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Ethyl glucuronide

Sally Sabra, Ebba Malmqvist, Laura Almeida, Eduard Gratacos, Maria Dolores Gomez Roig
Maternal exposure to tobacco and alcohol is a known cause, among others, for fetal growth restriction (FGR). Clinically, FGR can be subclassified into two forms: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA), based on the severity of the growth retardation, and abnormal uterine artery Doppler or cerebro-placental ratio. This study aimed at investigating any differential correlation between maternal exposures to these toxins with the two clinical forms of FGR. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted in Barcelona, Spain...
January 4, 2018: Alcohol
Eugenio Alladio, Giulia Biosa, Fabrizio Seganti, Daniele Di Corcia, Alberto Salomone, Marco Vincenti, Markus R Baumgartner
The quantitative determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair samples is consistently used throughout the world to assess chronic excessive alcohol consumption. For administrative and legal purposes, the analytical results are compared with cut-off values recognized by regulatory authorities and scientific societies. However, it has been recently recognized that the analytical results depend on the hair sample pretreatment procedures, including the crumbling and extraction conditions. A systematic evaluation of the EtG extraction conditions from pulverized scalp hair was conducted by design of experiments (DoE) considering the extraction time, temperature, pH, and solvent composition as potential influencing factors...
May 11, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
R Becker, I Lô, F Sporkert, M Baumgartner
The increasing request for hair ethyl glucuronide (HEtG) in alcohol consumption monitoring according to cut-off levels set by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) has triggered a proficiency testing program based on interlaboratory comparisons (ILC). Here, the outcome of nine consecutive ILC rounds organised by the SoHT on the determination of HEtG between 2011 and 2017 is summarised regarding interlaboratory reproducibility and the influence of procedural variants. Test samples prepared from cut hair (1mm) with authentic (in-vivo incorporated) and soaked (in-vitro incorporated) HEtG concentrations up to 80pg/mg were provided for 27-35 participating laboratories...
April 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Oladunni Oluwoye, Jordan Skalisky, Ekaterina Burduli, Naomi S Chaytor, Sterling McPherson, Sean Murphy, Jalene Herron, Katherine Hirchak, Mason Burley, Richard K Ries, John M Roll, Michael G McDonell
BACKGROUND: In contingency management (CM), individuals receive rewards for alcohol abstinence. CM is associated with reduced alcohol use in adults with co-occurring serious mental illnesses (SMI). Pre-treatment urine ethyl glucuronide (uEtG) levels equivalent to daily heavy drinking (uEtG > 349 ng/mL) are associated with poor response to CM. Modifications to CM are needed to improve outcomes for non-responders. AIMS: To determine if pre-treatment heavy drinkers, defined by uEtG, with SMI achieve higher levels of alcohol abstinence when they receive an increased magnitude of reinforcement for abstinence (High-Magnitude CM) or reinforcers for reduced drinking, prior to receiving reinforcers for abstinence (Shaping CM), relative to those who receive typical low-magnitude abstinence based CM (Usual CM)...
April 19, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Cristina Sempio, Luca Morini, Matteo Moretti
BACKGROUND: Ethyl glucuronide in hair (hEtG) is a commonly used biomarker in the diagnosis of chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Though the high diagnostic specificity, some cosmetic treatments may influence the hEtG concentration, leading to false positive results. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate three cases of alleged false positive hair samples due to the exposure to perfumes. METHODS: Three subjects were monitored for up to 3 years; at least one sample collection was performed each year; all three men declared to have exposed hair to alcohol-based perfumes during all the period, except during the last three months before last sample collection...
April 5, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Jianfa Gao, Jiaying Li, Guangming Jiang, Zhiguo Yuan, Geoff Eaglesham, Adrian Covaci, Jochen F Mueller, Phong K Thai
Since alcohol and tobacco consumption are among the leading causes of population health harm, it is very important to understand the consumption behaviour to develop effective harm reduction strategies. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a potential tool for estimating their consumption, but there are several uncertainties that need to be determined, including the stability of biomarkers in the sewer. Utilizing a real rising main sewer, this study investigated the stability of alcohol and tobacco consumption biomarkers...
March 14, 2018: Water Research
Michael F Orr, Crystal Lederhos Smith, Myles Finlay, Samantha C Martin, Olivia Brooks, Oladunni A Oluwoye, Emily Leickly, Michael McDonell, Ekaterina Burduli, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Matt Layton, John M Roll, Sterling M McPherson
Contingency management (CM) is associated with decreases in off-target drug and alcohol use during primary target treatment. The primary hypothesis for this trial was that targeting alcohol use or tobacco smoking would yield increased abstinence in the opposite, nontargeted drug. We used a 2 [CM vs. noncontingent control (NC) for alcohol]×2 (CM vs. NC for smoking tobacco) factorial design, with alcohol intake (through urinary ethyl glucuronide) and tobacco smoking (through urinary cotinine) as the primary outcomes...
March 20, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Philip A May, Julie M Hasken, Marlene M De Vries, Anna-Susan Marais, Julie M Stegall, Daniel Marsden, Charles D H Parry, Soraya Seedat, Barbara Tabachnick
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is reported accurately among pregnant women in some populations. METHODS: Self-reported alcohol use via the AUDIT and 90-day recall for 193 women from antenatal clinics was compared to biomarker results: phosphatidylethanol (PEth) from bloodspots and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in fingernails. RESULTS: AUDIT was positive for 67.9% of respondents, and 65.3% directly reported drinking. Individual biomarkers detected less drinking (PEth = 57...
April 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Yuming Liu, Xinyu Zhang, Jiaolun Li, Zhibin Huang, Zebin Lin, Jingru Wang, Chengqiang Zhang, Yulan Rao
Background: The lack of systematic studies on the stability of ethanol's non-oxidative metabolites in postmortem specimens restricts their use in forensic cases. This study aimed to compare the stability of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate (EtS), phosphatidylethanols (PEths) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in postmortem human blood. Method: Three groups were established based on the level and source of ethanol: the blank group, the ethanol-spiked group and the ethanol-positive group...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Yang Hu, Wenwen Zhu, Yeli Guan, Sanlan Wu, Xiaoyin Zhang, Gao Li, Luqin Si, Jiangeng Huang
A rapid, robust and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for bioanalysis of TJ0711, a novel vasodilatory β-blocker in dog plasma. This assay is able to chromatographically separate TJ0711 from its isobaric metabolite as well as glucuronide conjugates. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Welch Ultimate-XB C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 3 μm). The analyte and internal standard (propranolol) were extracted from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate...
January 22, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Gil Leurquin-Sterk, Jenny Ceccarini, Cleo L Crunelle, Bart de Laat, Jef Verbeek, Stephanie Deman, Hugo Neels, Guy Bormans, Hendrik Peuskens, Koen Van Laere
Animal studies suggest an important role for the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence, but direct human evidence is lacking. The goal of this study was to investigate cerebral mGlu5 availability in alcohol-dependent subjects versus controls using 18 F-3-fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile (18 F-FPEB) PET. Methods: Dynamic 90-min 18 F-FPEB scans combined with arterial blood sampling were acquired for 16 recently abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects and 32 age-matched controls...
April 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Michael J Vinikoor, Zude Zyambo, Monde Muyoyeta, Geetanjali Chander, Michael S Saag, Karen Cropsey
In an HIV-hepatitis B virus (HIV-HBV) coinfection cohort in Zambia, we piloted a qualitative point-of-care (POC) test for urine Ethyl glucuronide (uEtG), assessed concordance between uEtG and alcohol use disorders identification test-consumption (AUDIT-C), and identified epidemiological factors associated with underreporting (defined as uEtG-positivity with last reported drink > 7 days prior). Among 211 participants (40.8% women), there were 44 (20.8%) lifetime abstainers, 32 (15.2%) former drinkers, and 135 (64...
January 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Van Long Nguyen, Phillip Paull, Paul S Haber, Kate Chitty, Devanshi Seth
Currently available markers and methods to evaluate alcohol consumption are indirect and suboptimal, or rely on self-report, which have inherent problems. Direct metabolites of alcohol, phosphatidylethanol (PEth), ethyl sulfate (EtS), and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), are known to improve diagnostic accuracy. In this study, methods were established for the identification of PEth in erythrocytes and EtG and EtS in serum using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The three biomarkers were tested and validated in volunteer teetotalers (n = 4) and drinkers (n = 10), and applied in patients (n = 8) hospitalized with alcohol-related problems...
March 2018: Alcohol
Pablo Barrio, Lídia Teixidor, Lluisa Ortega, Anna Lligoña, Nayra Rico, José Luis Bedini, Eduard Vieta, Antoni Gual
BACKGROUND: Efforts aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm include early detection of risky drinkers as well as detection of early relapse in patients with alcohol dependence. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has been proven to be a reliable biomarker for the detection of recent drinking; however, no randomized, diagnostic trial to date has tested its impact on drinking outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess, in a randomized design, the implications of EtG screening on alcohol outcomes, compared to screening with a low sensitivity biomarker such as ethanol...
February 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Maria Dolores Gomez-Roig, Emilia Marchei, Sally Sabra, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Luisa Mastrobattista, Simona Pichini, Eduard Gratacós, Oscar Garcia-Algar
This study aimed to objectively verify smoking and drinking behavior during pregnancy and to disclose self-misreporting through maternal hair analysis. A total of 153 women attending a university hospital in Barcelona (Spain) were selected and interviewed after delivery, on their smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy. A 9-cm hair strand was collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as biomarkers of tobacco and alcohol consumption, respectively...
March 2018: Alcohol
A Salomone, A Bozzo, D Di Corcia, E Gerace, M Vincenti
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair are effective direct biomarkers of ethanol ingestion, whose analytical determination can be used to discriminate between chronic and occasional ethanol intake. Ethanol is a compound widely used in some workplaces (e.g., clinics, hospitals) and is present in considerable amounts in mouthwash for oral cleaning, medications, cosmetic products, hydro-alcoholic disinfectants and antiseptics for hands. This study examined the ethyl alcohol exposure derived from hand disinfectants (in gel form) by simulating the typical occupational situation of medical-health workers (healthcare workers, nurses, surgeons, etc...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Peter de Bruijn, Evelien J M Kuip, Mei-Ho Lam, Ron H J Mathijssen, Stijn L W Koolen
The aim of this study was to develop an assay for the quantification of hydromorphone, morphine, fentanyl and the metabolites norfentanyl, morphine-3ß-glucuronide and morphine-6ß-glucuronide in human plasma to support pharmacokinetic studies investigating the large interpatient variability in response to opioid treatment. For the quantitation of hydromorphone, morphine, fentanyl and its metabolite norfentanyl aliquots of 200μL human potassium EDTA plasma were deproteinized with deuterated internal standards in a mixture of acetonitrile and acetone, followed by a liquid-liquid extraction with 4% ammonium hydroxide and ethyl acetate...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
E Alladio, L Giacomelli, G Biosa, D Di Corcia, E Gerace, A Salomone, M Vincenti
The chronic intake of an excessive amount of alcohol is currently ascertained by determining the concentration of direct alcohol metabolites in the hair samples of the alleged abusers, including ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and, less frequently, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). Indirect blood biomarkers of alcohol abuse are still determined to support hair EtG results and diagnose a consequent liver impairment. In the present study, the supporting role of hair FAEEs is compared with indirect blood biomarkers with respect to the contexts in which hair EtG interpretation is uncertain...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
Emily Leickly, Jordan Skalisky, Oladunni Oluwoye, Sterling M McPherson, Debra Srebnik, John M Roll, Richard K Ries, Michael G McDonell
BACKGROUND: Adults experiencing homelessness and serious mental illnesses (SMI) are at an increased risk of poor mental health and treatment outcomes compared with stably housed adults with SMI. The additional issue of alcohol misuse further complicates the difficulties of those living with homelessness and SMI. In this secondary data analysis, the authors investigated the impact of homelessness on attrition and alcohol use in a contingency management (CM) intervention that rewarded alcohol abstinence in outpatients with SMI...
November 21, 2017: Substance Abuse
Anna Laura Santunione, Patrizia Verri, Filippo Marchesi, Cecilia Rustichelli, Federica Palazzoli, Daniele Vandelli, Manuela Licata, Enrico Silingardi
Ethanol determination in postmortem blood is one of the most frequently requested analyses in legal medicine and forensic toxicology. Ethyl glucuronide is a non-oxidative ethanol metabolite. It is also a useful marker of ante-mortem alcohol ingestion when ethanol itself has been completely eliminated from the body and could be considered in autopsy cases to obtain more reliable indications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ethyl glucuronide distribution in postmortem specimens from autopsy cases found to be positive for ethanol...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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