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Bile acid malabsorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730732/mechanisms-underlying-the-weight-loss-effects-of-rygb-and-sg-similar-yet-different
#1
REVIEW
A Pucci, R L Batterham
The worldwide obesity epidemic continues unabated, adversely impacting upon global health and economies. People with severe obesity suffer the greatest adverse health consequences with reduced life expectancy. Currently, bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for people with severe obesity, resulting in marked sustained weight loss, improved obesity-associated comorbidities and reduced mortality. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), the most common bariatric procedures undertaken globally, engender weight loss and metabolic improvements by mechanisms other than restriction and malabsorption...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713027/evaluation-of-chronic-diarrhea-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-in-adults-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Lawrence R Schiller
Chronic diarrhea is a common clinical problem, affecting roughly 5% of the population in any given year. Evaluation and management of these patients can be difficult due to the extensive differential diagnosis of this symptom. Many patients with chronic diarrhea have structural problems, such as inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease, that can be readily identified. Others do not, and often are given a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D). When based on generally accepted clinical criteria, a diagnosis of IBS-D identifies a group of patients who are unlikely to have disorders producing anatomical changes in the gut...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704003/pilot-study-with-ibat-inhibitor-a4250-for-the-treatment-of-cholestatic-pruritus-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#3
Samer Al-Dury, Annika Wahlström, Staffan Wahlin, Jacqueline Langedijk, Ronald Oude Elferink, Marcus Ståhlman, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
Pruritus is a common complication of cholestatic liver diseases. Inhibition of the ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT/ASBT) may emerge as treatment option. Our aim was to assess tolerability and effect on pruritus of the selective IBAT inhibitor A4250 in patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Ten patients with PBC and bile acid sequestrant treatment of cholestatic pruritus were after a two-week wash out of the bile acid sequestrant treated with either 0.75 mg (n = 4) or 1.5 mg (n = 5) of A4250 for four weeks...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589108/chronic-diarrhoea-following-surgery-for-colon-cancer-frequency-causes-and-treatment-options
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan Yde, Helene M Larsen, Søren Laurberg, Klaus Krogh, Hanne B Moeller
PURPOSE: The growing population of survivors after colon cancer warrants increased attention to the long-term outcome of surgical treatment. The change in bowel anatomy after resection disrupts normal gastrointestinal function and may cause symptoms. Thus, many patients surviving colon cancer have to cope with bowel dysfunction for the rest of their lives. We here aim to provide an overview of the literature on this topic. METHODS: We review long-term functional outcomes of surgical treatment for colon cancer, the underlying pathology, and treatment options...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588835/challenging-current-views-on-bile-acid-diarrhoea-and-malabsorption
#5
REVIEW
Matthew Kurien, Elizabeth Thurgar, Ashley Davies, Ron Akehurst, Jervoise Andreyev
Background: In 2012, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) assessed guidance (DG7) on the use of tauroselcholic (75 selenium) acid (also known as SeHCAT) for the investigation of diarrhoea due to bile acid malabsorption (BAM) in patients with IBS-D and in patients with Crohn's disease who have not had an ileal resection. NICE concluded that tauroselcholic (75 selenium) acid was recommended for use in research only. NICE will be reviewing the decision to update the guidance for tauroselcholic (75 selenium) acid, for these populations, in March 2017...
April 2018: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582208/update-on-bile-acid-malabsorption-finally-ready-for-prime-time
#6
REVIEW
Priya Vijayvargiya, Michael Camilleri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the prevalence, pathophysiology, disease associations, and treatment options for bile acid malabsorption (BAM). RECENT FINDINGS: •Molecular mechanisms-BAs prevent water reabsorption and increase water secretion by intracellular mediators, increasing aquaporin channels and intracellular permeability. •Inflammatory bowel disease-new molecular mechanisms of BAM are identified in patients without ileal disease, including changes in expression of ileal BA transporter and nuclear receptors involved in BA homeostasis...
March 26, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522553/association-between-chronic-pancreatitis-and-urolithiasis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Chien-Hua Chen, Cheng-Li Lin, Long-Bin Jeng
PURPOSE: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) can cause fat or bile acid malabsorption due to exocrine insufficiency. Fat or bile acid malabsorption has been reported to increase the risk of urolithiasis through increased intestinal oxalate absorption. However, no studies have reported an association between CP and urolithiasis. METHODS: We identified 15,848 patients (age: ≥20 years) diagnosed as having CP between 2000 and 2010 from the National Health Insurance Research Database as the study cohort...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464583/intestinal-involvement-in-systemic-sclerosis-a-clinical-review
#8
REVIEW
Lazaros I Sakkas, Theodora Simopoulou, Dimitrios Daoussis, Stamatis-Nick Liossis, Spyros Potamianos
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic systemic disease characterized by microvasculopathy, autoantibodies, and extensive fibrosis. Intestinal involvement is frequent in SSc and represents a significant cause of morbidity. The pathogenesis of intestinal involvement includes vascular damage, nerve dysfunction, smooth muscle atrophy, and fibrosis, causing hypomotility, which leads to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), malabsorption, malnutrition, diarrhea, pseudo-obstruction, constipation, pneumatosis intestinalis, and fecal incontinence...
April 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457048/farnesoid-x-receptor-expression-in-microscopic-colitis-a-potential-role-in-disease-etiopathogenesis
#9
Joana Torres, Carolina Palmela, Pedro Gomes de Sena, Maria Pia Costa Santos, Catarina Gouveia, Maria Helena Oliveira, Ana Raquel Henriques, Cecília Rodrigues, Marília Cravo, Paula Borralho
Introduction: Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unclear etiology. Bile acid (BA) malabsorption has been described in MC patients. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is the main BA receptor; FXR-mediated mechanisms prevent the noxious effects of BA accumulation, preserving the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier and preventing intestinal inflammation. Aim: Our aim was to describe the expression of FXR in patients with MC. Methods: Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from the terminal ileum, right and left colon were obtained from patients with MC and matched controls...
January 2018: GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368342/long-term-effect-of-medical-treatment-of-diarrhoea-in-377-patients-with-sehcat-scan-diagnosed-bile-acid-malabsorption-from-2003-to-2016-a-retrospective-study
#10
B Damsgaard, H R Dalby, K Krogh, S M D Jørgensen, A K Arveschough, J Agnholt, J F Dahlerup, S P Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Excessive amounts of bile acids entering the colon due to bile acid malabsorption cause chronic bile acid diarrhoea. Diagnosis is possible by measuring the retention fraction of orally ingested 75 Selenium homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT). The knowledge of long-term effects of medical treatment is sparse. AIM: To describe diarrhoea, adherence to treatment, treatment effects and quality of life in a large, well-defined cohort of patients with bile acid diarrhoea...
April 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080342/cross-talk-between-bile-acids-and-gastro-intestinal-and-thermogenic-hormones-clues-from-bariatric-surgery
#11
Gabriella Garruti, Agostino Di Ciaula, Helen H Wang, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
Obesity is rapidly increasing and has reached epidemic features worldwide. It´s linked to insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation and common pathogenic pathways with a number of comorbidities (including cancer), leading to high mortality rates. Besides change of lifestyles (diet and physical exercise) and pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery is able to rapidly improve several metabolic and morphologic features associated with excessive fat storage, and currently represents an in vivo model to study the pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and obesity-related complications...
November 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051033/description-of-analytical-method-and-clinical-utility-of-measuring-serum-7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one-7ac4-by-mass-spectrometry
#12
Leslie J Donato, Alan Lueke, Stacy M Kenyon, Jeffrey W Meeusen, Michael Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Imbalance of bile acids (BA) homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract can lead to chronic diarrhea or constipation when BA in the colon are in excess or low, respectively. Since both disturbances of bowel function can result from other etiologies, identifying BA imbalance is important to tailor treatment strategies. Serum concentrations of 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7aC4), a precursor in bile acid synthesis, reflect BA homeostasis. Here we describe a method to accurately measure serum 7aC4 and evaluate the clinical utility in patients with diarrhea or constipation phenotypes...
February 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974589/the-efficacy-of-a-low-fat-diet-to-manage-the-symptoms-of-bile-acid-malabsorption-outcomes-in-patients-previously-treated-for-cancer
#13
Amy Jackson, Amyn Lalji, Mohammed Kabir, Ann Muls, Caroline Gee, Susan Vyoral, Clare Shaw, H Jervoise N Andreyev
Dietary fat ingestion triggers bile secretion into the gastrointestinal tract. Bile acid malabsorption affects >1% of the population, causing loose stool and other gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis is frequently missed. Treatments are often considered ineffective. We evaluated low-fat diets for managing gastrointestinal symptoms in these patients. All patients reporting type 6 or 7 stool were offered a selenium-75 homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) scan. Prospective data in patients with 7-day scan retention <20% were analysed...
October 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899465/-clinical-features-and-myo5b-mutations-of-a-family-affected-by-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#14
Ying Cheng, Hong Liang, Na-Li Cai, Li Guo, Yu-Ge Huang, Yuan-Zong Song
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the MYO5B or STX3 gene. Refractory diarrhea and malabsorption are the main clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and MYO5B gene mutations of an infant with MVID. A 21-day-old female infant was referred to the hospital with the complaint of diarrhea for 20 days. On physical examination, growth retardation of the body weight and length was found along with moderately jaundiced skin and sclera...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898457/organic-solute-transporter-%C3%AE-slc51b-deficiency-in-two-brothers-with-congenital-diarrhea-and-features-of-cholestasis
#15
Mutaz Sultan, Anuradha Rao, Orly Elpeleg, Frédéric M Vaz, Bassam Abu-Libdeh, Saul J Karpen, Paul A Dawson
Primary bile acid malabsorption is associated with congenital diarrhea, steatorrhea, and a block in the intestinal return of bile acids in the enterohepatic circulation. Mutations in the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2) can cause primary bile acid malabsorption but do not appear to account for most familial cases. Another major transporter involved in the intestinal reclamation of bile acids is the heteromeric organic solute transporter alpha-beta (OSTα-OSTβ; SLC51A-SLC51B), which exports bile acid across the basolateral membrane...
September 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894048/the-role-of-bile-acids-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bowel-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Magdalena Panek-Jeziorna, Agata Mulak
Bile acids not only play a cardinal role in the digestion and absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins, but also significantly affect gastrointestinal motor, sensory and secretory functions, intestinal barrier permeability and the regulation of the inflammatory response. The results of recent studies have revealed complex interactions between bile acids and the gut microbiota. In addition, bile acids also play a role of signaling molecules regulating the activity of lipid and glucose metabolic pathways, as well as a role of ligands for transcription factors...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872123/ileectomy-induced-bile-overaccumulation-in-mouse-intestine
#17
Rongli Zhang, Jonathan W Ray, Mukesh K Jain, Shuxin Han
Intestinal resection is a common therapeutic approach for human diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and colon cancer that often results in severe short bowel syndrome-like adverse effects including bile acid diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and nutrient malabsorption. Here we introduce a murine ileal resection model, termed ileectomy, to evaluate tissue communication and the maintenance of systemic homeostasis. After ileal resection, circulating blood is permanently devoid of the ileum-specific endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), which releases its endocrinal inhibition of bile acid synthesis in the liver...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828984/the-efficacy-and-potential-mechanisms-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
Zijuan Bi, Yu Zheng, Jianye Yuan, Zhaoxiang Bian
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional bowel disorders (FBD), which is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal bloating/distention associated with defecation or changed bowel habits. Currently, there is no evidence of obvious anatomic or physiologic abnormalities on the routine diagnostic examinations. There are multiple pathological factors involved in IBS responsible for its heterogeneous nature, although the exact etiology and pathology of IBS are not well known and it is disappointed to develop biomarkers for this disorder...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765690/diarrhea-after-bariatric-procedures-diagnosis-and-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Yves M Borbély, Alice Osterwalder, Dino Kröll, Philipp C Nett, Roman A Inglin
Diarrhea after bariatric procedures, mainly those with malabsorptive elements including Roux-Y Gastric Bypass and Biliopancreatic Diversion, is common and an essential determinant of quality of life and micro- and macronutrient deficiencies. Bariatric surgery is the only sustainably successful method to address morbid obesity and its comorbidities, particularly gaining more and more importance in the specific treatment of diabetic patients. Approximately half a million procedures are annually performed around the world, with numbers expected to rise drastically in the near future...
July 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739098/effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-energy-homeostasis
#20
REVIEW
Wei Li, Denis Richard
Bariatric surgery represents the most efficient therapy for severe obesity. It reduces the size of fat stores or the amount of body fat gain. The bariatric surgery procedures currently used include Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, which are the most commonly performed procedures. Other procedures are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and biliopancreatic diversion. The latter represents the most effective surgery for treatment of severe obesity as well as type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery reduces energy intake by restricting the size of the stomach reservoir and causing malabsorption, as in the case of biliopancreatic diversion...
August 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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