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Ethyl glucuronide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098942/biomarkers-for-the-detection-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Heidi Bager, Lars Porskjaer Christensen, Steffen Husby, Lene Bjerregaard
Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)...
January 18, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095285/urine-levels-of-phthalate-metabolites-and-bisphenol-a-in-relation-to-main-metabolic-syndrome-components-dyslipidemia-hypertension-and-type-2-diabetes-a-pilot-study
#2
Roman Piecha, Štěpán Svačina, Marek Malý, Karel Vrbík, Zdenka Lacinová, Martin Haluzík, Jana Pavloušková, Adam Vavrouš, Dagmar Matějková, Dana Müllerová, Miloš Mráz, Martin Matoulek
AIM: Human exposure to organic pollutants (some of them also called endocrine disruptors) can be associated with adverse metabolic health outcomes including type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to compare the urine levels of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites in subgroups of patients with metabolic syndrome composed of patients with and without three important components of metabolic syndrome (hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes). METHODS: We have investigated 24 hr urine samples of 168 patients with metabolic syndrome from the Metabolic Outpatient Department of General University Hospital in Prague...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063329/determination-of-ethyl-glucuronide-in-human-hair-samples-a-multivariate-analysis-of-the-impact-of-extraction-conditions-on-quantitative-results
#3
Alexander Mueller, Hilke Jungen, Stefanie Iwersen-Bergmann, Lars Raduenz, Susanne Lezius, Hilke Andresen-Streichert
BACKGROUND: Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol, is used as a direct alcohol biomarker for the prolonged detection of ethanol consumption. Hair testing for EtG offers retrospective, long-term detection of ethanol exposition for several months and has gained practical importance in forensic and clinical toxicology. Since quantitative results of EtG hair testings are included in interpretations, a rugged quantitation of EtG in hair matrix is important. As generally known, sample preparation is critical in hair testing, and the scope of this study was on extraction of EtG from hair matrix...
December 19, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056375/evaluation-of-direct-and-indirect-ethanol-biomarkers-using-a-likelihood-ratio-approach-to-identify-chronic-alcohol-abusers-for-forensic-purposes
#4
Eugenio Alladio, Agnieszka Martyna, Alberto Salomone, Valentina Pirro, Marco Vincenti, Grzegorz Zadora
The detection of direct ethanol metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), in scalp hair is considered the optimal strategy to effectively recognize chronic alcohol misuses by means of specific cut-offs suggested by the Society of Hair Testing. However, several factors (e.g. hair treatments) may alter the correlation between alcohol intake and biomarkers concentrations, possibly introducing bias in the interpretative process and conclusions. 125 subjects with various drinking habits were subjected to blood and hair sampling to determine indirect (e...
December 21, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054395/inhalation-of-alcohol-vapor-measurement-and-implications
#5
REVIEW
Robert Ross MacLean, Gerald W Valentine, Peter I Jatlow, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Decades of alcohol research have established the health risks and pharmacodynamic profile of oral alcohol consumption. Despite isolated periods of public health concern, comparatively less research has evaluated exposure to alcohol vapor. Inhaled alcohol initially bypasses first-pass metabolism and rapidly reaches the arterial circulation and the brain, suggesting that this route of administration may be associated with pharmacological effects that increase the risk of addiction. However, detailed reviews assessing the possible effects of inhaled alcohol in humans are lacking...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024169/evaluation-of-kims-immunoassays-on-a-cobas-c-501-analyzer-for-drugs-of-abuse-and-ethyl-glucuronide-testing-in-urine-for-forensic-abstinence-control
#6
Merja A Neukamm, Arsham Bahrami, Volker Auwärter, Felix M P Mehne, Eva Höss
For the medico-psychological assessment (MPA) during driving license re-granting in Germany, abstinence control including urine samples is required. In these programs, even small amounts of markers for drug or alcohol abuse have to be detected. Thus, the concentrations of the target compounds are very low, and, in consequence, the sensitivity of the applied screening method has to be much higher than for clinical use. Modified drugs of abuse and ethyl glucuronide immunoassays on a Roche cobas c 501 analyzer were evaluated for precision, accuracy, onboard calibration stability, cross reactivity, sensitivity and specificity using authentic urine samples...
December 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998921/the-performance-of-alcohol-markers-including-ethyl-glucuronide-and-ethyl-sulphate-to-detect-alcohol-use-in-clients-in-a-community-alcohol-treatment-programme
#7
Jane M Armer, Lihini Gunawardana, Rebecca L Allcock
AIMS: The ethanol metabolites ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) are detectable for longer in urine than breath ethanol or urine ethanol after alcohol intake. This study compared the performance of breath ethanol, urine ethanol, urine EtG and EtS to detect alcohol consumption in clients in community alcohol treatment. METHODS: Clients attending the community alcohol treatment programme were asked to provide an alcohol diary, breathalyser test and urine for ethanol, EtG and EtS measurement (n = 42)...
January 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920527/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-dts-108-a-human-oligopeptide-bound-to-sn-38-with-an-esterase-sensitive-cross-linker-in-patients-with-advanced-malignancies-a-phase-i-study
#8
Romain Coriat, Sandrine J Faivre, Olivier Mir, Chantal Dreyer, Stanislas Ropert, Mohammed Bouattour, Robert Desjardins, François Goldwasser, Eric Raymond
BACKGROUND: DTS-108 is a hydrosoluble prodrug, where the SN-38 moiety is covalently linked to a 20-amino acid vector peptide by a specific esterase-sensitive cross-linker, releasing 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycampthotecin (SN-38) by esterase bond cleavage. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of DTS-108, adverse events graded according to NCI-CTCv3.1, dose-limiting toxicities at cycle 1, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and the recommended Phase II dose (RP2D) of intravenous DTS-108 (1-2 hours) every 2 weeks were evaluated in a first-in-human Phase I study in patients with advanced/metastatic carcinomas, according to an accelerated dose escalation design...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888306/a-simple-analytical-method-of-determining%C3%A2-1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide-in-human-urine-by-isotope-dilution-with-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#9
Mingxin Li, Qian Wang, Jing Zhu, Nana Li, Xiaoli Zou
The glucuronide conjugate of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP-G) is a sensitive and reliable index biomarker for assessing low exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A simple method for determining 1-OHP-G in human urine with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was established and applied to evaluate the exposure level of PAHs of pregnant women in a large sample size. After the urine sample was extracted with ethyl acetate, 0.2 mL of the aqueous phase was diluted to 1...
November 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813358/alcohol-use-disorders-in-australia
#10
C H Freyer, K C Morley, P S Haber
Alcohol use disorders are common in Australia and are often unrecognised. Alcohol places a significant burden on our healthcare system by increasing the risk of injuries as well as many chronic medical conditions. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and can be aided by the use of specific questionnaires, such as the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-C. The current available laboratory tests are of limited sensitivity and specificity, but can nevertheless aid in the diagnosis in some circumstances...
November 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798076/etg-and-ets-in-autopsy-blood-samples-with-and-without-putrefaction-using-uplc-ms-ms
#11
Solfrid Hegstad, Lena Kristoffersen, Veronica H Liane, Olav Spigset
Analytical challenges related to postmortem specimens are well known. The degree of putrefaction of the corpse will influence the quality of the blood samples, and both the efficiency of sample preparation and the subsequent chromatographic performance can be affected. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in postmortem whole blood. Sample preparation prior to UPLC-MS-MS analysis consisted of protein precipitation and filtration through a phospholipid removal plate...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797711/influence-of-body-mass-index-on-hair-ethyl-glucuronide-concentrations
#12
Cleo L Crunelle, Hugo Neels, Kristof Maudens, Mireille De Doncker, Delphine Cappelle, Frieda Matthys, Geert Dom, Erik Fransen, Peter Michielsen, Steven De Keukeleire, Adrian Covaci, Michel Yegles
AIM: Analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations in hair is increasingly used to estimate the consumption of alcohol of the prior months. Linear correlations between the amount of alcohol consumed and the concentration of EtG in hair have been reported, and several variables that may influence this correlation have been investigated: e.g. cosmetic hair treatments, gender influences or hair color. Here, we investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on this correlation. METHODS: A post hoc analysis on the influence of BMI on the relation between amounts of alcohol consumed and the measured EtG concentrations in hair in 199 participants...
January 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714979/nonoxidative-ethanol-metabolism-in-humans-from-biomarkers-to-bioactive-lipids
#13
REVIEW
Christoph Heier, Hao Xie, Robert Zimmermann
Ethanol is a widely used psychoactive drug whose chronic abuse is associated with organ dysfunction and disease. Although the prevalent metabolic fate of ethanol in the human body is oxidation a smaller fraction undergoes nonoxidative metabolism yielding ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolites persist in tissues and body fluids for much longer than ethanol itself and represent biomarkers for the assessment of ethanol intake in clinical and forensic settings...
December 2016: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696467/determination-of-ethyl-glucuronide-and-fatty-acid-ethyl-esters-in-hair-samples
#14
David Oppolzer, Mário Barroso, Luís Passarinha, Eugenia Gallardo
Hair testing for alcohol biomarkers is an important tool for monitoring alcohol consumption. We propose two methods for assessing alcohol exposure through combined analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) species (ethyl myristate, palmitate, stearate and oleate) in hair (30 mg). EtG was analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while FAEEs were analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using electron impact ionization. Both methods were validated according to internationally accepted guidelines...
September 30, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681344/evaluation-of-ethyl-glucuronide-and-ethyl-sulfate-in-calliphora-vicina-as-potential-biomarkers-for-ethanol-intake
#15
Simonetta Lambiase, Angelo Groppi, Denise Gemmellaro, Luca Morini
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are specific and sensitive biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute or chronic alcohol abuse. Due to postmortem alcohol production in biological tissues, they have recently been evaluated as potential biomarkers of ethanol ingestion. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate all developmental stages of the fly Calliphora vicina L. (Calliphoridae). Different pig substrates were used during the in vitro experiments to rear C. vicina Experiments were performed to: (i) assess the presence of EtG and EtS in larvae, pupae and insects; (ii) study variability due to the substrates characteristics; (iii) evaluate the possibility of false positives due to external alcohol contamination; and (iv) estimate the potential metabolism of ethanol by the insects...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671107/detection-of-the-designer-benzodiazepine-metizolam-in-urine-and-preliminary-data-on-its-metabolism
#16
Pascal Kintz, Camille Richeval, Carole Jamey, Alice Ameline, Delphine Allorge, Jean-Michel Gaulier, Jean-Sébastien Raul
Designer benzodiazepines provide an attractive alternative to prescribed benzodiazepines for abuse purposes as they are readily available via the Internet without control. Metizolam was ordered via the Internet and a 2 mg blue tablet was orally administered to a 54-year-old man. Urine samples were collected over 6 days in polypropylene tubes. After liquid/liquid extraction at pH 9.5, metizolam was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) using a standard method devoted to benzodiazepines, and ions transitions, at m/z 328...
September 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632782/application-of-an-assay-for-4-methylnitrosamino-1-3-pyridyl-1-butanol-nnal-in-urine-for-the-assessment-of-tobacco-related-harm
#17
Wenying Lu, Stuart G Ferguson, David S Nichols, Rahul Patel, Glenn A Jacobson
BACKGROUND: The tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), is formed from nicotine and related compounds during tobacco curing and is classified as a human carcinogen. Its major metabolite, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), is thought to be useful in the assessment of cigarette smoking harm minimisation strategies. METHODOLOGY: Urine samples were collected from 24 current Caucasian smokers participating in a smoking cessation study; before and four weeks after a quit attempt...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596747/phosphatidylethanol-peth-detected-in-blood-for-3-to-12%C3%A2-days-after-single-consumption-of-alcohol-a-drinking-study-with-16-volunteers
#18
Alexandra Schröck, Annette Thierauf-Emberger, Stefan Schürch, Wolfgang Weinmann
In most studies, the alcohol marker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) was used to differentiate social drinking from alcohol abuse. This study investigates PEth's potential in abstinence monitoring by performing a drinking study to assess the detection window of PEth after ingesting a defined amount of alcohol. After 2 weeks of abstinence, 16 volunteers ingested a single dose of alcohol, leading to an estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 1 g/kg. In the week after drinking, blood and urine samples were taken daily; in the second week, samples were taken every other day...
January 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588338/alcohol-caffeine-and-nicotine-consumption-in-adolescents-hair-analysis-versus-self-report
#19
Elisabetta Bertol, Fabio Vaiano, Rafael Boscolo-Berto, Alessia Fioravanti, Diego Palumbo, Valeria Catalani, Francesco Mari, Valentino Patussi, Giovanni Serpelloni
BACKGROUND: Clinical reliability of self-reported data for alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine consumptions is lacking, particularly in adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To compare a self-report questionnaire and hair analysis to assess the reliability and effectiveness of the self-report. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 14-15-year-old Italian students (n = 874, 38% males, 62% females) was performed comparing self-reported data to hair analysis. The latter quantified hair concentrations of caffeine, nicotine, cotinine, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) using mass spectrometry...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565755/did-you-drink-alcohol-during-pregnancy-inaccuracy-and-discontinuity-of-women-s-self-reports-on-the-way-to-establish-meconium-ethyl-glucuronide-etg-as-a-biomarker-for-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy
#20
Anna Eichler, Juliane Grunitz, Jennifer Grimm, Lisa Walz, Eva Raabe, Tamme W Goecke, Matthias W Beckmann, Oliver Kratz, Hartmut Heinrich, Gunther H Moll, Peter A Fasching, Johannes Kornhuber
Consuming alcohol during pregnancy is one of the most verified prenatal risk factors for impaired child development. Information about the amount of alcohol consumed prenatally is needed to anticipate negative effects and to offer timely support. Women's self-reports are not reliable, often influenced by social stigmas and retrospective recall bias, causing biomarkers of intrauterine ethanol exposure to become more and more relevant. The present study compares both women's gestational and retrospective self-reports of prenatal alcohol consumption with levels of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium...
August 2016: Alcohol
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