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Bile acid malabsorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434196/role-of-gut-microbiota-bile-acids-and-their-crosstalk-in-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#1
Haijun Liu, Cheng Hu, Xueli Zhang, Weiping Jia
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide and has become one of the greatest threats to global health. Bariatric surgery was initially designed to achieve weight loss and subsequently was noted to induce improvements or remission of type 2 diabetes. Currently, these bariatric operations such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the most effective procedures for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, the specific mechanism mediating the beneficial effects of metabolic surgery has remained largely unknown...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385289/use-of-a-novel-docosahexaenoic-acid-formulation-vs-control-in-a-neonatal-porcine-model-of-short-bowel-syndrome-leads-to-greater-intestinal-absorption-and-higher-systemic-levels-of-dha
#2
Camilia R Martin, Barbara Stoll, Joanne Cluette-Brown, Adesola C Akinkuotu, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Kathleen M Gura, Pratibha Singh, Munir M Zaman, Michael C Perillo, Mark Puder, Steven D Freedman, Doug Burrin
Infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) are at high risk for malabsorption, malnutrition, and failure to thrive. The objective of this study was to evaluate in a porcine model of SBS, the systemic absorption of a novel enteral Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) formulation that forms micelles independent of bile salts (DHA-ALT®). We hypothesized that enteral delivery of DHA-ALT® would result in higher blood levels of DHA compared to a control DHA preparation due to improved intestinal absorption. SBS was induced in term piglets through a 75% mid-jejunoileal resection and the piglets randomized to either DHA-ALT® or control DHA formulation (N=5 per group) for 4 postoperative days...
March 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377401/cyp8b1-ablation-prevents-western-diet-induced-weight-gain-and-hepatic-steatosis-due-to-impaired-fat-absorption
#3
Enrico Bertaggia, Kristian K Jensen, Jose Castro-Perez, Yimeng Xu, Gilbert Di Paolo, Robin B Chan, Liangsu Wang, Rebecca A Haeusler
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol derivatives that regulate lipid metabolism, through their dual abilities to promote lipid absorption and activate BA receptors. However, different BA species have varying abilities to perform these functions. Eliminating 12α-hydroxy BAs in mice via Cyp8b1 knockout causes low body weight and improved glucose tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine mechanisms of low body weight in Cyp8b1(-/-) mice. We challenged Cyp8b1(-/-) mice with western type diet and assessed body weight and composition...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292401/what-bariatric-surgery-can%C3%A2-teach-us-about-endoluminal-treatment-of-obesity%C3%A2-and-metabolic-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Lee M Kaplan
Bariatric surgical procedures, including gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion, are the most effective and durable treatments for obesity. In addition, These operations induce metabolic changes that provide weight-independent improvement in type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and other metabolic disorders. Initially thought to work by mechanical restriction of food intake or malabsorption of ingested nutrients, these procedures are now known to work through complex changes in neuroendocrine and immune signals emanating from the gut, including peptide hormones, bile acids, vagal nerve activity, and metabolites generated by the gut microbiota, all collaborating to reregulate appetite, food preference, and energy expenditure...
April 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288854/irinotecan-induced-bile-acid-malabsorption-is-associated-with-down-regulation-of-ileal-asbt-slc10a2-in-mice
#5
A-Xi Shi, Yan Zhou, Xiao-Yi Zhang, Yan-Shu Zhao, Hong-Yan Qin, Yan-Ping Wang, Xin-An Wu
Irinotecan, (CPT-11), an antitumor agent primarily used for the treatment of solid tumors, has often compromised clinical application due to the inducement of severe delay-onset diarrhea. Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is widely accepted as the common cause of diarrhea. However, whether CPT-11-induced diarrhea has correlation with BAM is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CPT-11 on the bile acid homeostasis in mice. The mice were administrated with CPT-11 intravenously for four consecutive days...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237320/a-perspective-on-metabolic-surgery-from-a-gastroenterologist
#6
REVIEW
Yu-Fong Syu, Akio Inui, Chih-Yen Chen
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are important public health problems. The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is 8.8%. Interventional diabetology and obesitology have been recently advocated as treatment options for T2D and obesity. The roles of metabolic surgery such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, gastric banding, and biliopancreatic diversion are focused. Different types of metabolic surgeries have different glucose-lowering and weight loss effects. Endoscopic treatments include the intra-gastric balloon (to restrict the gastric volume) and duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL, as a malabsorptive procedure)...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123771/how-bad-is-bile-acid-diarrhoea-an-online-survey-of-patient-reported-symptoms-and-outcomes
#7
Ayman Bannaga, Lawrence Kelman, Michelle O'Connor, Claire Pitchford, Julian R F Walters, Ramesh P Arasaradnam
OBJECTIVES: Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is an underdiagnosed condition producing diarrhoea, urgency and fear of faecal incontinence. How patients experience these symptoms has not previously been studied. Bile Acid Malabsorption (BAM) Support UK was established in 2015 as a national charity with objectives including to provide details regarding how BAD affects patients, to improve earlier recognition and clinical management. DESIGN SETTING AND MAIN OUTCOME: A questionnaire was collected anonymously by BAM Support UK and the Bile Salt Malabsorption Facebook group over 4 weeks at the end of 2015...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103699/vitamin-d-alteration-associated-with-obesity-and-bariatric-surgery
#8
Eric Lespessailles, Hechmi Toumi
Obesity and severe obesity constitute growing serious health problems reaching epidemic proportion in most countries. Interactions and relationships between obesity and bone tissue and its metabolism are complex but are more and more studied and recognized. Obesity is associated with an altered hormonal profile including particularly bone-regulating hormones like vitamin D. Bariatric surgery procedures, thanks to their effectiveness to achieve therapeutic endpoints for comorbidities associated with obesity, have had an increasing success...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011645/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analyses-reveal-profound-effects-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-16-as-a-metabolic-regulator
#9
Ingrid C Rulifson, Patrick Collins, Li Miao, Dana Nojima, Ki Jeong Lee, Miki Hardy, Jamila Gupte, Kelly Hensley, Kim Samayoa, Cynthia Cam, James B Rottman, Mike Ollmann, William G Richards, Yang Li
The discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a key regulator of energy expenditure has sparked interest in identifying novel soluble factors capable of activating inducible BAT (iBAT) to combat obesity. Using a high content cell-based screen, we identified fibroblast growth factor 16 (FGF16) as a potent inducer of several physical and transcriptional characteristics analogous to those of both "classical" BAT and iBAT. Overexpression of Fgf16 in vivo recapitulated several of our in vitro findings, specifically the significant induction of the Ucp1 gene and UCP1 protein expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), a common site for emergent active iBAT...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929465/using-multi-fluorinated-bile-acids-and-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-bile-acid-transport
#10
Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Anan Said, Aaron C Shang, Su Xu, Diana Vivian, Melissa Metry, James E Polli, Jean-Pierre Raufman
Along with their traditional role as detergents that facilitate fat absorption, emerging literature indicates that bile acids are potent signaling molecules that affect multiple organs; they modulate gut motility and hormone production, and alter vascular tone, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy utilization. Changes in fecal bile acids may alter the gut microbiome and promote colon pathology including cholerrheic diarrhea and colon cancer. Key regulators of fecal bile acid composition are the small intestinal Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856362/colonic-transit-and-bile-acid-synthesis-or-excretion-in-patients%C3%A2-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-diarrhea-without-bile%C3%A2-acid-malabsorption
#11
Cédric Peleman, Michael Camilleri, Irene Busciglio, Duane Burton, Leslie Donato, Alan R Zinsmeister
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bile acids (BAs) are passively absorbed to a different extent along the mammalian colon, so that levels are lower in the feces than in proximal colon. Our aim was to explore associations among total, primary, and secretory BA in stool and colonic transit in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) without overt BA malabsorption (BAM). METHODS: In a cross-sectional observational study of 116 patients with IBS-D recruited from local communities in Minnesota, we measured total and individual main fecal BA excretion, fecal fat and fecal weight over 48 hours, fasting serum levels of C4 (surrogate for BA synthesis), and overall colonic transit by scintigraphy (geometric center at 24 hours and 48 hours)...
May 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818587/improved-glucose-metabolism-following-bariatric-surgery-is-associated-with-increased-circulating-bile-acid-concentrations-and-remodeling-of-the-gut-microbiome
#12
REVIEW
Lukasz Kaska, Tomasz Sledzinski, Agnieszka Chomiczewska, Agnieszka Dettlaff-Pokora, Julian Swierczynski
Clinical studies have indicated that circulating bile acid (BA) concentrations increase following bariatric surgery, especially following malabsorptive procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses (RYGB). Moreover, total circulating BA concentrations in patients following RYGB are positively correlated with serum glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations and inversely correlated with postprandial glucose concentrations. Overall, these data suggest that the increased circulating BA concentrations following bariatric surgery - independently of calorie restriction and body-weight loss - could contribute, at least in part, to improvements in insulin sensitivity, incretin hormone secretion, and postprandial glycemia, leading to the remission of type-2 diabetes (T2DM)...
October 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777930/characterization-of-aqps-in-mouse-rat-and-human-colon-and-their-selective-regulation-by-bile-acids
#13
Jonathan Yde, Stephen Keely, Qi Wu, Johan F Borg, Natalia Lajczak, Aoife O'Dwyer, Peter Dalsgaard, Robert A Fenton, Hanne B Moeller
In normal individuals, the epithelium of the colon absorbs 1.5-2 l of water a day to generate dehydrated feces. However, in the condition of bile acid malabsorption (BAM), an excess of bile acids in the colon results in diarrhea. Several studies have attempted to address the mechanisms contributing to BAM induced by various bile acids. However, none have addressed a potential dysregulation of aquaporin (AQP) water channels, which are responsible for the majority of transcellular water transport in epithelial cells, as a contributing factor to the onset of diarrhea and the pathogenesis of BAM...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765536/-75-sehcat-scan-in-bile-acid-malabsorption-in-chronic-diarrhoea
#14
L M Mena Bares, E Carmona Asenjo, M V García Sánchez, E Moreno Ortega, F R Maza Muret, M V Guiote Moreno, A M Santos Bueno, E Iglesias Flores, J M Benítez Cantero, J A Vallejo Casas
Chronic diarrhoea is a common entity in daily clinical practice and it leads to a loss in these patients quality of life. It may be the main symptom of multiple ethiologies including bile acid malabsorption (BAM) which has a comparable prevalence to celiac disease. The BAM results from imbalances in the homeostasis of bile acids in the enterohepatic circulation. It can be a consequence of ileal disease or ileal dysfunction (BAM type i), it can be considered idiopathic or primary (BAM type ii) or associated with other gastrointestinal entities (BAM type iii)...
January 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671525/physiological-and-molecular-responses-to-bariatric-surgery-markers-or-mechanisms-underlying-t2dm-resolution
#15
Chelsea R Hutch, Darleen A Sandoval
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity and associated comorbidities, including rapid resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although the weight loss itself has substantial impact, bariatric surgery also has weight loss-independent effects on T2DM. Several variations of bariatric surgery exist, including the widely studied Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy. The success of both of these bariatric surgeries was originally attributed to restrictive and malabsorptive modes of action; however, mounting evidence from both human and animal studies implicates mechanisms beyond surgery-induced mechanical changes to the gastrointestinal (GI) system...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616761/a-systematic-literature-search-and-review-of-sodium-concentrations-of-body-fluids%C3%A2
#16
REVIEW
Elaine M Kaptein, Divya Sreeramoju, John M Kaptein, Matthew J Kaptein
BACKGROUND: Wide ranges of sodium concentrations for different body fluid losses have been noted with minimal substantiating data and variability among sources, leading to use of "cumulative fluid balance" regardless of composition in hospitalized patients. AIMS: To define the sodium concentrations of fluid losses from the body. METHOD: We performed a systematic search and literature review in adult humans using PubMed database. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were met for 107 full-text articles...
October 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524917/how-do-patients-clinical-phenotype-and-the-physiological-mechanisms-of-the-operations-impact-the-choice-of-bariatric-procedure
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Bächler, Carel W le Roux, Marco Bueter
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective option for the treatment of morbid obesity and its associated comorbidities. Recent clinical and experimental findings have challenged the role of mechanical restriction and caloric malabsorption as the main mechanisms for weight loss and health benefits. Instead, other mechanisms including increased levels of satiety gut hormones, altered gut microbiota, changes in bile acid metabolism, and/or energy expenditure have been proposed as explanations for benefits of bariatric surgery...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252882/multicentre-prospective-survey-of-sehcat-provision-and-practice-in-the-uk
#18
Jennifer A Summers, Janet Peacock, Bolaji Coker, Viktoria McMillan, Mercy Ofuya, Cornelius Lewis, Stephen Keevil, Robert Logan, John McLaughlin, Fiona Reid
OBJECTIVE: A clinical diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption (BAM) can be confirmed using SeHCAT (tauroselcholic ((75)selenium) acid), a radiolabelled synthetic bile acid. However, while BAM can be the cause of chronic diarrhoea, it is often overlooked as a potential diagnosis. Therefore, we investigated the use of SeHCAT for diagnosis of BAM in UK hospitals. DESIGN: A multicentre survey was conducted capturing centre and patient-level information detailing patient care-pathways, clinical history, SeHCAT results, treatment with bile acid sequestrants (BAS), and follow-up in clinics...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251913/the-holistic-management-of-consequences-of-cancer-treatment-by-a-gastrointestinal-and-nutrition-team-a-financially-viable-approach-to-an-enormous-problem
#19
Ann C Muls, Amyn Lalji, Christopher Marshall, Lewis Butler, Clare Shaw, Susan Vyoral, Kabir Mohammed, H Jervoise N Andreyev
There is no national NHS tariff to fund services for patients experiencing long-term bowel and nutritional problems after cancer treatment. In this paper, we report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients referred to our service and the estimated cost of a completed episode of care. Patient characteristics, symptom severity, investigations, diagnoses, number of clinic visits and referrals elsewhere were recorded in a prospective cohort study. During 2013-14, 325 patients completed assessment and treatment...
June 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239296/recent-advances-in-metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery
#20
REVIEW
Vance L Albaugh, C Robb Flynn, Robyn A Tamboli, Naji N Abumrad
Obesity and its associated medical conditions continue to increase and add significant burden to patients, as well as health-care systems, worldwide. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity and its comorbidities, and resolution of diabetes is weight loss-independent in the case of some operations. Although these weight-independent effects are frequently described clinically, the mechanisms behind them are not well understood and remain an intense area of focus in the growing field of metabolic and bariatric surgery...
2016: F1000Research
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