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Ethyl glucuronide

Christoph Heier, Hao Xie, Robert Zimmermann
Ethanol is a widely used psychoactive drug whose chronic abuse is associated with organ dysfunction and disease. Although the prevalent metabolic fate of ethanol in the human body is oxidation a smaller fraction undergoes nonoxidative metabolism yielding ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolites persist in tissues and body fluids for much longer than ethanol itself and represent biomarkers for the assessment of ethanol intake in clinical and forensic settings...
October 6, 2016: IUBMB Life
David Oppolzer, Mário Barroso, Luís Passarinha, Eugenia Gallardo
Hair testing for alcohol biomarkers is an important tool for monitoring alcohol consumption. We propose two methods for assessing alcohol exposure through combined analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) species (ethyl myristate, palmitate, stearate and oleate) in hair (30 mg). EtG was analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while FAEEs were analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using electron impact ionization. Both methods were validated according to internationally accepted guidelines...
September 30, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Simonetta Lambiase, Angelo Groppi, Denise Gemmellaro, Luca Morini
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are specific and sensitive biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute or chronic alcohol abuse. Due to postmortem alcohol production in biological tissues, they have recently been evaluated as potential biomarkers of ethanol ingestion. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate all developmental stages of the fly Calliphora vicina L. (Calliphoridae). Different pig substrates were used during the in vitro experiments to rear C. vicina Experiments were performed to: (i) assess the presence of EtG and EtS in larvae, pupae and insects; (ii) study variability due to the substrates characteristics; (iii) evaluate the possibility of false positives due to external alcohol contamination; and (iv) estimate the potential metabolism of ethanol by the insects...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Pascal Kintz, Camille Richeval, Carole Jamey, Alice Ameline, Delphine Allorge, Jean-Michel Gaulier, Jean-Sébastien Raul
Designer benzodiazepines provide an attractive alternative to prescribed benzodiazepines for abuse purposes as they are readily available via the Internet without control. Metizolam was ordered via the Internet and a 2 mg blue tablet was orally administered to a 54-year-old man. Urine samples were collected over 6 days in polypropylene tubes. After liquid/liquid extraction at pH 9.5, metizolam was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) using a standard method devoted to benzodiazepines, and ions transitions, at m/z 328...
September 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Wenying Lu, Stuart G Ferguson, David S Nichols, Rahul Patel, Glenn A Jacobson
BACKGROUND: The tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), is formed from nicotine and related compounds during tobacco curing and is classified as a human carcinogen. Its major metabolite, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), is thought to be useful in the assessment of cigarette smoking harm minimisation strategies. METHODOLOGY: Urine samples were collected from 24 current Caucasian smokers participating in a smoking cessation study; before and four weeks after a quit attempt...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Alexandra Schröck, Annette Thierauf-Emberger, Stefan Schürch, Wolfgang Weinmann
In most studies, the alcohol marker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) was used to differentiate social drinking from alcohol abuse. This study investigates PEth's potential in abstinence monitoring by performing a drinking study to assess the detection window of PEth after ingesting a defined amount of alcohol. After 2 weeks of abstinence, 16 volunteers ingested a single dose of alcohol, leading to an estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 1 g/kg. In the week after drinking, blood and urine samples were taken daily; in the second week, samples were taken every other day...
September 5, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Elisabetta Bertol, Fabio Vaiano, Rafael Boscolo-Berto, Alessia Fioravanti, Diego Palumbo, Valeria Catalani, Francesco Mari, Valentino Patussi, Giovanni Serpelloni
BACKGROUND: Clinical reliability of self-reported data for alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine consumptions is lacking, particularly in adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To compare a self-report questionnaire and hair analysis to assess the reliability and effectiveness of the self-report. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 14-15-year-old Italian students (n = 874, 38% males, 62% females) was performed comparing self-reported data to hair analysis. The latter quantified hair concentrations of caffeine, nicotine, cotinine, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) using mass spectrometry...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Anna Eichler, Juliane Grunitz, Jennifer Grimm, Lisa Walz, Eva Raabe, Tamme W Goecke, Matthias W Beckmann, Oliver Kratz, Hartmut Heinrich, Gunther H Moll, Peter A Fasching, Johannes Kornhuber
Consuming alcohol during pregnancy is one of the most verified prenatal risk factors for impaired child development. Information about the amount of alcohol consumed prenatally is needed to anticipate negative effects and to offer timely support. Women's self-reports are not reliable, often influenced by social stigmas and retrospective recall bias, causing biomarkers of intrauterine ethanol exposure to become more and more relevant. The present study compares both women's gestational and retrospective self-reports of prenatal alcohol consumption with levels of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium...
August 2016: Alcohol
S Wassenaar, B J Sibbles, A J Schneider, A A Aaldriks, B C P Koch
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy may lead to severe foetal damage, such as foetal alcohol spectrum disorders. It is known that pregnant women under-report to questionnaires about alcohol consumption. It is therefore necessary to determine alcohol consumption during pregnancy objectively. We present 2 pregnant women with negative urine tests for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and alcohol. However, analysis of two other biomarkers, phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in blood and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in meconium, revealed alcohol consumption during pregnancy by both women...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
A Salomone, M R Baumgartner, T Lombardo, E Alladio, D Di Corcia, M Vincenti
The quantification of ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair is nowadays recognized as the approach with the highest diagnostic performance to evaluate harmful drinking. A widely accepted cut-off of 30pg/mg has been selected after several accurate compared studies. While most of the studies that were used to establish the appropriate cut-off value prescribed to cut hair into small segments before their extraction, hair milling has subsequently been identified as the most efficient pretreatment procedure and was therefore recommended in the last Consensus document issued by the Society of Hair Testing...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Marc Luginbühl, Sofie Rutjens, Stefan König, Julien Furrer, Wolfgang Weinmann
The forensic utility of N-acetyltaurine (NAcT) in urine as a marker for ethanol intake was examined. A HILIC-based liquid chromatography method for the mass spectrometric determination of NAcT, taurine, and creatinine in urine was developed and validated to investigate NAcT formation and elimination in a drinking study. Thereby, eight subjects ingested 0.66 to 0.84 g/kg alcohol to reach a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.8 g/kg. Blood and urine were taken every 1.5-2 h, during the first 8 h. NAcT and taurine levels were measured and corrected for the urine's dilution by normalization to a creatinine concentration of 1 mg/mL...
October 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Sonja Kilo, Birgit Hofmann, Elisabeth Eckert, Thomas Göen, Hans Drexler
PURPOSE: An estimation of ethanol intake is frequently of importance in the frame work of studies, but not trivial to achieve. Problems are "underreporting", a very short time frame for the detection of ethanol as direct marker and interference of many in- and outside body factors with strain parameters. The aim of this study was to explore the suitability of the direct urinary biomarkers ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) to assess moderate but regular alcohol consumption...
July 9, 2016: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Marie Mardal, Bram Miserez, Richard Bade, Tania Portolés, Markus Bischoff, Félix Hernández, Markus R Meyer
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) as means to estimate illicit drug and new psychoactive substance (NPS) consumption with spatial and temporal resolution is gaining increasing attention. In order to evaluate a given NPS using WBE, in vivo metabolism and microbial biotransformation of excretion products and unchanged compounds need evaluation. The aims of this study were to identify in vivo phase I and II metabolites of the NPS 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) in human and rat urine and study the in vitro contribution of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes in phase I metabolism...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Katharina M Köhler, Raija Hammer, Kathrin Riedy, Volker Auwärter, Merja A Neukamm
BACKGROUND: For analysis of urine samples during abstinence control for driving ability assessment (medical and psychological assessment, MPA), a reliable screening method for ethyl glucuronide and drugs of abuse (cannabinoids, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, methadone, and benzodiazepines) is needed. METHODS: In this study CEDIA and DRI immunoassays were applied on a Thermo Fisher Scientific Indiko Plus analyzer. Precision and accuracy as well as sensitivity and specificity at the required cut-offs for the MPA were evaluated...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Torsten Arndt, Reinhild Beyreiß, Werner Hartmann, Stefanie Schröfel, Karsten Stemmerich
BACKGROUND: Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine is considered a marker of alcohol consumption. We present a case of a false-positive immunological EtG screening result due to excessive isopropyl glucuronide excretion in urine of an alcohol-dependent patient with a history of industrial cleaning fluid abuse. METHODS: EtG screening was done with the Microgenics DRI EtG enzyme immunoassay on a Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzer according to the testkit instructions. Confirmatory analysis was done by LC-MS/MS for EtG, 1-propyl (syn...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Nadine Schaefer, Andreas G Helfer, Mattias Kettner, Matthias W Laschke, Julia Schlote, Andreas H Ewald, Markus R Meyer, Michael D Menger, Hans H Maurer, Peter H Schmidt
The knowledge of pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) is important for interpretation of analytical results found for example in intoxicated individuals. In the absence of human data from controlled studies, animal models elucidating SC PK have to be established. Pigs providing large biofluid sample volumes were tested for prediction of human PK data. In this context, the metabolic fate of two model SCs, namely 4-ethylnaphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-210) and 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-indol-3-yl)methanone (RCS-4), was elucidated in addition to Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
June 22, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Charlotte Grootaert, Gerard Bryan Gonzales, Hanne Vissenaekens, Tom Van de Wiele, Katleen Raes, Guy Smagghe, John Van Camp
Here, we describe an easy-to-use flow cytometric method using diphenylboric acid 2-amino ethyl ester (DPBA) stain for the detection of flavonoids in cells from human/animal origin. Flavonoid bioavailability and bioactivity depend on structure, conjugation and the cell type to which they are presented. We have studied cellular uptake of five flavonoids with different structures and conjugation forms. First, parameters including fixation method, technical and batch variability, and concentration were optimized...
September 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Alexandra Schröck, Matthias Pfäffli, Stefan König, Wolfgang Weinmann
For driving aptitude assessment (DAA), the analysis of several alcohol biomarkers is essential for the detection of alcohol intake besides psycho-medical exploration. In Switzerland, EtG in hair (hEtG) is often the only direct marker for abstinence monitoring in DAA. Therefore, the suitability of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) was investigated as additional biomarker. PEth 16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2 were determined by online-SPE-LC-MS/MS in 136 blood samples of persons undergoing DAA and compared to hEtG, determined in hair segments taken at the same time...
June 2, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Pablo Barrio, Lidia Teixidor, Naira Rico, Pol Bruguera, Lluisa Ortega, José Luis Bedini, Antoni Gual
AIMS: To test the screening performance of urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) under routine clinical conditions in a sample of alcohol-dependent outpatients, comparing it against urinary ethanol, self reports and clinical judgment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study under routine conditions was conducted in February 2015, where 613 consecutive urinary samples, provided by 188 outpatients with alcohol use disorders, were analyzed for ethanol and EtG (cut-off level = 500 ng/ml)...
2016: European Addiction Research
Natalie Kummer, Willy E E Lambert, Nele Samyn, Christophe P Stove
Monitoring of alcohol consumption by living persons takes place in various contexts, amongst which workplace drug testing, driving under the influence of alcohol, driving licence regranting programs, alcohol withdrawal treatment, diagnosis of acute intoxication or fetal alcohol ingestion. The matrices that are mostly used today include blood, breath and urine. The aim of this review is to present alternative sampling strategies that allow monitoring of the alcohol consumption in living subjects. Ethanol itself, indirect (carbohydrate deficient transferrin, CDT%) as well as direct biomarkers (ethyl glucuronide, EtG; ethyl sulphate, EtS; fatty acid ethyl esters, FAEEs and phosphatidylethanol species, PEths) of ethanol consumption will be considered...
September 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
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