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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820112/prevalence-study-of-plasmid-mediated-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-enterobacteriaceae-lacking-inducible-ampc-from-saudi-hospitals
#1
Baha Abdalhamid, Samar Albunayan, Alaa Shaikh, Nasreldin Elhadi, Reem Aljindan
PURPOSE: Enterobacteriaceae encoding plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) β-lactamases confer resistance to the third generation cephalosporins. pAmpC association with extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AMEs) is well documented. There are limited data regarding the epidemiology and clinical significance of pAmpC in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of pAmpC and its coexistence with ESBLs, PMQR and AMEs in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates in Saudi hospitals from January to December 2015...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808689/role-of-ampr-in-the-high-expression-of-the-plasmid-encoded-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-cfe-1
#2
Ryuichi Nakano, Akiyo Nakano, Hisakazu Yano, Ryoichi Okamoto
CFE-1 is a unique plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamase with the regulator gene ampR. It imparts high resistance to most cephalosporins with constitutive high-level β-lactamase activity. Here, the β-lactamase activities and expression levels of ampC with or without ampR were investigated. Results suggested that the resistance of CFE-1 to cephalosporins is caused by a substitution in AmpR, in which the Asp at position 135 is modified to Ala to allow the constitutive high-level expression (derepression) of ampC...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807100/two-cases-of-multi-antibiotic-resistant-cronobacter-spp-infections-of-infants-in-china
#3
Jing Hua Cui, Bo Yu, Yun Xiang, Zhen Zhang, Ting Zhang, Ying Chun Zeng, Zhi Gang Cui, Xi Xiang Huo
Infections by Cronobacter spp. are hazardous to infants since they can lead to neonatal meningitis, bacteremia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Cronobacter spp. are frequently resistant to β-lactam derivatives, macrolides, and aminoglycosides. In addition, multi-resistant strains have also been detected. In China, the isolation rate of Cronobacter spp. from commercial powdered infant formula (PIF) or follow-up formula (FUF) is relatively high. Nevertheless, clinical cases of Cronobacter infection have been ignored to date...
August 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804601/policy-implementation-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-seven-european-countries-a-comparative-analysis-from-1999-to-2015
#4
Takuya Kinoshita, Hironobu Tokumasu, Shiro Tanaka, Axel Kramer, Koji Kawakami
Background: Policies to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, both healthcare-acquired (HA-MRSA) and livestock-associated (LA-MRSA) are implemented Europe-wide, but evaluations are difficult for countries yet to implement such policies. A descriptive study was conducted, describing multinational MRSA rates and policy implementation, focusing on MRSA mandatory surveillance. We also investigated antibiotic use and MRSA rates and the use of veterinary antibiotics. Methods: This study used Europe-wide surveillance data on infectious diseases (EARS-Net), antibiotic consumption (ESAC-Net), and veterinary medicine (ESVAC)...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801276/transferability-of-antimicrobial-resistance-from-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-cattle-in-the-united-states-to-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-newport-recipients
#5
T L Poole, T R Callaway, K N Norman, H M Scott, G H Loneragan, S A Ison, R C Beier, D M Harhay, B Norby, D J Nisbet
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate conjugative transfer of cephalosporin resistance among (n=100) strains of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli (MDRE) to Salmonella Newport and E. coli DH5α recipients. METHODS: Phenotypic and genotypic profiles were determined for MDRE, Salmonella Newport (trSN) and E. coli DH5α (trDH) transconjugants. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent (n=26) and 28% (n=27) of (n=95) MDR E. coli donor isolates transferred resistance to trSN and trDH recipient isolates, respectively...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797330/evolving-beta-lactamase-epidemiology-in-enterobacteriaceae-from-italian-nationwide-surveillance-october-2013-kpc-carbapenemase-spreading-among-outpatients
#6
Tommaso Giani, Alberto Antonelli, Mariasofia Caltagirone, Carola Mauri, Jessica Nicchi, Fabio Arena, Elisabetta Nucleo, Silvia Bracco, Annalisa Pantosti, Francesco Luzzaro, Laura Pagani, Gian Maria Rossolini
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC-type beta-lactamases (ACBLs) and carbapenemases are among the most important resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae. This study investigated the presence of these resistance mechanisms in consecutive non-replicate isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 2,352), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 697), and Proteus mirabilis (n = 275) from an Italian nationwide cross-sectional survey carried out in October 2013. Overall, 15.3% of isolates were non-susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins but susceptible to carbapenems (ESCR-carbaS), while 4...
August 3, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796905/aerobic-uterine-isolates-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-mares-with-post-partum-metritis
#7
M S Ferrer, R Palomares
BACKGROUND: The potential for life-threatening complications of metritis requires prompt initiation of antimicrobial treatment, often before microbiological test results are reported. However, published studies to guide first-line antibiotic selection are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To report the most frequent bacterial species, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cases of equine metritis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of uterine bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results from mares with metritis...
August 10, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789913/molecular-epidemiology-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-invasive-infections-over-a-decade-at-kilifi-county-hospital-in-kenya
#8
Sonal P Henson, Christine J Boinett, Matthew J Ellington, Ngure Kagia, Salim Mwarumba, Sammy Nyongesa, Neema Mturi, Samuel Kariuki, J Anthony G Scott, Nicholas R Thomson, Susan C Morpeth
Multidrug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Recent years have seen an explosion of resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and emergence of carbapenem resistance. Here, we examine 198 invasive K. pneumoniae isolates collected from over a decade in Kilifi County Hospital (KCH) in Kenya. We observe a significant increase in MDR K. pneumoniae isolates, particularly to third generation cephalosporins conferred by ESBLs. Using whole-genome sequences, we describe the population structure and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes within it...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780105/short-communication-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-colostrum-from-new-brunswick-canada-dairy-cows-harbor-blacmy-2-and-blatem-resistance-genes
#9
B B Awosile, J T McClure, J Sanchez, J VanLeeuwen, J C Rodriguez-Lecompte, G Keefe, L C Heider
Dairy calves are colonized shortly after birth by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria, including Escherichia coli. The role of dairy colostrum fed to calves as a potential source of MDR bacteria resistance genes has not been investigated. This study determined the recovery rate of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) E. coli in colostrum from cows. The ESC-R E. coli isolates were further investigated to determine their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern and the genes conferring ESC-R. Fresh colostrum was collected from 452 cows from 8 dairy herds in New Brunswick, Canada...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777819/infection-stage-adjusted-dose-of-beta-lactams-for-parsimonious-and-efficient-antibiotic-treatments-a-pasteurella-multocida-experimental-pneumonia-in-mice
#10
Maleck V Vasseur, Marlene Z Lacroix, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Alain Bousquet-Melou, Aude A Ferran
In this study, the impact of infection stage on clinically and microbiologically efficacious doses and on antibiotic consumption was assessed during a naturally evolving infectious disease, using an original mouse model of pulmonary infection produced by air-borne contamination. When Pasteurella multocida was administered as pathogenic agent to immunocompetent mice, 60% of the animals exhibited clinical symptoms of pneumonia 2 to 4 days after bacterial contamination of the lungs. Two beta-lactam antibiotics were evaluated: amoxicillin and cefquinome, a fourth generation cephalosporin developed for food animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774639/draft-genome-sequence-of-chryseobacterium-limigenitum-sur2-t-lmg-28734-t-isolated-from-dehydrated-sludge
#11
Jure Škraban, Nikos C Kyrpides, Nicole Shapiro, William B Whitman, Janja Trček
The type strain SUR2 of the novel species Chryseobacterium limigenitum was isolated from a dehydrated sludge of the municipal sewage treatment plant in Dogoše near Maribor in Slovenia. The draft genome, with 60 contigs, 4,697,725bp, 34.4% of G+C content, was obtained using the Illumina HiSeq 2500-1 platform. Joint Genome Institute Microbial Genome Annotation Pipeline (MGAP v.4) has identified 4322 protein-coding sequences including resistance genes against arsenic and other heavy metals. In addition, a subclass B3 metallo-β-lactamase, which confers resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, was also present in the genome...
July 18, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768732/evaluation-of-a-new-commercial-microarray-platform-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-mcr-1-2-genes-in-enterobacteriaceae
#12
Odette J Bernasconi, Luigi Principe, Regula Tinguely, Aneta Karczmarek, Vincent Perreten, Francesco Luzzaro, Andrea Endimiani
The worldwide prevalence of infections due to Gram-negative bacteria co-resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems is worrisome.….
August 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768448/resistance-phenotypes-and-susceptibility-of-contemporary-serratia-isolates-in-the-university-hospital-of-crete-greece
#13
George Samonis, Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Sofia Maraki, Petroula Stamouli, Viktoria-Eirini Mavromanolaki, Diamantis P Kofteridis, Matthew E Falagas
OBJECTIVE: To study changes in the susceptibility of Serratia spp. in Crete, Greece (2010-2015). METHODS: Non-duplicate isolates were examined using automated systems. Phenotypic confirmatory tests were applied. RESULTS: Three hundred and seventy-eight Serratia spp. were analyzed. Serratia marcescens (88.3%) was the predominant species. Fluoroquinolones (97.9%), carbapenems (97.4%) and fosfomycin (97.4%) were the most active followed by amikacin (95...
August 2, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767588/successful-ceftazidime-avibactam-treatment-of-mdr-kpc-positive-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-in-a-patient-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#14
Agnese Gugliandolo, Carla Caio, Maria Lina Mezzatesta, Carmela Rifici, Placido Bramanti, Stefania Stefani, Emanuela Mazzon
RATIONALE: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections are a serious health care problem, because of the high mortality. Carbapenem resistance is mainly caused by carbapenemases production, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Ceftazidime-avibactam is a new cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination for the treatment of complicated urinary, intra-abdominal infections, and nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram negative, or other serious gram-negative infections...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766888/prevalence-of-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-in-stool-of-paediatric-patients-with-acute-leukaemia-and-correlation-with-blood-culture-positivity-a-single-institution-experience
#15
Krupa Shankar, Venkatraman Radhakrishnan, Varalakskmi Vijayakumar, Jaikumar Ramamoorthy, Prasanth Ganesan, Manikandan Dhanushkodi, T S Ganesan, T G Sagar
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in children with acute leukaemia. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of MDR bacteria in stool cultures of patients with acute leukaemia at presentation to the hospital. The results were then correlated with blood cultures when patients developed septicaemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study involved analysis of case records of patients with newly diagnosed acute leukaemia less than 18 years of age treated at our centre from January 2015 to December 2015...
August 2, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766487/survival-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-bacteria-in-artificial-snow-produced-from-contaminated-water
#16
(no author information available yet)
This study shows microbiological contamination of water in two main Podhale rivers, whose resources are used for artificial snowing, and the resulting snow contamination. 31 E. coli strains were isolated from snow at two ski stations in the studied region, their antimicrobial resistance was determined and the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes was searched for. The results indicate that waters of both rivers are severely contaminated, resulting in contamination of artificial snow, with among others thermotolerant E...
July 3, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764168/drug-resistance-pattern-in-the-recent-isolates-of-salmonella-typhi-with-special-reference-to-cephalosporins-and-azithromycin-in-the-gangetic-plain
#17
Shesh Raj Patel, Sujit Bharti, Chandra Bhan Pratap, Gopal Nath
INTRODUCTION: Typhoid fever is an endemic disease in India against which many antibiotics are available. In the recent times, emerging resistance to traditional antibiotics, such as Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, Azithro-mycin and third generation Cephalosporins are being reported and increasingly being used in the treatment of invasive Salmonella infections. However, the latter two drugs have been reported with occasional clinical failures. Currently, we do not have data regarding their drug resistance levels in the recent isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761583/challenges-of-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Charlene M C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, responsible for more than 14% of deaths in children younger than 5 years of age. Due to difficulties with pathogen identification and diagnostics of CAP in children, targeted antimicrobial therapy is not possible, hence the widespread use of empirical antibiotics, in particular penicillins, cephalosporin, and macrolides. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to address medical, societal, and political issues associated with the widespread use of empirical antibiotics for CAP in the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760902/mycobacterium-abscessus-l-d-transpeptidases-are-susceptible-to-inactivation-by-carbapenems-and-cephalosporins-but-not-penicillins
#19
Pankaj Kumar, Varsha Chauhan, José Rogério A Silva, Jerônimo Lameira, Felipe d'Andrea, Shaogang Li, Stephan L Ginell, Joel S Freundlich, Cláudio Nahum Alves, Scott Bailey, Keira A Cohen, Gyanu Lamichhane
As a growing number of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus are resistant to most antibiotics, new treatment options that are effective against these drug-resistant strains are desperately needed. The majority of the linkages in the cell wall peptidoglycan of M. abscessus are synthesized by non-classical transpeptidases, namely the L,D-transpeptidases. Emerging evidence suggests that these enzymes represent a new molecular vulnerability in this pathogen. Recent studies have demonstrated that inhibition of these enzymes by the carbapenem class of β-lactams determines their activity against M...
July 31, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760709/antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-kingella-kingae-with-broth-microdilution-and-disk-diffusion-using-eucast-recommended-media
#20
Erika Matuschek, Jenny Åhman, Gunnar Kahlmeter, Pablo Yagupsky
OBJECTIVES: Due to the increasing use of improved culture techniques and sensitive nucleic acid amplification assays, Kingella kingae was recognized as an important cause of invasive infections in young children, especially in septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, bacteremia and endocarditis. In 2016, EUCAST established clinical MIC breakpoints for K. kingae (published in EUCAST Clinical Breakpoint Tables v 7.0, 2017). The present study was carried out to produce MIC-zone diameter correlations for K...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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