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cephalosporin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471486/selection-of-hyperproduction-of-ampc-and-sme-1-in-a-carbapenem-resistant-serratia-marcescens-isolate-during-antibiotic-therapy
#1
Peera Hemarajata, Thomas Amick, Shangxin Yang, Aric Gregson, Cameron Holzmeyer, Karen Bush, Romney M Humphries
Objectives: Antibiotic selective pressure may result in changes to antimicrobial susceptibility throughout the course of infection, especially for organisms that harbour chromosomally encoded AmpC β-lactamases, notably Enterobacter spp., in which hyperexpression of ampC may be induced following treatment with cephalosporins. In this study, we document a case of bacteraemia caused by a blaSME-1-harbouring Serratia marcescens that subsequently developed resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, piperacillin/tazobactam and fluoroquinolones, over the course of several months of treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam and ciprofloxacin...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471305/humanized-exposures-of-cefiderocol-a-siderophore-cephalosporin-display-sustained-in-vivo-activity-against-siderophore-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Islam M Ghazi, Marguerite L Monogue, Masakatsu Tsuji, David P Nicolau
We evaluated the in vivo efficacy of humanized exposures of cefiderocol, a novel siderophore cephalosporin, against a test panel of P. aeruginosa (PSA) previously shown to develop resistance to 2 preclinical candidate siderophores (MB-1 and SMC-3176). In the thigh infection model, the PSA bacterial density in untreated controls grew from 5.54 ± 0.23 to 8.68 ± 0.57 log10 CFU over 24 h. The humanized cefiderocol exposure resulted in >1 log10 CFU reduction in all 8 isolates, while MB-1 and SMC-3176 exhibited variable activity similar to that previously reported...
February 22, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466931/comparative-in-vitro-activity-of-ceftaroline-and-comparator-agents-against-nosocomial-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-clinically-significant-bacterial-isolates-from-patients-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-kuwait
#3
Wafaa Jamal, Hayfaa Abdulkareem, Vincent O Rotimi
The objective was to test the in vitro activities of ceftaroline and comparator agents against clinical isolates of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Isolates were identified with VITEK II. Susceptibility testing was with E test. A total of 1264 isolates were tested. Compared to other cephalosporins, ceftaroline demonstrated excellent in vitro activities (MIC90 , ≤0.5 mg/L) against Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Haemophilus influenzae. When matched with the comparator cephalosporins, ceftaroline demonstrated the greatest activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), with MIC90 of 0...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465687/molecular-characterization-of-markers-associated-with-antimicrobial-resistance-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-identified-from-residual-clinical-samples
#4
Johan H Melendez, Justin Hardick, Mathilda Barnes, Perry Barnes, Christopher D Geddes, Charlotte A Gaydos
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is a major public health concern. In the era of nucleic acid amplifications tests (NAATs), rapid and accurate molecular approaches are needed to help increase surveillance, guide antimicrobial stewardship, and prevent outbreaks. METHODS: Residual urethral swabs, collected prospectively in the Baltimore City Health Department during a six-month period, were analyzed by real-time PCR assays for NG DNA and AMR determinants to fluoroquinolones, penicillin, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs)...
November 7, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463654/emergence-of-an-extensively-drug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-clone-harboring-a-promiscuous-plasmid-encoding-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-and-third-generation-cephalosporins
#5
Elizabeth J Klemm, Sadia Shakoor, Andrew J Page, Farah Naz Qamar, Kim Judge, Dania K Saeed, Vanessa K Wong, Timothy J Dallman, Satheesh Nair, Stephen Baker, Ghazala Shaheen, Shahida Qureshi, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Muhammad Khalid Saleem, Zahra Hasan, Gordon Dougan, Rumina Hasan
Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are prevalent in parts of Asia and Africa and are often associated with the dominant H58 haplotype. Reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is also widespread, and sporadic cases of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins or azithromycin have also been reported. Here, we report the first large-scale emergence and spread of a novel S Typhi clone harboring resistance to three first-line drugs (chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) as well as fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in Sindh, Pakistan, which we classify as extensively drug resistant (XDR)...
February 20, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449171/changes-in-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-commonly-clinically-significant-isolates-before-and-after-the-interventions-on-surgical-prophylactic-antibiotics-spas-in-shanghai
#6
Su Wang, Li-Zhong Han, Yu-Xing Ni, Yi-Bo Zhang, Qun Wang, Da-Ke Shi, Wen-Hui Li, Yi-Chen Wang, Chen-Rong Mi
Surveillances and interventions on antibiotics use have been suggested to improve serious drug-resistance worldwide. Since 2007, our hospital have proposed many measures for regulating surgical prophylactic antibiotics (carbapenems, third gen. cephalosporins, vancomycin, etc.) prescribing practices, like formulary restriction or replacement for surgical prophylactic antibiotics and timely feedback. To assess the impacts on drug-resistance after interventions, we enrolled infected patients in 2006 (pre-intervention period) and 2014 (post-intervention period) in a tertiary hospital in Shanghai...
February 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448036/molecular-characterization-of-multidrug-pneumococcal-clones-colonizing-healthy-children-in-m%C3%A3-rida-venezuela
#7
Beatríz Quintero Moreno, María Araque
We analyzed genetics mechanisms of antibiotics resistance, clonal composition and pili in forty eight MDR-pneumococci isolated from healthy children in Mérida, Venezuela. Intermediate resistance to penicillin was related to variations on pbp2b and pbp2x genes. High-level resistance to penicillin, low susceptibility to cephalosporins and carbapenems were associated with alterations on pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x genes. Non-beta-lactam resistance was associated with Tn3872, Tn5253, Tn6002, Tn2010 transposons. Macrolide-resistant strains carried ermB or mefE, but not the mefA gene...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432584/fitness-tradeoffs-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-extra-intestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#8
Prabh Basra, Ahlam Alsaadi, Gabriel Bernal-Astrain, Michael Liam O'Sullivan, Bryn Hazlett, Leah Marie Clarke, Andrew Schoenrock, Sylvain Pitre, Alex Wong
Evolutionary trade-offs occur when selection on one trait has detrimental effects on other traits. In pathogenic microbes, it has been hypothesized that antibiotic resistance trades off with fitness in the absence of antibiotic. While studies of single resistance mutations support this hypothesis, it is unclear whether trade-offs are maintained over time, due to compensatory evolution and broader effects of genetic background. Here, we leverage natural variation in 39 extra-intestinal clinical isolates of Escherichia coli to assess trade-offs between growth rates and resistance to fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin antibiotics...
February 7, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432348/trends-of-incidence-and-risk-factors-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-elderly-patients-admitted-to-french-icus-between-2007-and-2014
#9
Cédric Dananché, Philippe Vanhems, Anaïs Machut, Martine Aupée, Caroline Bervas, François L'Hériteau, Alain Lepape, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Vincent Stoeckel, Jean-François Timsit, Anne Berger-Carbonne, Anne Savey, Thomas Bénet
OBJECTIVES: To assess trends and risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia according to age, particularly in the elderly admitted to French ICUs between 2007 and 2014. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective French national Healthcare-Associated Infection surveillance network of ICUs ("Réseau REA-Raisin"). SETTINGS: Two-hundred fifty six ICUs in 246 settings in France. PATIENTS: Included were all adult patients hospitalized greater than or equal to 48 hours in ICUs participating in the network...
February 9, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429394/understanding-the-resistance-mechanism-of-penicillin-binding-protein-1a-mutant-against-cefotaxime-using-molecular-dynamic-simulation
#10
Esmaeil Behmard, Ali Najafi, Ali Ahmadi
Antibiotic resistance is a threatening challenge for global health, as the expansion of resistance to current antibiotics has made serious therapeutic problems. Genome mutations are key evolutionary mechanisms conferring antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. For example, penicillin and cephalosporins resistance is mostly mediated by mutations in penicillin binding proteins to change the affinity of the drug. Accordingly, threonine point mutations were reported to develop antibiotic resistance in various bacterial infections including pneumococcal infections...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429295/-etiological-and-drug-sensitivity-analysis-of-lacrimal-canaliculitis
#11
Y Zhang, S J Deng, Z Q Wang, J W Ding, X G Sun
Objective: To analyze the etiology and drug sensitivity of lacrimal canaliculitis. Methods: Retrospective study of case series. The general information, culture results and drug sensitivity results of 52 patients (including 10 males and 42 females with an average age of 60.3 years) clinically diagnosed with lacrimal canaliculitis during 2011 and 2016 at Beijing Tongren Hospital of Capital Medical University have been analyzed. The enumeration data have been tested with Chi-square method. Results: The positive rate of bacterial culture was 78...
February 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428755/salmonella-enterica-and-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-recovered-from-holstein-dairy-calves-from-8-farms-in-new-brunswick-canada
#12
Babafela Awosile, J McClure, Javier Sanchez, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Greg Keefe, Luke C Heider
This study was carried out to determine the frequency of fecal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility, and resistance genes in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) isolated from 488 dairy calves from 8 farms in New Brunswick, Canada. Both S. enterica and E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ESC were isolated using selective culture. Minimum inhibitory concentrations to a panel of antimicrobial drugs were determined for randomly selected E...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428362/changes-in-antimicrobial-resistance-and-demographics-of-utis-in-pediatric-patients-in-a-single-institution-over-a-6-year-period
#13
B Erol, M Culpan, H Caskurlu, U Sari, Y Cag, H Vahaboglu, S H Özumut, M I Karaman, T Caskurlu
PURPOSE: To determine changes in antimicrobial resistance and demographics of UTIs in pediatric patients in a single institution over a 6-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study examined outpatient urinary isolates from patients aged <18 years. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of bacteria isolated from children with UTI was performed between 2009 and 2014. The most common bacterial pathogens were determined in the following four age groups: <2 years; 2-5 years; 6-12 years; and 13-17 years...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427501/infections-complicating-cirrhosis
#14
REVIEW
Salvatore Piano, Alessandra Brocca, Sara Mareso, Paolo Angeli
Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk of bacterial infections. Bacterial infections induce systemic inflammation that may lead to organ failure and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) resulting in a high risk of short term mortality. The early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections is essential to improve the patient's prognosis. However, in recent years, the spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has reduced the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422945/differences-between-the-antibiotic-prescribing-pattern-of-newly-arrived-refugees-in-germany-and-the-german-population
#15
Fabian Kahl, Thomas Kühlein
The number of refugees arriving in Europe increased dramatically in 2015, challenging the German health system. Amongst others, the treatment of infectious diseases is an important topic in refugee healthcare. A high prevalence of multi-drug-resistant organisms has been identified among the refugee population. Still, little is known about the prescription of antibiotic medication for refugees. We conducted a descriptive analysis of all antibiotics prescribed to newly arrived refugees who were treated as outpatients between 10/01/2014 and 09/30/2015 in Erlangen, an average sized German town...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421316/in-vitro-activity-of-novel-anti-mrsa-comparator-agents-against-staphylococci-involved-in-prosthetic-joint-infections
#16
Christophe Isnard, Anne Dhalluin, Damasie Malandain, Quentin Bruey, Michel Auzou, Jocelyn Michon, Jean-Christophe Giard, François Guérin, Vincent Cattoir
OBJECTIVES: Ceftaroline and ceftobiprole are new parenteral cephalosporins with potent activity against methicillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci, which are the leading cause of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). The aim of the study was to determine and compare in vitro activities of both molecules against staphylococcal isolates recovered from clinically-documented PJIs. METHODS: A collection of 200 non-redundant clinical isolates (100 Staphylococcus aureus and 100 coagulase-negative staphylococci [CoNS], including 19 and 27 MR isolates, respectively) was studied...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415186/microbial-spectrum-of-intra-abdominal-abscesses-in-perforating-crohn-s-disease-results-from-a-prospective-german-registry
#17
P A Reuken, W Kruis, C Maaser, N Teich, J Büning, J C Preiß, R Schmelz, T Bruns, S Fichtner-Feigl, A Stallmach
Background: Intra-abdominal abscesses (IAA) are common life threatening complications in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). In addition to interventional drainage and surgical therapy, empirical antibiotic therapy represents a corner stone of treatment but contemporary data on microbial spectra and antimicrobial resistance are scarce. Methods: We recruited 105 patients with CD and IAA from 9 German centers for a prospective registry in order to characterize the microbiological spectrum, resistance profiles, antibiotic therapy and outcome...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410657/multiple-food-animal-borne-route-in-transmission-of-antibiotic-resistant-salmonella-newport-to-humans
#18
Hang Pan, Narayan Paudyal, Xiaoliang Li, Weihuan Fang, Min Yue
Characterization of transmission routes of Salmonella among various food-animal reservoirs and their antibiogram is crucial for appropriate intervention and medical treatment. Here, we analyzed 3728 Salmonella enterica serovar Newport ( S. Newport) isolates collected from various food-animals, retail meats and humans in the United States between 1996 and 2015, based on their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) toward 27 antibiotics. Random Forest and Hierarchical Clustering statistic was used to group the isolates according to their MICs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410253/global-forecast-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-invasive-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#19
Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Sumanth Gandra, Siddhartha Mandal, Ramanan Laxminarayan
OBJECTIVES: To project future antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. METHODS: Mixed linear models were constructed from a sample of countries with AMR data in the ResistanceMap database. Inverse probability weighting methods were used to account for countries without AMR data. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of AMR in 2015 was 64.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 42-87%) for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) Escherichia coli, 5...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410029/sustained-multimodal-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-an-australian-tertiary-intensive-care-unit-from-2008-2015-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#20
Suman Adhikari, Michael Piza, Peter Taylor, Kush Deshpande, Doris Lam, Pam Konecny
The long term outcomes and sustainability of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) require evaluation. This study analysed the effect of a multimodal ICU AMS introduced in a 15-bed medical-surgical tertiary Australian adult ICU in November, 2008, with interrupted time-series analysis of antibiotic usage, resistance and cost from November 2005-October 2015, including national ICU average usage as a control. Overall ICU mortality, 30-day blood stream infection (BSI) mortality and length of stay (LOS) were compared over the same period...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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