Read by QxMD icon Read

Bile acid malabsorption

Chien-Hua Chen, Cheng-Li Lin, Long-Bin Jeng
PURPOSE: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) can cause fat or bile acid malabsorption due to exocrine insufficiency. Fat or bile acid malabsorption has been reported to increase the risk of urolithiasis through increased intestinal oxalate absorption. However, no studies have reported an association between CP and urolithiasis. METHODS: We identified 15,848 patients (age: ≥20 years) diagnosed as having CP between 2000 and 2010 from the National Health Insurance Research Database as the study cohort...
2018: PloS One
Lazaros I Sakkas, Theodora Simopoulou, Dimitrios Daoussis, Stamatis-Nick Liossis, Spyros Potamianos
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic systemic disease characterized by microvasculopathy, autoantibodies, and extensive fibrosis. Intestinal involvement is frequent in SSc and represents a significant cause of morbidity. The pathogenesis of intestinal involvement includes vascular damage, nerve dysfunction, smooth muscle atrophy, and fibrosis, causing hypomotility, which leads to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), malabsorption, malnutrition, diarrhea, pseudo-obstruction, constipation, pneumatosis intestinalis, and fecal incontinence...
February 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Joana Torres, Carolina Palmela, Pedro Gomes de Sena, Maria Pia Costa Santos, Catarina Gouveia, Maria Helena Oliveira, Ana Raquel Henriques, Cecília Rodrigues, Marília Cravo, Paula Borralho
Introduction: Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unclear etiology. Bile acid (BA) malabsorption has been described in MC patients. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is the main BA receptor; FXR-mediated mechanisms prevent the noxious effects of BA accumulation, preserving the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier and preventing intestinal inflammation. Aim: Our aim was to describe the expression of FXR in patients with MC. Methods: Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from the terminal ileum, right and left colon were obtained from patients with MC and matched controls...
January 2018: GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology
B Damsgaard, H R Dalby, K Krogh, S M D Jørgensen, A K Arveschough, J Agnholt, J F Dahlerup, S P Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Excessive amounts of bile acids entering the colon due to bile acid malabsorption cause chronic bile acid diarrhoea. Diagnosis is possible by measuring the retention fraction of orally ingested 75 Selenium homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT). The knowledge of long-term effects of medical treatment is sparse. AIM: To describe diarrhoea, adherence to treatment, treatment effects and quality of life in a large, well-defined cohort of patients with bile acid diarrhoea...
January 24, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Gabriella Garruti, Agostino Di Ciaula, Helen H Wang, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
Obesity is rapidly increasing and has reached epidemic features worldwide. It´s linked to insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation and common pathogenic pathways with a number of comorbidities (including cancer), leading to high mortality rates. Besides change of lifestyles (diet and physical exercise) and pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery is able to rapidly improve several metabolic and morphologic features associated with excessive fat storage, and currently represents an in vivo model to study the pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and obesity-related complications...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
Leslie J Donato, Alan Lueke, Stacy M Kenyon, Jeffrey W Meeusen, Michael Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Imbalance of bile acids (BA) homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract can lead to chronic diarrhea or constipation when BA in the colon are in excess or low, respectively. Since both disturbances of bowel function can result from other etiologies, identifying BA imbalance is important to tailor treatment strategies. Serum concentrations of 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7aC4), a precursor in bile acid synthesis, reflect BA homeostasis. Here we describe a method to accurately measure serum 7aC4 and evaluate the clinical utility in patients with diarrhea or constipation phenotypes...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
Amy Jackson, Amyn Lalji, Mohammed Kabir, Ann Muls, Caroline Gee, Susan Vyoral, Clare Shaw, H Jervoise N Andreyev
Dietary fat ingestion triggers bile secretion into the gastrointestinal tract. Bile acid malabsorption affects >1% of the population, causing loose stool and other gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis is frequently missed. Treatments are often considered ineffective. We evaluated low-fat diets for managing gastrointestinal symptoms in these patients. All patients reporting type 6 or 7 stool were offered a selenium-75 homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) scan. Prospective data in patients with 7-day scan retention <20% were analysed...
October 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Ying Cheng, Hong Liang, Na-Li Cai, Li Guo, Yu-Ge Huang, Yuan-Zong Song
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the MYO5B or STX3 gene. Refractory diarrhea and malabsorption are the main clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and MYO5B gene mutations of an infant with MVID. A 21-day-old female infant was referred to the hospital with the complaint of diarrhea for 20 days. On physical examination, growth retardation of the body weight and length was found along with moderately jaundiced skin and sclera...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Mutaz Sultan, Anuradha Rao, Orly Elpeleg, Frédéric M Vaz, Bassam Y Abu Libdeh, Saul J Karpen, Paul A Dawson
Primary bile acid malabsorption (PBAM) is associated with congenital diarrhea, steatorrhea, and a block in the intestinal return of bile acids in the enterohepatic circulation. Mutations in the ileal Na(+) -dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2) can cause PBAM, but do not appear to account for most familial cases. Another major transporter involved in the intestinal reclamation of bile acids is the heteromeric Organic Solute Transporter alpha-beta (OSTα-OSTβ; SLC51A-SLC51B), which exports bile acid across the basolateral membrane...
September 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Magdalena Panek-Jeziorna, Agata Mulak
Bile acids not only play a cardinal role in the digestion and absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins, but also significantly affect gastrointestinal motor, sensory and secretory functions, intestinal barrier permeability and the regulation of the inflammatory response. The results of recent studies have revealed complex interactions between bile acids and the gut microbiota. In addition, bile acids also play a role of signaling molecules regulating the activity of lipid and glucose metabolic pathways, as well as a role of ligands for transcription factors...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Rongli Zhang, Jonathan W Ray, Mukesh K Jain, Shuxin Han
Intestinal resection is a common therapeutic approach for human diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and colon cancer that often results in severe short bowel syndrome-like adverse effects including bile acid diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and nutrient malabsorption. Here we introduce a murine ileal resection model, termed ileectomy, to evaluate tissue communication and the maintenance of systemic homeostasis. After ileal resection, circulating blood is permanently devoid of the ileum-specific endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), which releases its endocrinal inhibition of bile acid synthesis in the liver...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zijuan Bi, Yu Zheng, Jianye Yuan, Zhaoxiang Bian
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional bowel disorders (FBD), which is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal bloating/distention associated with defecation or changed bowel habits. Currently, there is no evidence of obvious anatomic or physiologic abnormalities on the routine diagnostic examinations. There are multiple pathological factors involved in IBS responsible for its heterogeneous nature, although the exact etiology and pathology of IBS are not well known and it is disappointed to develop biomarkers for this disorder...
August 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Yves M Borbély, Alice Osterwalder, Dino Kröll, Philipp C Nett, Roman A Inglin
Diarrhea after bariatric procedures, mainly those with malabsorptive elements including Roux-Y Gastric Bypass and Biliopancreatic Diversion, is common and an essential determinant of quality of life and micro- and macronutrient deficiencies. Bariatric surgery is the only sustainably successful method to address morbid obesity and its comorbidities, particularly gaining more and more importance in the specific treatment of diabetic patients. Approximately half a million procedures are annually performed around the world, with numbers expected to rise drastically in the near future...
July 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Wei Li, Denis Richard
Bariatric surgery represents the most efficient therapy for severe obesity. It reduces the size of fat stores or the amount of body fat gain. The bariatric surgery procedures currently used include Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, which are the most commonly performed procedures. Other procedures are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and biliopancreatic diversion. The latter represents the most effective surgery for treatment of severe obesity as well as type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery reduces energy intake by restricting the size of the stomach reservoir and causing malabsorption, as in the case of biliopancreatic diversion...
August 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
S P Ndou, E Kiarie, S J Thandapilly, M C Walsh, N Ames, C M Nyachoti
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fat, serum lipids, and concentrations of VFA, bile acids (BA), and neutral sterols (NS) in digesta and feces in growing pigs. Forty-eight Genesus [(Duroc boar × Yorkshire-Landrace sows] barrows (25.0 ± 0.32 kg initial BW) were housed in pairs. Pigs were assigned to 1 of the 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets-a basal corn-soybean meal-containing diet (control), a flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM), or an oat hulls-containing diet (OH)-in a completely randomized design...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Ying Cheng, Li Guo, Mei Deng, Yuan-Zong Song
Congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 2 (CBAS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations of AKR1D1 gene, which encodes the Δ4-3-oxo-steroid 5β-reductase. Cholestatic jaundice is the main clinical manifestation, accompanied by malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. This paper reported the clinical and genetic features of a CBAS2 patient definitely diagnosed by AKR1D1 genetic analysis. An 8-month-old male infant was referred to the hospital with the complaint of jaundiced skin and sclera over 7 months...
July 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Uday C Ghoshal
A decade after Rome III, in 2016, Rome IV criteria were published. There are major differences between Rome IV and the earlier iteration, some of which are in line with Asian viewpoints. The clinical applicability of the Rome IV criteria of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asian perspective is reviewed here. Instead of considering functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) to be largely psychogenic, Rome IV suggested the importance of the gut over brain ("disorders of gut-brain interaction" not "brain-gut interaction")...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Elisa Danese, Gian Luca Salvagno, Davide Negrini, Giorgio Brocco, Martina Montagnana, Giuseppe Lippi
BACKGROUND: Although the clinical significance of measuring bile acids concentration in plasma or serum has been recognized for long in patients with hepatobiliary disease and/or bile acid malabsorption, the reference separation techniques are expensive and mostly unsuitable for early diagnosis and for measuring large volumes of samples. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the analytical performance of three commercial enzymatic techniques for measuring total bile acids in plasma using a fully-automated clinical chemistry platform...
2017: PloS One
Prue M Pereira-Fantini, Susan Lapthorne, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce, Jenny Charles, Peter J Fuller, Julie E Bines
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Options for the prevention of short-bowel syndrome-associated liver disease (SBS-ALDs) are limited and often ineffective. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a newly emerging pharmaceutical target and FXR agonists have been shown to ameliorate cholestasis and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of obeticholic acid (OCA) treatment in preventing SBS-ALDs. METHODS: Piglets underwent 75% small-bowel resection (SBS) or sham surgery (sham) and were assigned to either a daily dose of OCA (2...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Andreas Oberbach, Nadine Schlichting, Marco Heinrich, Yvonne Kullnick, Ulf Retschlag, Stefanie Lehmann, Mouen A Khashab, Anthony N Kalloo, Vivek Kumbhari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The gastric mucosa is an endocrine organ that regulates satiation pathways by expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) excludes gastric mucosa and reduces gastric volume. Our study aimed to investigate the independent effects of altering gastric mucosa on obesity and its related comorbidities. METHODS: Gastric mucosa devitalization (GMD) of 70% of the stomach was achieved by argon plasma coagulation in a high-fat diet rat model and was compared with VSG and sham surgery...
May 4, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"