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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126650/plasticity-in-the-auditory-system
#1
REVIEW
Dexter R F Irvine
Over the last 30 years a wide range of manipulations of auditory input and experience have been shown to result in plasticity in auditory cortical and subcortical structures. The time course of plasticity ranges from very rapid stimulus-specific adaptation to longer-term changes associated with, for example, partial hearing loss or perceptual learning. Evidence for plasticity as a consequence of these and a range of other manipulations of auditory input and/or its significance is reviewed, with an emphasis on plasticity in adults and in the auditory cortex...
October 31, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121171/recognition-and-comprehension-of-narrow-focus-by-young-adults-with-prelingual-hearing-loss-using-hearing-aids-or-cochlear-implants
#2
Osnat Segal, Liat Kishon-Rabin
Purpose: The stressed word in a sentence (narrow focus [NF]) conveys information about the intent of the speaker and is therefore important for processing spoken language and in social interactions. The ability of participants with severe-to-profound prelingual hearing loss to comprehend NF has rarely been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the recognition and comprehension of NF by young adults with prelingual hearing loss compared with those of participants with normal hearing (NH)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116427/cart-neurons-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-communicate-with-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-via-glutamatergic-neurons-in-paraventricular-thalamic-nucleus-to-modulate-reward-behavior
#3
Amit G Choudhary, Amita R Somalwar, Sneha Sagarkar, Abhishek Rale, Amul Sakharkar, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) serves as a transit node processing food and drug-associated reward information, but its afferents and efferents have not been fully defined. We test the hypothesis that the CART neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) project to the PVT neurons, which in turn communicate via the glutamatergic fibers with the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), the canonical site for reward. Rats conditioned to self-stimulate via an electrode in the right LH-medial forebrain bundle were used...
November 7, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114199/brain-implants-to-erase-memories
#4
Walter Glannon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106065/fast-setting-silk-fibroin-bioink-for-bioprinting-of-patient-specific-memory-shape-implants
#5
João B Costa, Joana Silva-Correia, Joaquim M Oliveira, Rui L Reis
The pursuit for the "perfect" biomimetic and personalized implant for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration remains a big challenge. 3D printing technology that makes use of a novel and promising biomaterials can be part of the solution. In this study, a fast setting enzymatic-crosslinked silk fibroin (SF) bioink for 3D bioprinting is developed. Their properties are fine-tuned and different structures with good resolution, reproducibility, and reliability can be fabricated. Many potential applications exist for the SF bioinks including 3D bioprinted scaffolds and patient-specific implants exhibiting unique characteristics such as good mechanical properties, memory-shape feature, suitable degradation, and tunable pore architecture and morphology...
November 6, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094068/verbal-working-memory-and-inhibition-concentration-in-adults-with-cochlear-implants
#6
Aaron C Moberly, Derek M Houston, Michael S Harris, Oliver F Adunka, Irina Castellanos
Objectives: Neurocognitive functions contribute to speech recognition in postlingual adults with cochlear implants (CIs). In particular, better verbal working memory (WM) on modality-specific (auditory) WM tasks predicts better speech recognition. It remains unclear, however, whether this association can be attributed to basic underlying modality-general neurocognitive functions, or whether it is solely a result of the degraded nature of auditory signals delivered by the CI. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) Both modality-specific and modality-general tasks of verbal WM would predict scores of sentence recognition in speech-shaped noise; 2) Basic modality-general neurocognitive functions of controlled fluency and inhibition-concentration would predict both modality-specific and modality-general verbal WM; and 3) Scores on both tasks of verbal WM would mediate the effects of more basic neurocognitive functions on sentence recognition...
October 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083102/post-crosslinked-polyurethanes-with-excellent-shape-memory-property
#7
Wenkai Liu, Yun Zhao, Rong Wang, Jiehua Li, Jianshu Li, Feng Luo, Hong Tan, Qiang Fu
Shape-memory polymers are highly desirable in implant biomaterials for minimally invasive surgical procedures. However, most of them lack suitable transition temperature, mechanical properties, and biodegradability. Here, a series of shape-memory polyurethanes are synthesized by postcrosslinking in hard-segment domains using a flexible crosslinker. The materials used are all nontoxic and biodegradable. Through postcrosslinking of unsaturated linear polyurethanes with flexible and biodegradable crosslinker, the crosslinked polyurethanes (CPUs) show good mechanical properties, excellent shape-memory property, and repeatability...
October 30, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075747/verbal-working-memory-in-children-with-cochlear-implants
#8
Susan Nittrouer, Amanda Caldwell-Tarr, Keri E Low, Joanna H Lowenstein
Purpose: Verbal working memory in children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing was examined. Participants: Ninety-three fourth graders (47 with normal hearing, 46 with cochlear implants) participated, all of whom were in a longitudinal study and had working memory assessed 2 years earlier. Method: A dual-component model of working memory was adopted, and a serial recall task measured storage and processing. Potential predictor variables were phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, nonverbal IQ, and several treatment variables...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066873/application-of-a-computer-based-neurocognitive-assessment-battery-in-the-elderly-with-and-without-hearing-loss
#9
Christiane Völter, Lisa Götze, Michael Falkenstein, Stefan Dazert, Jan Peter Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Due to demographic changes, the number of people suffering not only from dementia illness but also from hearing impairment with the need for hearing rehabilitation have increased noticeably. Even with the association between hearing, age, and cognitive decline being well known, this issue has so far not played an important role in daily clinical Ear Nose Throat settings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a computer-based battery of tests of neurocognitive abilities in older patients with and without hearing loss...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064045/long-term-outcome-of-catheter-ablation-and-other-form-of-therapy-for-electrical-storm-in-patients-with-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillators
#10
Stanislaw Morawski, Patrycja Pruszkowska, Beata Sredniawa, Radoslaw Lenarczyk, Zbigniew Kalarus
PURPOSE: Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for electrical storm (ES) has become a widely used therapeutic method. Its effectiveness in comparison to other forms of ES treatment is however uncertain. METHODS: This single-centre retrospective study investigated the long-term clinical outcome after RFCA for ES and compared long-time effects of ablation to other forms of treatment. The study population consisted of 70 consecutive patients hospitalised between January 2010 and June 2015 due to ES...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060735/a-sub-nj-cmos-ecg-classifier-for-wireless-smart-sensor
#11
Paul Chollet, Remi Pallas, Cyril Lahuec, Matthieu Arzel, Fabrice Seguin
Body area sensor networks hold the promise of more efficient and cheaper medical care services through the constant monitoring of physiological markers such as heart beats. Continuously transmitting the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal requires most of the wireless ECG sensor energy budget. This paper presents the analog implantation of a classifier for ECG signals that can be embedded onto a sensor. The classifier is a sparse neural associative memory. It is implemented using the ST 65 nm CMOS technology and requires only 234 pJ per classification while achieving a 93...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060217/chronic-multi-region-recording-from-the-rat-hippocampus-in-vivo-with-a-flexible-parylene-based-multi-electrode-array
#12
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman, Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song
Neural activities of free-moving animals provide valuable insights into behavior, memory formation and cognitive function of the hippocampus. Unitary activities simultaneously recorded from multiple sub-regions of the hippocampus enable detailed study of hippocampal neural circuits, but require high fidelity recordings with high temporal and spatial resolution. In this work, we explored the possibility of using Parylene-C as the structural material for a penetrating, multi-electrode array designed to record from multiple sub-region of the rat hippocampus...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042188/network-based-brain-stimulation-selectively-impairs-spatial-retrieval
#13
Kamin Kim, Amber Schedlbauer, Matthew Rollo, Suganya Karunakaran, Arne D Ekstrom, Nitin Tandon
BACKGROUND: Direct brain stimulation via electrodes implanted for intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) permits the modulation of endogenous electrical signals with significantly greater spatial and temporal specificity than non-invasive approaches. It also allows for the stimulation of deep brain structures important to memory, such as the hippocampus, that are difficult, if not impossible, to target non-invasively. Direct stimulation studies of these deep memory structures, though, have produced mixed results, with some reporting improvement, some impairment, and others, no consistent changes...
October 5, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038222/post-training-reversible-disconnection-of-the-ventral-hippocampal-basolateral-amygdaloid-circuits-impairs-consolidation-of-inhibitory-avoidance-memory-in-rats
#14
Gong-Wu Wang, Jian Liu, Xiao-Qin Wang
The ventral hippocampus (VH) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are both crucial in inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory. However, the exact role of the VH-BLA circuit in IA memory consolidation is unclear. This study investigated the effect of post-training reversible disconnection of the VH-BLA circuit in IA memory consolidation. Male Wistar rats with implanted guide cannulae were trained with a one-trial IA task, then received immediate intracerebral injections of muscimol or saline, and were tested 24 h later...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034573/memory-encoding-related-anterior-hippocampal-potentials-are-modulated-by-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-entorhinal-area
#15
Niels Hansen, Leila Chaieb, Marlene Derner, Kevin G Hampel, Christian E Elger, Rainer Surges, Bernhard Staresina, Nikolai Axmacher, Juergen Fell
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the human entorhinal area using 50 Hz pulses has revealed conflicting results regarding memory performance. Moreover, its impact on memory-related hippocampal potentials has not yet been investigated. METHODS: We recorded data from seven epilepsy patients implanted with depth electrodes in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and parahippocampal cortex. Entorhinal DBS (bipolar, biphasic 50 Hz pulses, on- and off-cycles of 15 s) was applied with low amplitude (0...
October 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987618/involvement-of-cannabinoid-system-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-on-delay-based-decision-making-in-the-rat
#16
Zahra Fatahi, Bahman Sadeghi, Abbas Haghparast
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a fundamental role in decision making and anticipation of reward. In addition, exogenous cannabinoids affect the behavior of humans and animals including disruption of short-term memory and cognitive impairments. Therefore, in this study, cannabinoid agonist and antagonist were administrated into the NAc to determine the effect of cannabinoid activation in the entire NAc on delay-based decision making. Rats were trained on a cost-benefit T-maze decision making task in which the animals were well-trained to choose between a small/immediate reward and a large/delay reward...
October 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987052/recovered-memories-in-clinical-practice-a-research-review
#17
REVIEW
Joanna Ulatowska, Maryla Sawicka
The problem of recovered memories concerns not only psychiatry, psychology or psychotherapy but it is also an important legal and judicial issue. Clinicians, scientists and lawyers are in unsolved dispute, called "memory wars", concerning the credibility of these memories, especially if they were recovered following specific therapeutic techniques or using self-help books. Many cases of recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse brought legal action against alleged offender. Investigations showed, however, that some of these memories were false...
August 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986438/decidual-t-cells-exhibit-a-highly-differentiated-phenotype-and-demonstrate-potential-fetal-specificity-and-a-strong-transcriptional-response-to-ifn
#18
Richard M Powell, David Lissauer, Jennifer Tamblyn, Andrew Beggs, Philip Cox, Paul Moss, Mark D Kilby
Immune tolerance during human pregnancy is maintained by a range of modifications to the local and systemic maternal immune system. Lymphoid infiltration is seen at the implantation site of the fetal-maternal interface, and decidual NK cells have been demonstrated to facilitate extravillous trophoblast invasion into maternal decidua during the first trimester, optimizing hemochorial placentation. However, although there is considerable T cell infiltration of the maternal decidua, the functional properties of this T cell response remain poorly defined...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978234/the-hippocampus-and-amygdala-are-integrators-of-neocortical-influence-a-cortico-cortical-evoked-potential-study
#19
Pierre Mégevand, David M Groppe, Stephan Bickel, Manuel R Mercier, Matthew S Goldfinger, Corey J Keller, Laszlo Entz, Ashesh D Mehta
Brain stimulation is increasingly viewed as an effective approach to treat neuropsychiatric disease. The brain's organization in distributed networks suggests that the activity of a remote brain structure could be modulated by stimulating cortical areas that strongly connect to the target. Most connections between cerebral areas are asymmetric, and a better understanding of the relative direction of information flow along connections could improve the targeting of stimulation to influence deep brain structures...
October 5, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952598/finite-element-simulation-and-additive-manufacturing-of-stiffness-matched-niti-fixation-hardware-for-mandibular-reconstruction-surgery
#20
Ahmadreza Jahadakbar, Narges Shayesteh Moghaddam, Amirhesam Amerinatanzi, David Dean, Haluk E Karaca, Mohammad Elahinia
Process parameters and post-processing heat treatment techniques have been developed to produce both shape memory and superelastic NiTi using Additive Manufacturing. By introducing engineered porosity, the stiffness of NiTi can be tuned to the level closely matching cortical bone. Using additively manufactured porous superelastic NiTi, we have proposed the use of patient-specific, stiffness-matched fixation hardware, for mandible skeletal reconstructive surgery. Currently, Ti-6Al-4V is the most commonly used material for skeletal fixation devices...
December 19, 2016: Bioengineering
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