Read by QxMD icon Read

Ethyl glucuronide

Michael F Orr, Crystal Lederhos Smith, Myles Finlay, Samantha C Martin, Olivia Brooks, Oladunni A Oluwoye, Emily Leickly, Michael McDonell, Ekaterina Burduli, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Matt Layton, John M Roll, Sterling M McPherson
Contingency management (CM) is associated with decreases in off-target drug and alcohol use during primary target treatment. The primary hypothesis for this trial was that targeting alcohol use or tobacco smoking would yield increased abstinence in the opposite, nontargeted drug. We used a 2 [CM vs. noncontingent control (NC) for alcohol]×2 (CM vs. NC for smoking tobacco) factorial design, with alcohol intake (through urinary ethyl glucuronide) and tobacco smoking (through urinary cotinine) as the primary outcomes...
March 20, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Philip A May, Julie M Hasken, Marlene M De Vries, Anna-Susan Marais, Julie M Stegall, Daniel Marsden, Charles D H Parry, Soraya Seedat, Barbara Tabachnick
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is reported accurately among pregnant women in some populations. METHODS: Self-reported alcohol use via the AUDIT and 90-day recall for 193 women from antenatal clinics was compared to biomarker results: phosphatidylethanol (PEth) from bloodspots and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in fingernails. RESULTS: AUDIT was positive for 67.9% of respondents, and 65.3% directly reported drinking. Individual biomarkers detected less drinking (PEth = 57...
February 6, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Yuming Liu, Xinyu Zhang, Jiaolun Li, Zhibin Huang, Zebin Lin, Jingru Wang, Chengqiang Zhang, Yulan Rao
Background: The lack of systematic studies on the stability of ethanol's non-oxidative metabolites in postmortem specimens restricts their use in forensic cases. This study aimed to compare the stability of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate (EtS), phosphatidylethanols (PEths) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in postmortem human blood. Method: Three groups were established based on the level and source of ethanol: the blank group, the ethanol-spiked group and the ethanol-positive group...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Yang Hu, Wenwen Zhu, Yeli Guan, Sanlan Wu, Xiaoyin Zhang, Gao Li, Luqin Si, Jiangeng Huang
A rapid, robust and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for bioanalysis of TJ0711, a novel vasodilatory β-blocker in dog plasma. This assay is able to chromatographically separate TJ0711 from its isobaric metabolite as well as glucuronide conjugates. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Welch Ultimate-XB C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 3 μm). The analyte and internal standard (IS, propranolol) were extracted from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate...
January 22, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Gil Leurquin-Sterk, Jenny Ceccarini, Cleo L Crunelle, Bart de Laat, Jef Verbeek, Stephanie Deman, Hugo Neels, Guy Bormans, Hendrik Peuskens, Koen Van Laere
Animal studies suggest an important role for the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence, but direct human evidence is lacking. The goal of this study was to investigate cerebral mGlu5 availability in alcohol-dependent patients versus controls using 18F-FPEB positron emission tomography. Methods: Dynamic 90 minute 18F-FPEB scans combined with arterial blood sampling were acquired in 16 recently abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 32 age-matched controls...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Michael J Vinikoor, Zude Zyambo, Monde Muyoyeta, Geetanjali Chander, Michael S Saag, Karen Cropsey
In an HIV-hepatitis B virus (HIV-HBV) coinfection cohort in Zambia, we piloted a qualitative point-of-care (POC) test for urine Ethyl glucuronide (uEtG), assessed concordance between uEtG and alcohol use disorders identification test-consumption (AUDIT-C), and identified epidemiological factors associated with underreporting (defined as uEtG-positivity with last reported drink > 7 days prior). Among 211 participants (40.8% women), there were 44 (20.8%) lifetime abstainers, 32 (15.2%) former drinkers, and 135 (64...
January 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Van Long Nguyen, Phillip Paull, Paul S Haber, Kate Chitty, Devanshi Seth
Currently available markers and methods to evaluate alcohol consumption are indirect and suboptimal, or rely on self-report, which have inherent problems. Direct metabolites of alcohol, phosphatidylethanol (PEth), ethyl sulfate (EtS), and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), are known to improve diagnostic accuracy. In this study, methods were established for the identification of PEth in erythrocytes and EtG and EtS in serum using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The three biomarkers were tested and validated in volunteer teetotalers (n = 4) and drinkers (n = 10), and applied in patients (n = 8) hospitalized with alcohol-related problems...
August 31, 2017: Alcohol
Pablo Barrio, Lídia Teixidor, Lluisa Ortega, Anna Lligoña, Nayra Rico, José Luis Bedini, Eduard Vieta, Antoni Gual
BACKGROUND: Efforts aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm include early detection of risky drinkers as well as detection of early relapse in patients with alcohol dependence. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has been proven to be a reliable biomarker for the detection of recent drinking; however, no randomized, diagnostic trial to date has tested its impact on drinking outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess, in a randomized design, the implications of EtG screening on alcohol outcomes, compared to screening with a low sensitivity biomarker such as ethanol...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Maria Dolores Gomez-Roig, Emilia Marchei, Sally Sabra, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Luisa Mastrobattista, Simona Pichini, Eduard Gratacós, Oscar Garcia-Algar
This study aimed to objectively verify smoking and drinking behavior during pregnancy and to disclose self-misreporting through maternal hair analysis. A total of 153 women attending a university hospital in Barcelona (Spain) were selected and interviewed after delivery, on their smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy. A 9-cm hair strand was collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as biomarkers of tobacco and alcohol consumption, respectively...
August 31, 2017: Alcohol
A Salomone, A Bozzo, D Di Corcia, E Gerace, M Vincenti
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair are effective direct biomarkers of ethanol ingestion, whose analytical determination can be used to discriminate between chronic and occasional ethanol intake. Ethanol is a compound widely used in some workplaces (e.g., clinics, hospitals) and is present in considerable amounts in mouthwash for oral cleaning, medications, cosmetic products, hydro-alcoholic disinfectants and antiseptics for hands. This study examined the ethyl alcohol exposure derived from hand disinfectants (in gel form) by simulating the typical occupational situation of medical-health workers (healthcare workers, nurses, surgeons, etc...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Peter de Bruijn, Evelien J M Kuip, Mei-Ho Lam, Ron H J Mathijssen, Stijn L W Koolen
The aim of this study was to develop an assay for the quantification of hydromorphone, morphine, fentanyl and the metabolites norfentanyl, morphine-3ß-glucuronide and morphine-6ß-glucuronide in human plasma to support pharmacokinetic studies investigating the large interpatient variability in response to opioid treatment. For the quantitation of hydromorphone, morphine, fentanyl and its metabolite norfentanyl aliquots of 200μL human potassium EDTA plasma were deproteinized with deuterated internal standards in a mixture of acetonitrile and acetone, followed by a liquid-liquid extraction with 4% ammonium hydroxide and ethyl acetate...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
E Alladio, L Giacomelli, G Biosa, D Di Corcia, E Gerace, A Salomone, M Vincenti
The chronic intake of an excessive amount of alcohol is currently ascertained by determining the concentration of direct alcohol metabolites in the hair samples of the alleged abusers, including ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and, less frequently, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). Indirect blood biomarkers of alcohol abuse are still determined to support hair EtG results and diagnose a consequent liver impairment. In the present study, the supporting role of hair FAEEs is compared with indirect blood biomarkers with respect to the contexts in which hair EtG interpretation is uncertain...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
Emily Leickly, Jordan Skalisky, Oladunni Oluwoye, Sterling M McPherson, Debra Srebnik, John M Roll, Richard K Ries, Michael G McDonell
BACKGROUND: Adults experiencing homelessness and serious mental illnesses (SMI) are at an increased risk of poor mental health and treatment outcomes compared with stably housed adults with SMI. The additional issue of alcohol misuse further complicates the difficulties of those living with homelessness and SMI. In this secondary data analysis, the authors investigated the impact of homelessness on attrition and alcohol use in a contingency management (CM) intervention that rewarded alcohol abstinence in outpatients with SMI...
November 21, 2017: Substance Abuse
Anna Laura Santunione, Patrizia Verri, Filippo Marchesi, Cecilia Rustichelli, Federica Palazzoli, Daniele Vandelli, Manuela Licata, Enrico Silingardi
Ethanol determination in postmortem blood is one of the most frequently requested analyses in legal medicine and forensic toxicology. Ethyl glucuronide is a non-oxidative ethanol metabolite. It is also a useful marker of ante-mortem alcohol ingestion when ethanol itself has been completely eliminated from the body and could be considered in autopsy cases to obtain more reliable indications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ethyl glucuronide distribution in postmortem specimens from autopsy cases found to be positive for ethanol...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Torsten Arndt, Hubert C Buschmann, Katja Schulz, Karsten Stemmerich
BACKGROUND: Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine is considered a marker of recent ethanol consumption or ethanol exposition. tert-Butanol is primarily used as a solvent and intermediate chemical. Like tert-amyl alcohol, tert-butanol is discussed in Internet forums as ethanol replacement. We discuss false-positive immunological EtG screenings by excretion of different alcohol glucuronides (EtG homologs), mainly tert-butyl glucuronide in urine of a polytoxikomanic in-patient. METHODS: Three consecutive urine samples from an in-patient with a long history of multiple substance abuse including solvents were analyzed by DRI EtG enzyme immunoassay (ThermoFisher Scientific Microgenics) on a Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzer, an in-house LC-MS/MS for EtG, 1-propyl, 2-propyl, 1-butyl, 2-butyl, and tert-butyl glucuronide, and an in-house headspace GC-FID of free congener substances methanol, 1-propanol, 2-butanone, 2-butanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and additionally for ethanol, acetone, 2-propanol, tert-butanol and 2-methyl-2-butanol...
December 2017: Forensic Science International
David Kinnamon, Ramesh Ghanta, Kai-Chun Lin, Sriram Muthukumar, Shalini Prasad
A non-faradaic label-free cortisol biosensor was demonstrated using MoS2 nanosheets integrated into a nanoporous flexible electrode system. Low volume (1-5 μL) sensing was achieved through use of a novel sensor stack design comprised of vertically aligned metal electrodes confining semi-conductive MoS2 nanosheets. The MoS2 nanosheets were surface functionalized with cortisol antibodies towards developing an affinity biosensor specific to the physiological relevant range of cortisol (8.16 to 141.7 ng/mL) in perspired human sweat...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ulf Meier, Thomas Briellmann, Eva Scheurer, Franz Dussy
Often in hair analysis, a small hair sample is available while the analysis of a multitude of structurally diverse substances with different concentration ranges is demanded. The analysis of the different substances often requires different sample preparation methods, increasing the amount of required hair sample. When segmental hair analysis is necessary, the amount of hair sample needed is further increased. Therefore, the required sample amount for a full analysis can quickly exceed what is available. To combat this problem, a method for the combined hair sample preparation using a single extraction procedure for analysis of ethyl glucuronide with liquid chromatography-multistage fragmentation mass spectrometry/multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MS3 /MRM) and common drugs of abuse with LC-MRM was developed...
October 9, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Mateusz K Woźniak, Marek Wiergowski, Jacek Namieśnik, Marek Biziuk
Ethyl alcohol is the most popular legal drug, but its excessive consumption causes social problems. Despite many public campaigns against alcohol use, car accidents, instances of aggressive behaviour, sexual assaults and deterioration in labor productivity caused by inebriated people is still commonplace. Fast and easy diagnosis of alcohol consumption is required in order to introduce proper and effective therapy, and is crucial in forensic toxicology analysis. The easiest method to prove alcohol intake is determination of ethanol in body fluids or in breath...
October 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
David Kinnamon, Sriram Muthukumar, Anjan Panneer Selvam, Shalini Prasad
Chronic alcohol consumption is a significant financial and physical burden in the United States each year. Alcohol consumption monitors focus on establishing a state of intoxication, not assessing a user's health risks as a function of consumed alcohol. This work demonstrates a biosensor for a chronic alcohol consumption monitor through the electrochemical detection of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in human sweat using square-wave voltammetry (SWV). A novel affinity assay was demonstrated in which monoclonal antibodies were chemically coabsorbed onto a gold electrode surface in parallel with thiolated charge transfer molecule...
September 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
Eva Cuypers, Robert J Flanagan
INTRODUCTION: Head hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites has been used widely with the aim of detecting exposure in the weeks or months prior to sample collection. However, inappropriate interpretation of results has likely led to serious miscarriages of justice, especially in child custody cases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to assess critically what can, and perhaps more importantly, what cannot be claimed as regards the interpretation of hair test results in a given set of circumstances in order to inform future testing...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"