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journal of strength and conditioning

Elizabeth F Nagle, Mary E Sanders, Bethany B Gibbs, Barry A Franklin, Jacquelyn A Nagle, Philip J Prins, Caleb D Johnson, Robert J Robertson
A standardized fitness assessment is critical for the development of an individualized exercise prescription. Although the benefits of aquatic exercise have been well established, there remains the need for a standardized non-swimming protocol to accurately assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in shallow water. The present investigation was designed to assess: 1) reliability of a standardized Shallow Water Run (SWR) test of CRF; and 2) accuracy of a standardized SWR compared with a land-based treadmill test (LTM)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
J Yoon Irons, Peter Petocz, Dianna Theadora Kenny, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a genetically inherited, life-threatening condition that affects major organs. The management of cystic fibrosis involves a multi-faceted daily treatment regimen that includes airway clearance techniques, pancreatic enzymes and other medications. Previous studies have found that compliance with this intensive treatment is poor, especially among adolescents. Because of both the nature and consequences of the illness and the relentless demands of the treatment, many individuals with cystic fibrosis have a poor quality of life...
September 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nicholas R J Gascoigne, Joanna Brzostek, Monika Mehta, Oreste Acuto
Thymocyte development and maintenance of peripheral T-cell numbers and functions are critically dependent on T-cell receptor (TCR) signal strength. SHP1 (Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1), a tyrosine phosphatase, acts as a negative regulator of TCR signal strength. Moreover, germline SHP1 knockout mice have shown impaired thymic development. However, this has been recently questioned by an analysis of SHP1 conditional knockout mice, which reported normal thymic development of SHP1 deficient thymocytes...
September 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Sarah Evans, Jennifer B H Martiny, Steven D Allison
Stochastic processes can play an important role in microbial community assembly. Dispersal limitation is one process that can increase stochasticity and obscure relationships between environmental variables and microbial community composition, but the relationship between dispersal, selection and stochasticity has not been described in a comprehensive way. We examine how dispersal and its interactions with drift and selection alter the consistency with which microbial communities assemble using a realistic, individual-based model of microbial decomposers...
August 5, 2016: ISME Journal
Lindsay Pennington, Naomi K Parker, Helen Kelly, Nick Miller
BACKGROUND: Children with motor impairments often have the motor speech disorder dysarthria, a condition which effects the tone, strength and co-ordination of any or all of the muscles used for speech. Resulting speech difficulties can range from mild, with slightly slurred articulation and breathy voice, to profound, with an inability to produce any recognisable words. Children with dysarthria are often prescribed communication aids to supplement their natural forms of communication...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Huldrych F Günthard, Michael S Saag, Constance A Benson, Carlos del Rio, Joseph J Eron, Joel E Gallant, Jennifer F Hoy, Michael J Mugavero, Paul E Sax, Melanie A Thompson, Rajesh T Gandhi, Raphael J Landovitz, Davey M Smith, Donna M Jacobsen, Paul A Volberding
IMPORTANCE: New data and therapeutic options warrant updated recommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to treat or to prevent HIV infection in adults. OBJECTIVE: To provide updated recommendations for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adults (aged ≥18 years) with established HIV infection, including when to start treatment, initial regimens, and changing regimens, along with recommendations for using ARVs for preventing HIV among those at risk, including preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis...
July 12, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Kim Hébert-Losier, Christoph Zinner, Simon Platt, Thomas Stöggl, Hans-Christer Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Sprint events in cross-country skiing are unique not only with respect to their length (0.8-1.8 km), but also in involving four high-intensity heats of ~3 min in duration, separated by a relatively short recovery period (15-60 min). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify factors related to the performance of elite sprint cross-country skiers. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and keywords, as were reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field...
June 22, 2016: Sports Medicine
A S Sousa, R S Guerra, I Fonseca, F Pichel, S Ferreira, T F Amaral
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study aims to increase knowledge regarding the association of sarcopenia with hospitalization costs among a wide-ranging sample of adult hospitalized patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among hospitalized adult patients. Sarcopenia was identified according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, as low muscle mass, assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis and low muscle function evaluated by handgrip strength...
September 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Siiri Latvala, Jonas Hedberg, Lennart Möller, Inger Odnevall Wallinder, Hanna L Karlsson, Karine Elihn
The use of refined toxicological methods is currently needed for characterizing the risks of airborne nanoparticles (NPs) to human health. To mimic pulmonary exposure, we have developed an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system for direct deposition of airborne NPs on to lung cell cultures. Compared to traditional submerged systems, this allows more realistic exposure conditions for characterizing toxicological effects induced by airborne NPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the deposition of silver NPs (AgNPs) is affected by different conditions of the ALI system...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Samrat Dutta, Bruce A Armitage, Yuri L Lyubchenko
Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) are synthetic polymers, the neutral peptide backbone of which provides elevated stability to PNA-PNA and PNA-DNA hybrid duplexes. It was demonstrated that incorporation of diethylene glycol (miniPEG) at the γ position of the peptide backbone increased the thermal stability of the hybrid duplexes (Sahu, B. et al. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 5614-5627). Here, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force spectroscopy and dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) to test the strength and stability of the hybrid 10 bp duplex...
March 15, 2016: Biochemistry
Arianna Gianakos, Youichi Yasui, Christopher D Murawski, John G Kennedy
PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to report the effects of gastrocnemius recession on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, function, and push-off power. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were reviewed with terms "gastrocnemius recession". The inclusion criteria were: (1) clinical studies, (2) published in a peer-reviewed journal within the past 10 years, and (3) published in English. Excluded were: (1) review articles, (2) cadaveric studies, (3) studies including patients under the age of 18 years, (4) studies evaluating a neurologic condition, (5) level of evidence 5, and (6) Quality of Evidence Score <3...
April 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Zhong-wei Ji, Ni-rong Bao, Jian-ning Zhao, Jian-fa Ni
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative administration of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor on pain occurring with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: We electronically searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang data from inception to March 15, 2014 and manual searched journal of library collection to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about preoperative administration of COX-2 inhibitor on pain occurring with TKA...
September 2015: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Kairi Kõlves, Emma Barker, Diego De Leo
BACKGROUND: Allergies are among the most common chronic conditions. In addition to physical and social impacts, a number of studies have consistently linked allergies to poor psychological outcomes, including depression and anxiety. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present systematic literature review was to analyze the existing literature about the relationship between allergies and fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors. METHODS: Data sources include articles retrieved from Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, and Web of Knowledge...
November 2015: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
S P Kyathanahally, N D Fichtner, V Adalid, R Kreis
It has recently been reported in this journal that local fat depots produce a sizable frequency-dependent signal attenuation in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain. If of a general nature, this effect would question the use of internal reference signals for quantification of MRS and the quantitative use of MRS as a whole. Here, it was attempted to verify this effect and pinpoint the potential causes by acquiring data with various acquisition settings, including two field strengths, two MR scanners from different vendors, different water suppression sequences, RF coils, localization sequences, echo times, and lipid/metabolite phantoms...
November 2015: NMR in Biomedicine
Martijn Callens, Emilie Macke, Koenraad Muylaert, Peter Bossier, Bart Lievens, Michael Waud, Ellen Decaestecker
The symbiotic gut microbial community is generally known to have a strong impact on the fitness of its host. Nevertheless, it is less clear how the impact of symbiotic interactions on the hosts' fitness varies according to environmental circumstances such as changes in the diet. This study aims to get a better understanding of host-microbiota interactions under different levels of food availability. We conducted experiments with the invertebrate, experimental model organism Daphnia magna and compared growth, survival and reproduction of conventionalized symbiotic Daphnia with germ-free individuals given varying quantities of food...
April 2016: ISME Journal
David Tod, Christian Edwards, Mike McGuigan, Geoff Lovell
BACKGROUND: Researchers have tested the beliefs of sportspeople and sports medicine specialists that cognitive strategies influence strength performance. Few investigators have synthesised the literature. OBJECTIVES: The specific objectives were to review evidence regarding (a) the cognitive strategy-strength performance relationship; (b) participant skill level as a moderator; and (c) cognitive, motivational, biomechanical/physiological, and emotional mediators...
November 2015: Sports Medicine
Tibor Hortobágyi, Melanie Lesinski, Martijn Gäbler, Jessie M VanSwearingen, Davide Malatesta, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: Habitual walking speed predicts many clinical conditions later in life, but it declines with age. However, which particular exercise intervention can minimize the age-related gait speed loss is unclear. PURPOSE: Our objective was to determine the effects of strength, power, coordination, and multimodal exercise training on healthy old adults' habitual and fast gait speed. METHODS: We performed a computerized systematic literature search in PubMed and Web of Knowledge from January 1984 up to December 2014...
December 2015: Sports Medicine
Hilary T C Leung, Kendra R Maas, Roland C Wilhelm, William W Mohn
Forest ecosystems need to be sustainably managed, as they are major reservoirs of biodiversity, provide important economic resources and modulate global climate. We have a poor knowledge of populations responsible for key biomass degradation processes in forest soils and the effects of forest harvesting on these populations. Here, we investigated the effects of three timber-harvesting methods, varying in the degree of organic matter removal, on putatively hemicellulolytic bacterial and fungal populations 10 or more years after harvesting and replanting...
February 2016: ISME Journal
Charmaine K Higa-McMillan, Sarah E Francis, Leslie Rith-Najarian, Bruce F Chorpita
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorder among children and adolescents. We examined 111 treatment outcome studies testing 204 treatment conditions for child and adolescent anxiety published between 1967 and mid-2013. Studies were selected for inclusion in this review using the PracticeWise Evidence-Based Services database. Using guidelines identified by this journal (Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, 2014), studies were included if they were conducted with children and/or adolescents (ages 1-19) with anxiety and/or avoidance problems...
2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Peter Vilmann, Paul Frost Clementsen, Sara Colella, Mette Siemsen, Paul De Leyn, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Felix J Herth, Alberto Larghi, Enrique Vazquez-Sequeiros, Enrique Vasquez-Sequeiros, Cesare Hassan, Laurence Crombag, Daniël A Korevaar, Lars Konge, Jouke T Annema
This is an official guideline of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), produced in cooperation with the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS). It addresses the benefit and burden associated with combined endobronchial and esophageal mediastinal nodal staging of lung cancer. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) approach was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence.The article has been co-published with permission in the European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and the European Respiratory Journal...
June 2015: Endoscopy
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