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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434211/health-conditions-and-motivations-for-marijuana-use-among-young-adult-medical-marijuana-patients-and-non-patient-marijuana-users
#1
Stephen E Lankenau, Janna Ataiants, Salini Mohanty, Sheree Schrager, Ellen Iverson, Carolyn F Wong
INTRODUCTION: While marijuana has been legal for medical purposes in California since 1996, little is known about the health histories of young adult medical marijuana patients who are a significant proportion of medical marijuana patients. We examined whether young adult medical marijuana patients reported health conditions and motivations for use that were consistent with medical use of marijuana in California. METHODS: Young adults (N = 366) aged 18 to 26 years were sampled in Los Angeles in 2014-2015 and segmented into medical marijuana 'patients' (n = 210), marijuana users with a current recommendation, and non-patient users or 'non-patients' (n = 156), marijuana users who never had a medical marijuana recommendation...
April 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434208/dietary-interventions-for-adults-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
REVIEW
Suetonia C Palmer, Jasjot K Maggo, Katrina L Campbell, Jonathan C Craig, David W Johnson, Bernadet Sutanto, Marinella Ruospo, Allison Tong, Giovanni Fm Strippoli
BACKGROUND: Dietary changes are routinely recommended in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the basis of randomised evidence in the general population and non-randomised studies in CKD that suggest certain healthy eating patterns may prevent cardiovascular events and lower mortality. People who have kidney disease have prioritised dietary modifications as an important treatment uncertainty. OBJECTIVES: This review evaluated the benefits and harms of dietary interventions among adults with CKD including people with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) treated with dialysis or kidney transplantation...
April 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434204/positive-airway-pressure-adherence-and-mask-interface-in-the-setting-of-sinonasal-symptoms
#3
Amy E Schell, Ryan J Soose
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Despite reports of lower positive pressure adherence rates with oronasal masks, patients with sinonasal problems are often prescribed this interface over a nasal interface. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mask type and therapy adherence in the setting of sinonasal symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series with chart review. METHODS: We reviewed 328 patients who underwent positive pressure titration between January 2012 and May 2015...
April 22, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434194/cytotoxic-triterpenoids-from-the-stalks-of-microtropis-triflora
#4
Xiao-Wei Zhang, Kui-Wu Wang, Man-Qing Zhou
Bioassay-guided phytochemcal investigation of the stalks of Microtropis triflora Merr. et Freem led to the isolation of ten triterpenes 1-10, including one novel compound 24-epoxy-2α, 24-dihydroxy-29-friedelanoic acid (1). Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including HRESI mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D NMR ((1) H, (13) C, (1) H-(1) H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY), and by comparison with the data reported. The cytotoxicities of the compounds 1-10 against a panel of cultured human tumor cell lines (Bcap37, SMMC7721, Hela, CNE) were evaluated...
April 23, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434186/new-thiourea-and-1-3-thiazolidin-4-one-derivatives-effective-on-the-hiv-1-virus
#5
Anna Bielenica, Giuseppina Sanna, Silvia Madeddu, Marta Struga, Michał Jóźwiak, Anna E Kozioł, Aleksandra Sawczenko, Ilona B Materek, Alessandra Serra, Gabriele Giliberti
Thiourea derivatives have been reported to possess many biological activities, among them antiviral and antitumoral properties. As part of our continuing effort to develop new active compounds, we report the synthesis and the evaluation of new fifteen thiourea derivatives with 1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl moiety, among them a group of biologically active (1-7) also underwent cyclisation to 1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones. Molecular structure of four compounds (4, 13, 15 and 3a) was determined by an X-ray crystallography. We here report the evaluation of their cytotoxicity against human leukaemia/lymphoma- and solid tumour-derived cell lines and of their antiviral activity against HIV-1 and representatives of ssRNA and dsDNA viruses...
April 23, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434185/can-targeted-policies-reduce-obesity-and-improve-obesity-related-behaviours-in-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-populations-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
D L Olstad, R Ancilotto, M Teychenne, L M Minaker, D R Taber, K D Raine, C I J Nykiforuk, K Ball
This review synthesized evidence from controlled studies pertaining to the impact of targeted policies on anthropometric, dietary and physical activity outcomes amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged children and adults. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-Equity guidelines were followed. Eligible studies were published from 2004 to August 2015 and examined the impact of targeted policies on anthropometric, dietary and physical activity outcomes amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged populations...
April 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434175/myoxinol-ointment-for-the-treatment-of-acute-fissure
#7
J Martellucci, G Rossi, I Corsale, P Carrieri, M D'Elia, I Giani
Myoxinol is a complex of oligopeptides obtained from the seeds of Hibiscus esculentus used in cosmetic as natural alternative to botulin toxin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of local myoxinol for the treatment of acute anal fissure. All the consecutive patients with acute fissure treated from January to June 2014 underwent 30 days of topical treatment (twice/day) with a mioxinol based ointment. Pain, symptomatic relief, fissure healing and re-epithelization, 1-year recurrence rate, subjective satisfaction and need for further treatments were evaluated...
April 22, 2017: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434166/antibody-uptake-assay-in-the-embryonic-zebrafish-forebrain-to-study-notch-signaling-dynamics-in-neural-progenitor-cells-in-vivo
#8
Kai Tong, Mahendra Wagle, Su Guo
Stem cells can generate cell fate heterogeneity through asymmetric cell division (ACD). ACD derives from the asymmetric segregation of fate-determining molecules and/or organelles in the dividing cell. Radial glia in the embryonic zebrafish forebrain are an excellent model for studying the molecular mechanisms regulating ACD of stem cells in vertebrates, especially for live imaging concerning in vivo molecular and cellular dynamics. Due to the current difficulty in expressing fluorescent reporter-tagged proteins at physiological levels in zebrafish for live imaging, we have developed an antibody uptake assay to label proteins in live embryonic zebrafish forebrain with high specificity...
April 23, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434165/connexin-hemichannels-in-astrocytes-an-assessment-of-controversies-regarding-their-functional-characteristics
#9
Brian Skriver Nielsen, Daniel Bloch Hansen, Bruce R Ransom, Morten Schak Nielsen, Nanna MacAulay
Astrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system are interconnected by gap junctions made from connexins of the subtypes Cx30 and Cx43. These proteins may exist as hemichannels in the plasma membrane in the absence of a 'docked' counterpart on the neighboring cell. A variety of stimuli are reported to open the hemichannels and thereby create a permeation pathway through the plasma membrane. Cx30 and Cx43 have, in their hemichannel configuration, been proposed to act as ion channels and membrane pathways for different molecules, such as fluorescent dyes, ATP, prostaglandins, and glutamate...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434164/microglia-loss-contributes-to-the-development-of-major-depression-induced-by-different-types-of-chronic-stresses
#10
Lijuan Tong, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Hu, Jili Wang, Zhuo Chen, Wei Zhang, Chao Huang
Recently, the loss and dystrophy of hippocampal microglia induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) has been reported to mediate the development of major depression in mice whose microglial cells were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein-conjuncted-CX3C receptor type 1. However, whether this happens in endogenous microglia with no genetic intervention remains unclear. Here, we addressed this issue in mice treated with different types of chronic stresses, including the CUS, chronic restraint stress (CRS) and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS)...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434163/biomarkers-of-epileptogenesis-the-focus-on-glia-and-cognitive-dysfunctions
#11
Annamaria Vezzani, Rosaria Pascente, Teresa Ravizza
The need to find measures that reliably predict the onset of epilepsy after injurious events or how the patient will respond to anti-seizure drugs led to intensive pre-clinical and clinical research to discover non-invasive biomarkers that could increase the sensitivity of existing clinical indicators. The use of experimental models of epileptogenesis and of drug-resistance is instrumental to select the most promising approaches to explore such biomarkers in the pre-clinical setting for further clinical validation...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434160/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries-is-not-associated-with-volumetric-differences-in-former-high-school-football-players
#12
Douglas P Terry, L Stephen Miller
We investigated potential brain volumetric differences in a sample of former high school football players many years after these injuries. Forty community-dwelling males ages 40-65 who played high school football, but not college or professional sports, were recruited. The experimental group (n = 20) endorsed experiencing two or more mTBIs on an empirically validated mTBI assessment tool (median = 3, range = 2-15). The control group (n = 20) denied ever experiencing an mTBI. Participants completed a self-report index of current mTBI symptomatology and underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scanning, which were analyzed using the Freesurfer software package...
April 22, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434159/decreased-hemispheric-connectivity-and-decreased-intra-and-inter-hemisphere-asymmetry-of-resting-state-functional-network-connectivity-in-schizophrenia
#13
O Agcaoglu, R Miller, E Damaraju, B Rashid, J Bustillo, M S Cetin, T G M Van Erp, S McEwen, A Preda, J M Ford, K O Lim, D S Manoach, D H Mathalon, S G Potkin, V D Calhoun
Many studies have shown that schizophrenia patients have aberrant functional network connectivity (FNC) among brain regions, suggesting schizophrenia manifests with significantly diminished (in majority of the cases) connectivity. Schizophrenia is also associated with a lack of hemispheric lateralization. Hoptman et al. (2012) reported lower inter-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia patients compared to controls using voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity. In this study, we merge these two points of views together using a group independent component analysis (gICA)-based approach to generate hemisphere-specific timecourses and calculate intra-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere FNC on a resting state fMRI dataset consisting of age- and gender-balanced 151 schizophrenia patients and 163 healthy controls...
April 22, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434157/general-practitioner-attitudes-towards-prescribing-aspirin-to-carriers-of-lynch-syndrome-findings-from-a-national-survey
#14
Samuel G Smith, Robbie Foy, Jennifer McGowan, Lindsay C Kobayashi, John Burn, Karen Brown, Lucy Side, Jack Cuzick
A dose non-inferiority study comparing 100 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg of aspirin for cancer prevention among Lynch Syndrome carriers is underway (Colorectal Adenoma/Carcinoma Prevention Programme trial 3, CaPP3). To guide implementation of the findings, we investigated general practitioner (GP) attitudes towards aspirin prescribing for Lynch Syndrome carriers. We surveyed 1007 UK GPs (9.6% response rate). Using a within-subjects design, GPs read a statement on harms and benefits of aspirin and indicated their willingness to prescribe aspirin at three doses (100 mg, 300 mg, 600 mg)...
April 22, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434153/machine-learning-xgboost-analysis-of-language-networks-to-classify-patients-with-epilepsy
#15
L Torlay, M Perrone-Bertolotti, E Thomas, M Baciu
Our goal was to apply a statistical approach to allow the identification of atypical language patterns and to differentiate patients with epilepsy from healthy subjects, based on their cerebral activity, as assessed by functional MRI (fMRI). Patients with focal epilepsy show reorganization or plasticity of brain networks involved in cognitive functions, inducing 'atypical' (compared to 'typical' in healthy people) brain profiles. Moreover, some of these patients suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy, and they undergo surgery to stop seizures...
April 22, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434152/compression-garments-and-recovery-from-exercise-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Freddy Brown, Conor Gissane, Glyn Howatson, Ken van Someren, Charles Pedlar, Jessica Hill
BACKGROUND: Adequate recovery from exercise is essential to maintain performance throughout training and competition. While compression garments (CG) have been demonstrated to accelerate recovery, the literature is clouded by conflicting results and uncertainty over the optimal conditions of use. OBJECTIVES: A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of CG on the recovery of strength, power and endurance performance following an initial bout of resistance, running, or non-load-bearing endurance (metabolic) exercise...
April 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434149/solvent-dependent-transformation-of-aflatoxin-b1-in-soil
#17
James M Starr, Blake R Rushing, Mustafa I Selim
To date, all studies of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) transformation in soil or in purified mineral systems have identified aflatoxins B2 (AFB2) and G2 (AFG2) as the primary transformation products. However, identification in these studies was made using thin layer chromatography which has relatively low resolution, and these studies did not identify a viable mechanism by which such transformations would occur. Further, the use of methanol as the solvent delivery vehicle in these studies may have contributed to formation of artifactual transformation products...
April 22, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434142/cancer-genetic-counseling-and-testing-in-an-era-of-rapid-change
#18
Gillian W Hooker, Keelia Rhoads Clemens, John Quillin, Kristen J Vogel Postula, Pia Summerour, Rebecca Nagy, Adam H Buchanan
The impacts of the Association for Molecular Pathology vs. Myriad Supreme Court decision regarding patenting DNA segments and multi-gene testing on cancer genetic counseling practice have not been well described. We aimed to assess genetic counselors' perceptions of how their genetic testing-related practices for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) changed after these events. One-hundred fifty-two genetic counselors from the National Society of Genetic Counselors Cancer Special Interest Group completed an anonymous, online, mixed-methods survey in November 2013...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434141/prescription-appropriateness-of-cyproterone-acetate-ethinylestradiol-in-primary-care-a-population-based-study-in-italy
#19
Francesco Lapi, Monica Simonetti, Iacopo Cricelli, Claudio Cricelli, Nicoletta Cassano, Gino A Vena
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the prescription appropriateness of cyproterone acetate in combination with ethinylestradiol (CPA/EE) in a primary care setting before and after the 2013 European Medicines Agency's (EMA) recommendation relating to the risk profile of CPA/EE. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Health Search IMS Health Longitudinal Patient Database (HSD). We compared the results from 2011 to 2012 with the results of 2014, namely before and after the 2013 EMA recommendation, and investigated the burden of concurrent use of CPA/EE and other hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and the reported indication at the time of CPA/EE prescription...
April 22, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434140/radiation-therapy-for-recurrent-cardiac-undifferentiated-pleomorphic-sarcoma-after-three-operations
#20
Kazunobu Hirooka, Masahiro Oonuki, Susumu Manabe, Daisuke Hiraoka, Takashi Yasukawa, Keiko Suzuki
We report the case of a 57-year-old female suffering from recurrent malignant undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the left atrium. Metastasis to the posterior mediastinum was detected upon first presentation. Incomplete resections were carried out twice before mitral valve replacement was finally performed. The tumor recurred 16 months later and was treated with radiation therapy, which has proved to be effective in bringing about tumor regression for 2 years, to date. The patient has survived for 7 years since the first surgery...
April 22, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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