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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906240/listening-effort-measured-in-adults-with-normal-hearing-and-cochlear-implants
#1
Ann E Perreau, Yu-Hsiang Wu, Bailey Tatge, Diana Irwin, Daniel Corts
BACKGROUND: Studies have examined listening effort in individuals with hearing loss to determine the extent of the impairment. Regarding cochlear implants (CIs), results suggest that listening effort is improved using bilateral CIs compared to unilateral CIs. Few studies have investigated listening effort and outcomes related to the hybrid CI. PURPOSE: Here, we compared listening effort across three CI groups, and to a normal-hearing control group. The impact of listener traits, that is, age, age at onset of hearing loss, duration of CI use, and working memory capacity, were examined relative to listening effort...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904409/biomedical-applications-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates
#2
REVIEW
Subhasree Ray, Vipin Chandra Kalia
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are produced by a large number of microbes under stress conditions such as high carbon (C) availability and limitations of nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and oxygen. Here, microbes store C as granules of PHAs-energy reservoir. PHAs have properties, which are quite similar to those of synthetic plastics. The unique properties, which make them desirable materials for biomedical applications is their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902674/disruption-of-hippocampal-multisynaptic-networks-by-general-anesthetics
#3
Min-Ching Kuo, L Stan Leung
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that synaptic transmission is affected by general anesthetics, but an anesthetic dose response in freely moving animals has not been done. The hippocampus provides a neural network for the evaluation of isoflurane and pentobarbital on multisynaptic transmission that is relevant to memory function. METHODS: Male Long-Evans rats were implanted with multichannel and single electrodes in the hippocampus. Spontaneous local field potentials and evoked field potentials were recorded in freely behaving rats before (baseline) and after various doses of isoflurane (0...
September 12, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885638/speech-recognition-and-cognitive-skills-in-bimodal-cochlear-implant-users
#4
Håkan Hua, Björn Johansson, Lennart Magnusson, Björn Lyxell, Rachel J Ellis
Purpose: To examine the relation between speech recognition and cognitive skills in bimodal cochlear implant (CI) and hearing aid users. Method: Seventeen bimodal CI users (28-74 years) were recruited to the study. Speech recognition tests were carried out in quiet and in noise. The cognitive tests employed included the Reading Span Test and the Trail Making Test (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980; Reitan, 1958, 1992), measuring working memory capacity and processing speed and executive functioning, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861660/shape-memory-activation-can-affect-cell-seeding-of-shape-memory-polymer-scaffolds-designed-for-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#5
Jing Wang, Megan E Brasch, Richard M Baker, Ling-Fang Tseng, Alexis N Peña, James H Henderson
The ability of a three-dimensional scaffold to support cell seeding prior to implantation is a critical criterion for many scaffold-based tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. Shape memory polymer functionality may present important new opportunities and challenges in cell seeding, but the extent to which shape memory activation can positively or negatively affect cell seeding has yet to be reported. The goal of this study was to determine whether shape memory activation can affect cell seeding...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858665/design-considerations-for-a-novel-shape-memory-plate-osteosynthesis-allowing-for-non-invasive-alteration-of-bending-stiffness
#6
Manuel Krämer, Christian W Müller, Maike Hermann, Sebastian Decker, André Springer, Ludger Overmeyer, Christof Hurschler, Ronny Pfeifer
Biomechanical stimuli play a major role in fracture healing. Changing the fixation stiffness through the course of healing might accelerate bone healing and prevent healing complications. Shape memory alloy (SMA) based implants were developed to allow for non-invasive stiffness alteration during the fracture healing process. To gain a deeper understanding of the implant functionality based on the alloy characteristics and geometric design, the mechanical properties of different shape memory alloys where mechanically characterized...
August 23, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839405/comparative-alveolar-ridge-preservation-using-allogenous-tooth-graft-versus-free-dried-bone-allograft-a-randomized-controlled-prospective-clinical-pilot-study
#7
Chaitanya Pradeep Joshi, Cynthia Bernardo D'Lima, Urmila Chandrashekhar Samat, Prerna Ashok Karde, Agraja Ganpat Patil, Nitin Hemchandra Dani
BACKGROUND: For the first time in India, allografts from human extracted teeth were prepared. A randomized, prospective, clinicoradiographical, histological study was conducted to evaluate their efficacy in comparison with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) in alveolar ridge preservation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Graft preparation: with written consent, teeth were collected from three donors (full mouth extraction cases). Once donors' serums were tested negative for HIV, HBV, HCV, and Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), mineralized whole tooth allograft (WTA) and dentin allograft (DA) were prepared using the standard protocol of Tissue Bank at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India...
April 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832639/single-neuron-recordings-of-bilinguals-performing-in-a-continuous-recognition-memory-task
#8
Erika K Hussey, Kiel Christianson, David M Treiman, Kris A Smith, Peter N Steinmetz
We report the results of a bilingual continuous recognition memory task during which single- and multi-neuron activity was recorded in human subjects with intracranial microwire implants. Subjects (n = 5) were right-handed Spanish-English bilinguals who were undergoing evaluation prior to surgery for severe epilepsy. Subjects were presented with Spanish and English words and the task was to determine whether any given word had been seen earlier in the testing session, irrespective of the language in which it had appeared...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812353/dopamine-incorporated-dual-bioactive-electroactive-shape-memory-polyurethane-elastomers-with-physiological-shape-recovery-temperature-high-stretchability-and-enhanced-c2c12-myogenic-differentiation
#9
Xin Zhao, Ruonan Dong, Baolin Guo, Peter X Ma
Soft tissue engineering needs elastic biomaterials not only mimicking the elasticity of soft tissue but also possessing multiple bioactivity to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation, which still remain ongoing challenges. Herein, we synthesized a series of dopamine-incorporated dual bioactive electroactive shape memory polyurethane elastomers by combining the properties of elastomeric poly(citric acid-co-polycaprolactone) (CA-PCL) polyurethane elastomer, bioactive dopamine (DA), and electroactive aniline hexamer (AH)...
August 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806341/impact-of-cochlear-implantation-on-cognitive-functions-of-older-adults-pilot-test-results
#10
Dona M P Jayakody, Peter L Friedland, Esmeralda Nel, Ralph N Martins, Marcus D Atlas, Hamid R Sohrabi
BACKGROUND: A significant relationship between hearing loss and cognitive impairment has been previously reported. Overall, improvement in speech perception in quiet and quality of life has been observed after cochlear implantation. However, the impact of hearing loss treatment using cochlear implantation on cognitive functions is yet to be fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of cochlear implantation on cognitive and psychological functions of older adults...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806337/the-sound-quality-of-cochlear-implants-studies-with-single-sided-deaf-patients
#11
Michael F Dorman, Sarah Cook Natale, Austin M Butts, Daniel M Zeitler, Matthew L Carlson
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to assess the sound quality of a cochlear implant for single-sided deaf (SSD) patients fit with a cochlear implant (CI). BACKGROUND: One of the fundamental, unanswered questions in CI research is "what does an implant sound like?" Conventional CI patients must use the memory of a clean signal, often decades old, to judge the sound quality of their CIs. In contrast, SSD-CI patients can rate the similarity of a clean signal presented to the CI ear and candidate, CI-like signals presented to the ear with normal hearing...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805824/flexible-shape-memory-scaffold-for-minimally-invasive-delivery-of-functional-tissues
#12
Miles Montgomery, Samad Ahadian, Locke Davenport Huyer, Mauro Lo Rito, Robert A Civitarese, Rachel D Vanderlaan, Jun Wu, Lewis A Reis, Abdul Momen, Saeed Akbari, Aric Pahnke, Ren-Ke Li, Christopher A Caldarone, Milica Radisic
Despite great progress in engineering functional tissues for organ repair, including the heart, an invasive surgical approach is still required for their implantation. Here, we designed an elastic and microfabricated scaffold using a biodegradable polymer (poly(octamethylene maleate (anhydride) citrate)) for functional tissue delivery via injection. The scaffold's shape memory was due to the microfabricated lattice design. Scaffolds and cardiac patches (1 cm × 1 cm) were delivered through an orifice as small as 1 mm, recovering their initial shape following injection without affecting cardiomyocyte viability and function...
August 14, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777058/causal-evidence-from-humans-for-the-role-of-mediodorsal-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-in-working-memory
#13
Jari Peräkylä, Lihua Sun, Kai Lehtimäki, Jukka Peltola, Juha Öhman, Timo Möttönen, Keith H Ogawa, Kaisa M Hartikainen
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) with its extensive connections to the lateral pFC has been implicated in human working memory and executive functions. However, this understanding is based solely on indirect evidence from human lesion and imaging studies and animal studies. Direct, causal evidence from humans is missing. To obtain direct evidence for MD's role in humans, we studied patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory epilepsy. This treatment is thought to prevent the generalization of a seizure by disrupting the functioning of the patient's anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT) with high-frequency electric stimulation...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776630/metal-allergy-as-a-cause-of-implant-failure-in-shoulder-arthroplasty
#14
Jia-Wei Kevin Ko, Thema A Nicholson, C Edward Hoffler, Gerald Williams, Charles Getz
Metal allergy is an uncommon and poorly understood cause of failure of orthopedic implants. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no reports of the management of shoulder arthroplasty patients with metal allergy. The authors present their experience with the diagnosis and management of patients with metal allergy. Patients with metal allergy undergoing shoulder arthroplasty were identified through retrospective chart review from January 1, 2012, to January 31, 2015. Case characteristics collected included patient risk factors (age, sex, prior cutaneous reactions to metal), metal allergy factors (type of metal allergy, method of diagnosis), and surgery factors (implant type, primary/revision, type of shoulder arthroplasty)...
August 3, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774685/in-vitro-performance-of-a-shape-memory-polymer-foam-coated-coil-embolization-device
#15
Anthony J Boyle, Mark A Wierzbicki, Scott Herting, Andrew C Weems, Adam Nathan, Wonjun Hwang, Duncan J Maitland
Intracranial saccular aneurysm treatment using endovascular embolization devices are limited by aneurysm recurrence that can lead to aneurysm rupture. A shape memory polymer (SMP) foam-coated coil (FCC) embolization device was designed to increase packing density and improve tissue healing compared to current commercial devices. FCC devices were fabricated and tested using in vitro models to assess feasibility for clinical treatment of intracranial saccular aneurysms. FCC devices demonstrated smooth delivery through tortuous pathways similar to control devices as well as greater than 10 min working time for clinical repositioning during deployment...
July 31, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772412/biocompatibility-and-inflammatory-potential-of-titanium-alloys-cultivated-with-human-osteoblasts-fibroblasts-and-macrophages
#16
Jana Markhoff, Martin Krogull, Christian Schulze, Christian Rotsch, Sandra Hunger, Rainer Bader
The biomaterials used to maintain or replace functions in the human body consist mainly of metals, ceramics or polymers. In orthopedic surgery, metallic materials, especially titanium and its alloys, are the most common, due to their excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Aside from the established Ti6Al4V alloy, shape memory materials such as nickel-titanium (NiTi) have risen in importance, but are also discussed because of the adverse effects of nickel ions. These might be reduced by specific surface modifications...
January 10, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743131/the-spatial-extent-of-epiretinal-electrical-stimulation-in-the-healthy-mouse-retina
#17
Zohreh Hosseinazdeh, Archana Jalligampala, Eberhart Zrenner, Daniel Lleweylln Rathbun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinal prostheses use electrical stimulation to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinitis pigmentosa. A key detail is the spatial pattern of ganglion cells activated by stimulation. Therefore, we characterized the spatial extent of network-mediated electrical activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the epiretinal monopolar electrode configuration. METHODS: Healthy mouse RGC activities were recorded with a micro-electrode array (MEA)...
July 26, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736431/combined-blockade-of-t-cell-immunoglobulin-and-mucin-domain-3-and-carcinoembryonic-antigen-related-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-results-in-durable-therapeutic-efficacy-in-mice-with-intracranial-gliomas
#18
Jinhu Li, Xiaodong Liu, Yijun Duan, Yueting Liu, Hongqin Wang, Shizhong Lian, Guotao Zhuang, Yimin Fan
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) evades immune surveillance by inducing immunosuppression via receptor-ligand interactions between immune checkpoint molecules. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) is a key checkpoint receptor responsible for exhaustion and dysfunction of T cells and plays a critical role in immunosuppression. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) has been recently identified as a heterophilic ligand for Tim-3. MATERIAL AND METHODS We established an intracranial GBM model using C57BL/6 mice and GL261 cells, and treated the mice with single or combined monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Tim-3/CEACAM1...
July 24, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729826/sleep-dependent-oscillatory-synchronization-a-role-in-fear-memory-consolidation
#19
Michael S Totty, Logan A Chesney, Phillip A Geist, Subimal Datta
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation through the facilitation of neuronal plasticity; however, how sleep accomplishes this remains to be completely understood. It has previously been demonstrated that neural oscillations are an intrinsic mechanism by which the brain precisely controls neural ensembles. Inter-regional synchronization of these oscillations is also known to facilitate long-range communication and long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, we investigated how the characteristic rhythms found in local field potentials (LFPs) during non-REM and REM sleep play a role in emotional memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724130/early-postimplant-speech-perception-and-language-skills-predict-long-term-language-and-neurocognitive-outcomes-following-pediatric-cochlear-implantation
#20
Cynthia R Hunter, William G Kronenberger, Irina Castellanos, David B Pisoni
Purpose: We sought to determine whether speech perception and language skills measured early after cochlear implantation in children who are deaf, and early postimplant growth in speech perception and language skills, predict long-term speech perception, language, and neurocognitive outcomes. Method: Thirty-six long-term users of cochlear implants, implanted at an average age of 3.4 years, completed measures of speech perception, language, and executive functioning an average of 14...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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