing sudomotor dysfunction, which is one of the earliest-detected neurophysiologic abnormalities in diabetic patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy. Aims: This study aimed to provide normative data for ESC values among healthy Indian participants and assess the potential influence of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on ESC measurements...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mary Carroll Shapiro, Tien Tang, Atreyi Dasgupta, Lyazat Kurenbekova, Ryan Shuck, M Waleed Gaber, Jason T Yustein
PURPOSE: Radiation therapy (RT) is a viable therapeutic option for Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients. However, little progress has been made to elucidate the mechanisms of radioresistance. This study establishes a novel ES irradiation-adapted model designed to assess molecular and18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) alterations secondary to RT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiation-adapted cell lines (RACLs) were created in vitro by exposing ES human cell lines to fractionated doses of radiation...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Brendan Hartford, Geoffrey Shapiro, Michael J Marino, Reed Smith, Nelson Tang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Adrian Keong Kee Teo, Chang Siang Lim, Lih Feng Cheow, Tatsuya Kin, James A Shapiro, Nam-Young Kang, William Burkholder, Hwee Hui Lau
Human pancreatic islets containing insulin-secreting β-cells are notoriously heterogeneous in cell composition. Since β-cell failure is the root cause of diabetes, understanding this heterogeneity is of paramount importance. Recent reports have cataloged human islet transcriptome but not compared single β-cells in detail. Here, we scrutinized ex vivo human islet cells from healthy donors and show that they exhibit de-differentiation signatures. Using single-cell gene expression and immunostaining analyses, we found healthy islet cells to contain polyhormonal transcripts, and INS+ cells to express decreased levels of β-cell genes but high levels of progenitor markers...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Arkadiusz Szarmach, Mariusz Kaszubowski, Agnieszka Sabisz, Andrzej F Frydrychowski, Grzegorz Halena, Maciej Piskunowicz, Jarosław Dzierzanowski, Michał Studniarek, Edyta Szurowska, Pawel J Winklewski
The aim of this study was to assess regional perfusion at baseline and regional cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) to delayed acetazolamide challenge in subjects with chronic carotid artery stenosis. Sixteen patients (ten males) aged 70.94±7.71 with carotid artery stenosis ≥ 90% on the ipsilateral side and ≤ 50% on the contralateral side were enrolled into the study. In all patients, two computed tomography perfusion examinations were carried out; the first was performed before acetazolamide administration and the second 60 minutes after injection...
March 12, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Gavin Low, A M James Shapiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Yuanzhi Lu, Satavisha Roy, Gerard Nuovo, Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy, Tyler Miller, Charles Shapiro, Samson T Jacob, Sarmila Majumder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kathleen M Scott, John Williams, Cody M B Porter, Sydney Russel, Tara L Harmer, John H Paul, Kirsten M Antonen, Megan K Bridges, Gary J Camper, Christie K Campla, Leila G Casella, Eva Chase, James W Conrad, Mercedez C Cruz, Darren S Dunlap, Laura Duran, Elizabeth M Fahsbender, Dawn B Goldsmith, Ryan F Keeley, Matthew R Kondoff, Breanna I Kussy, Marannda K Lane, Stephanie Lawler, Brittany A Leigh, Courtney Lewis, Lygia M Lostal, Devon Marking, Paola A Mancera, Evan C McClenthan, Emily A McIntyre, Jessica A Mine, Swapnil Modi, Brittney D Moore, William A Morgan, Kaleigh M Nelson, Kimmy N Nguyen, Nicholas Ogburn, David G Parrino, Anangamanjari D Pedapudi, Rebecca P Pelham, Amanda M Preece, Elizabeth A Rampersad, Jason C Richardson, Christina M Rodgers, Brent L Schaffer, Nancy E Sheridan, Michael R Solone, Zachery R Staley, Maki Tabuchi, Ramond J Waide, Pauline W Wanjugi, Suzanne Young, Alicia Clum, Chris Daum, Marcel Huntemann, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos Kyrpides, Natalia Mikhailova, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Manoj Pillay, T B K Reddy, Nicole Shapiro, Dimitrios Stamatis, Neha Varghese, Tanja Woyke, Rich Boden, Sharyn K Freyermuth, Cheryl A Kerfeld
Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria from the genera Hydrogenovibrio, Thiomicrorhabdus, and Thiomicrospira are common, sometimes dominant, isolates from sulfidic habitats including hydrothermal vents, soda and salt lakes, and marine sediments. Their genome sequences confirm their membership in a deeply branching clade of the Gammaproteobacteria. Several adaptations to heterogeneous habitats are apparent. Their genomes include large numbers of genes for sensing and responding to their environment (EAL- and GGDEF-domain proteins, and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins) despite their small sizes (2...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
D Rebello, D Anjelly, D J Grand, J T Machan, M D Beland, M S Furman, J Shapiro, N LeLeiko, B E Sands, M Mallette, R Bright, H Moniz, M Merrick, S A Shah
Bone disease is prevalent among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), though bone density screening remains underutilized. We used CT scans performed for other indications in IBD patients to identify and monitor osteopenia using CT attenuation values at the lumbar spine. Significant rates of bone disease were detected which would have otherwise gone undiagnosed. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis affects about 14-42% of patients with IBD. Though screening is recommended in IBD patients with risk factors, it remains underutilized...
March 8, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Christine C Helms, Mark T Gladwin, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro
Erythrocytes regulate vascular function through the modulation of oxygen delivery and the scavenging and generation of nitric oxide (NO). First, hemoglobin inside the red blood cell binds oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to tissues throughout the body in an allosterically regulated process, modulated by oxygen, carbon dioxide and proton concentrations. The vasculature responds to low oxygen tensions through vasodilation, further recruiting blood flow and oxygen carrying erythrocytes. Research has shown multiple mechanisms are at play in this classical hypoxic vasodilatory response, with a potential role of red cell derived vasodilatory molecules, such as nitrite derived nitric oxide and red blood cell ATP, considered in the last 20 years...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Carson Holt, Michael Campbell, David A Keays, Nathaniel Edelman, Aurélie Kapusta, Emily Maclary, Eric Domyan, Alexander Suh, Wesley C Warren, Mark Yandell, M Thomas P Gilbert, Michael D Shapiro
The domestic rock pigeon ( Columba livia ) is among the most widely distributed and phenotypically diverse avian species. C. livia is broadly studied in ecology, genetics, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary biology, and has recently emerged as a model for understanding the molecular basis of anatomical diversity, the magnetic sense, and other key aspects of avian biology. Here we report an update to the C. livia genome reference assembly and gene annotation dataset. Greatly increased scaffold lengths in the updated reference assembly, along with an updated annotation set, provide improved tools for evolutionary and functional genetic studies of the pigeon, and for comparative avian genomics in general...
March 8, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Christoph A Thaiss, Maayan Levy, Inna Grosheva, Danping Zheng, Eliran Soffer, Eran Blacher, Sofia Braverman, Anouk C Tengeler, Oren Barak, Maya Elazar, Rotem Ben-Zeev, Dana Lehavi-Regev, Meirav N Katz, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Arieh Gertler, Zamir Halpern, Alon Harmelin, Suhail Aamar, Patricia Serradas, Alexandra Grosfeld, Hagit Shapiro, Benjamin Geiger, Eran Elinav
Obesity, diabetes and related manifestations are associated with an enhanced, but poorly understood risk for mucosal infection and systemic inflammation. Here, we show in mouse models of obesity and diabetes that hyperglycemia drives intestinal barrier permeability, through GLUT2-dependent transcriptional reprogramming of intestinal epithelial cells and alteration of tight and adherence junction integrity. Consequently, hyperglycemia-mediated barrier disruption leads to systemic influx of microbial products and enhanced dissemination of enteric infection...
March 8, 2018: Science
Mallika Ghosh, Shobha Thangada, Oisharya Dasgupta, Kamal M Khanna, Harold T Yamase, Michael Kashgarian, Timothy Hla, Linda H Shapiro, Fernando A Ferrer
Sphingosine Kinase-2 (Sphk2) is responsible for the production of the bioactive lipid Sphingosine-1 Phosphate, a key regulator of tissue repair. Here we address the in vivo significance of Sphingosine Kinase -2 in renal inflammation/fibrosis in response to unilateral ureteral obstruction using both genetic and pharmacological strategies. Obstructed kidneys of Sphk2-/- mice showed reduced renal damage and diminished levels of the renal injury markers TGFβ1 and αSMA when compared to wild type controls. We found a consistently significant increase in anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages in obstructed Sphk2-/- kidneys by flow cytometry and a decrease in mRNA levels of the inflammatory cytokines, MCP1, TNFα, CXCL1 and ILβ1, suggesting an anti-inflammatory bias in the absence of Sphk2...
2018: PloS One
Julie B Eisengart, Kyle D Rudser, Yong Xue, Paul Orchard, Weston Miller, Troy Lund, Ans Van der Ploeg, Jean Mercer, Simon Jones, Karl Eugen Mengel, Seyfullah Gökce, Nathalie Guffon, Roberto Giugliani, Carolina F M de Souza, Elsa G Shapiro, Chester B Whitley
PurposeEarly treatment is critical for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), justifying its incorporation into newborn screening. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) treats MPS I, yet presumptions that ERT cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) support recommendations that hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) treat the severe, neurodegenerative form (Hurler syndrome). Ethics precludes randomized comparison of ERT with HCT, but insight into this comparison is presented with an international cohort of patients with Hurler syndrome who received long-term ERT from a young age...
March 8, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Ann J Hessell, Mariya B Shapiro, Rebecca Powell, Delphine C Malherbe, Sean P McBurney, Shilpi Pandey, Tracy Cheever, William F Sutton, Christoph Kahl, Byung Park, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Nancy L Haigwood
A high level of V1V2-specific IgG antibodies in vaccinees' sera was the only independent variable that correlated with a reduced risk of HIV acquisition in the RV144 clinical trial. In contrast, IgG avidity, antibody neutralization, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity each failed as independent correlates of infection. Extended analyses of RV144 samples demonstrated antiviral activity of V1V2-specific vaccine-induced antibodies. V2-specific antibodies have also been associated with protection from SIV, and the V2i-specific subset of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), while poor neutralizers, mediate Fc-dependent antiviral functions in vitro The objective of this study was to determine the protective efficacy of a V2i-specific human mAb 830A against mucosal SHIV challenge...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jo Shapiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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