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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674034/a-voltammetric-test-for-the-rapid-discrimination-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-blood-cultures
#1
Laetitia Betelli, Catherine Neuwirth, Sébastien Solanas, Benoît Chantemesse, Fabienne Vienney, Alain Hartmann, Murielle Rochelet
The accurate identification of β-lactamases produced by Enterobacteriaceae is a major challenge in clinical laboratories in order to optimize antimicrobial treatment and patient care. We describe here a rapid voltammetric-based method to detect and to discriminate β-lactamase activity in Enterobacteriaceae i.e., penicillinase, cephalosporinase (inducible or overproduced), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase producers. After a 2-h growth step of the sample under three separate conditions: 1) LB (Luria-Bertani) medium, 2) LB supplemented with 4 μg/mL cefotaxime and 3) LB supplemented with 4 μg/mL cefotaxime and 100 μg/mL potassium clavulanate, the β-lactamase activity was measured by incubating a 0...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672703/phylogenomic-analysis-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-in-archaea-and-bacteria-enables-the-identification-of-putative-new-members
#2
Vivek Keshri, Arup Panda, Anthony Levasseur, Jean-Marc Rolain, Pierre Pontarotti, Didier Raoult
β-lactamases are enzymes which are commonly produced by bacteria and which degrade the β-lactam ring of β-lactam antibiotics, namely penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams, and inactivate these antibiotics. We performed a rational and comprehensive investigation of β-lactamases in different biological databases. In this study, we constructed hidden Markov model profiles as well as the ancestral sequence of four classes of β-lactamases (A, B, C, and D), which were used to identify potential β-lactamases from environmental metagenomic (1206), human microbiome metagenomic (6417), human microbiome reference genome (1310), and NCBI's nonredundant databases (44101)...
April 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671219/ceftazidime-avibactam-a-review-in-the-treatment-of-serious-gram-negative-bacterial-infections
#3
Matt Shirley
Ceftazidime-avibactam (Zavicefta® ) is an intravenously administered combination of the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime and the novel, non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam. In the EU, ceftazidime-avibactam is approved for the treatment of adults with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) [including pyelonephritis], complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) [including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)], and other infections caused by aerobic Gram-negative organisms in patients with limited treatment options...
April 18, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667378/alarming-results-of-nosocomial-infections-in-a-multicenter-program-of-surveillance-in-polish-intensive-care-units
#4
Michał Wałaszek, Anna Różańska, Małgorzata Bulanda, Jadwiga Wojkowska-Mach, Polish Society of Hospital Infections Team
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI) among patients in intensive care units (ICU) are the most common form of nosocomial infections and they are serious complications of the treatment process. The etiological factors of these infections and the proper antibiotic therapy can influence the effects of patient treatment. The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology, microbiology and antibiotic therapy of nosocomial BSI in Polish ICU patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective study covered patients hospitalized in seven ICUs for adults with a general profile, located in southern Poland...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666727/typhoid-fever-due-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Abdul Azeez Ahamed Riyaaz, Vindya Perera, Sabaratnam Sivakumaran, Nelun de Silva
Emergence of cephalosporin-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a cause of concern in the management of enteric fever. Cephalosporin resistance in Salmonella species is mainly due to the production of extended-spectrum β -lactamases (ESBLs). The majority of ESBLs in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are derivatives of the TEM, SHV, and CTX-M β -lactamase families. Of these, CTX-M appears to be predominant. This paper discusses the detection and molecular characterization of an ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain isolated from a patient who was admitted to a private hospital in Sri Lanka...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664370/antimicrobial-resistance-in-invasive-bacterial-infections-in-hospitalized-children-cambodia-2007-2016
#6
Andrew Fox-Lewis, Junko Takata, Thyl Miliya, Yoel Lubell, Sona Soeng, Poda Sar, Kolthida Rith, Gregor McKellar, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Erin McGonagle, Nicole Stoesser, Catrin E Moore, Christopher M Parry, Claudia Turner, Nicholas P J Day, Ben S Cooper, Paul Turner
To determine trends, mortality rates, and costs of antimicrobial resistance in invasive bacterial infections in hospitalized children, we analyzed data from Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, for 2007-2016. A total of 39,050 cultures yielded 1,341 target pathogens. Resistance rates were high; 82% each of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were multidrug resistant. Hospital-acquired isolates were more often resistant than community-acquired isolates; resistance trends over time were heterogeneous...
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664368/antimicrobial-resistant-bacteria-in-infected-wounds-ghana-2014-1
#7
Hauke Janssen, Iryna Janssen, Paul Cooper, Clemens Kainyah, Theresia Pellio, Michael Quintel, Mathieu Monnheimer, Uwe Groß, Marco H Schulze
Wound infections are an emerging medical problem worldwide, frequently neglected in under-resourced countries. Bacterial culture and antimicrobial drug resistance testing of infected wounds in patients in a rural hospital in Ghana identified no methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae but identified high combined resistance of Enterobacteriaceae against third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659796/dissemination-of-multi-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-into-german-wastewater-and-surface-waters
#8
Heike Müller, Esther Sib, Mike Gajdiss, Ursula Klanke, Franziska Lenz-Plet, Vanessa Barabasch, Cathrin Albert, Anna Schallenberg, Christian Timm, Nicole Zacharias, Ricarda Maria Schmithausen, Steffen Engelhart, Martin Exner, Marijo Parcina, Christiane Schreiber, Gabriele Bierbaum
Carbapenem antibiotics constitute the mainstay therapy of nosocomial infections with ESBL (extended spectrum beta-lactamase) producing Gram-negative bacteria, however, resistance against these compounds is increasing. This study was designed to demonstrate that carbapenemase-producing bacteria are disseminated from hospitals into the environment. To this end, resistant bacteria were isolated from a clinical/urban and from a rural catchment system in Germany in 2016/17. The study followed the dissemination of resistant bacteria from the wastewater through the wastewater treatment plant into the receiving surface waters...
April 6, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655379/shigella-infection-in-children-under-5-years-old-in-western-french-guiana
#9
M Parisot, N Parez, R Boukhari, S Breurec, A Jolivet
French Guiana, a tropical country, is characterised by a young and multi-ethnic population. Difficulties in accessing safe water sources lead to outbreaks of gastroenteritis. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the microbiological profile of shigella strains isolated in western French Guiana, including antimicrobial susceptibility and the distribution of strains in terms of species and serotypes and (2) to estimate the incidence of shigellosis in children under 5 years old. A retrospective observational study was conducted of 213 cases of shigellosis diagnosed in the biology department of the hospital centre for western French Guiana between 2000 and 2012 in children under 5 years old...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652559/point-prevalence-survey-of-antibiotic-use-and-resistance-at-a-referral-hospital-in-kenya-findings-and-implications
#10
Caleb Okoth, Sylvia Opanga, Faith Okalebo, Margaret Oluka, Amanj Baker Kurdi, Brian Godman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A substantial amount of antibiotic use in hospitals may be inappropriate, potentially leading to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance, adverse effects, mortality and increased hospital costs. The objective was to assess current patterns of antibiotic use in a leading referral hospital in Western Kenya. This would lead to the identification of opportunities for quality improvement in this hospital and across Kenya. METHODOLOGY: A point prevalence survey was carried out with data abstracted principally from patient medical records supplemented by interviews from physicians when needed...
April 13, 2018: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651413/are-there-striking-differences-in-outpatient-use-of-antibiotics-between-south-backa-district-serbia-and-some-scandinavian-countries
#11
Olga Horvat, Vesna Mijatović, Boris Milijasević, Ana Tomas, Milica Paut Kusturica, Zdenko Tomić, Ana Sabo
There is little published information about antibiotic utilization in outpatients in Serbia. The objective of this study was to determine the amount and structure of outpatient antibiotic use in South Backa District (SBD) in Serbia, to assess prescibing quality of antibiotics and to compare with results from Scandinavian countries. Data on the antibiotic use were collected from all private and state-owned pharmacies from January through March 2008 in SBD. Results were expressed as the number of defined daily doses/1,000 inhabitants/day...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649276/carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens-in-a-german-university-medical-center-prevalence-clinical-implications-and-the-role-of-novel-%C3%AE-lactam-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-combinations
#12
Juri Katchanov, Lucia Asar, Eva-Maria Klupp, Anna Both, Camilla Rothe, Christina König, Holger Rohde, Stefan Kluge, Florian P Maurer
OBJECTIVES: To determine the spectrum of infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) and the clinical impact of the newly available betalactam/betalactamase inhibitor combinations ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam in a German academic tertiary care center. METHODS: Retrospective analysis. RESULTS: Between September 1, 2015 and August 31, 2016, 119 individual patients (0.22% of all hospital admissions) were colonized or infected with carbapenem-resistant MDR-GNB...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628916/multidrug-resistant-ctx-m-15-9-2-and-kpc-2-producing-enterobacter-hormaechei-and-enterobacter-asburiae-isolates-possessed-a-set-of-acquired-heavy-metal-tolerance-genes-including-a-chromosomal-sil-operon-for-acquired-silver-resistance
#13
Leonardo N Andrade, Thiago E S Siqueira, Roberto Martinez, Ana Lucia C Darini
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is concern in healthcare-associated infections. On the other hand, bacterial tolerance to other antimicrobials, like heavy metals, has been neglected and underestimated in hospital pathogens. Silver has long been used as an antimicrobial agent and it seems to be an important indicator of heavy metal tolerance. To explore this perspective, we searched for the presence of acquired silver resistance genes ( sil operon: silE, silS, silR, silC, silF, silB, silA , and silP ) and acquired extended-spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance genes ( bla CTX-M and bla KPC ) in Enterobacter cloacae Complex (EcC) ( n = 27) and Enterobacter aerogenes ( n = 8) isolated from inpatients at a general hospital...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626788/decrease-in-the-prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant-salmonella-following-cessation-of-ceftiofur-use-by-the-japanese-poultry-industry
#14
Hiroaki Shigemura, Mari Matsui, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Daisuke Onozuka, Tamie Noda, Akifumi Yamashita, Makoto Kuroda, Satowa Suzuki, Hirokazu Kimura, Shuji Fujimoto, Kazunori Oishi, Nobuyuki Sera, Yasuo Inoshima, Koichi Murakami
Extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Salmonella in chicken meat is a significant food safety concern. We previously reported that the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken meat, giblets, and processed chicken (chicken meat products) increased in Japan between 2005 and 2010, with 27.9% (17/61) of Salmonella isolated from chicken meat products in 2010 showing resistance to ESC. The aims of the present study were to clarify trends in the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken meat products in Japan between 2011 and 2015, and to determine the genetic profiles of bla-harboring plasmids, including replicon types, using next-generation sequencing...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624618/invasive-infection-caused-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae-is-a-disease-affecting-patients-with-high-comorbidity-and-associated-with-high-long-term-mortality
#15
M Vading, P Nauclér, M Kalin, C G Giske
Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is after Escherichia coli (EC) the most common gram-negative species causing invasive infections. Herein, we analyzed risk factors and prognosis in invasive infections caused by KP versus EC, in an area with low antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, we compared antimicrobial resistance and relative prevalence of KP and EC (KP/EC-ratio) in different European countries, using EARS-Net data. Adult patients admitted to Karolinska University Hospital 2006-2012 with invasive infection caused by KP (n = 599) were matched regarding sex and age with patients infected by EC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624558/a-phase-1-pharmacokinetic-and-safety-study-of-extended-duration-high-dose-cefixime-for-cephalosporin-resistant-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-the-pharynx
#16
Lindley A Barbee, Seema U Nayak, Jeffrey L Blumer, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Wesley Gray, Jonathan M Zenilman, Matthew R Golden, J McLeod Griffiss
BACKGROUND: There are no fully oral recommended treatment regimens for gonorrhea. Inadequately treated pharyngeal gonococcal infections are a likely reservoir for transmission and development of antimicrobial resistance. We sought to determine an oral cefixime dosing regimen that would theoretically treat pharyngeal infections by gonococci with MICs 0.5μg/mL. METHODS: We conducted an open label, non-randomized, Phase I pharmacokinetic and safety study of cefixime in 25 healthy male and female volunteers divided into four dosing cohorts (Cohort A, 400 mg; Cohort B, 800 mg; Cohort C, 1200 mg; and Cohort D, 800 mg q8h x 3 doses [total dose 2400mg]) with a target serum concentration of ≥2...
April 5, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621600/nosocomial-transmission-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-an-italian-university-hospital-a-molecular-epidemiological-study
#17
Giovanni Sotgiu, Bianca Maria Are, Lucia Pesapane, Alessandra Palmieri, Narcisa Muresu, Andrea Cossu, Marco Dettori, Antonio Azara, Ida Iolanda Mura, Clementina Cocuzza, Stefano Aliberti, Andrea Piana
AIM: To describe the phenotypic and genotypic profiles of Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase-producing K. pneumonia (KPC-Kp) strains isolated from patients with invasive infections at an Italian university hospital in order to assess the epidemiological trend. METHODS: An observational prospective study was carried out at the University Hospital of Sassari, Italy, to detect KPC-Kp strains in patients with invasive bacteraemia. Isolates were identified phenotypically; carbapenemase production was assessed using phenotypic and genotypic methods...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621582/fast-and-easy-detection-of-cmy-2-in-escherichia-coli-by-direct-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#18
Roque Figueroa Espinosa, Valeria Rumi, Martín Marchisio, Daniela Cejas, Marcela Radice, Carlos Vay, Rubén Barrios, Gabriel Gutkind, José Di Conza
Fast typing methods for third generation cephalosporin resistance mechanisms are needed to guide appropriate treatment and prevent potential dissemination events. In this study we used a novel short and fast methodology for the identification of CMY-2 in 50 well characterized clinical isolates of E. coli by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry- MALDI-TOF MS. Samples were prepared using the double layer sinapinic acid technique for detection of intact proteins Comparison among mass spectral profile of different strains between m/z 35,000-45,000 Da showed that two groups of isolates could be differentiated after peak analysis...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621209/vital-signs-containment-of-novel-multidrug-resistant-organisms-and-resistance-mechanisms-united-states-2006-2017
#19
Kate Russell Woodworth, Maroya Spalding Walters, Lindsey M Weiner, Jonathan Edwards, Allison C Brown, Jennifer Y Huang, Sarah Malik, Rachel B Slayton, Prabasaj Paul, Catherine Capers, Marion A Kainer, Nancy Wilde, Alicia Shugart, Garrett Mahon, Alexander J Kallen, Jean Patel, L Clifford McDonald, Arjun Srinivasan, Michael Craig, Denise M Cardo
BACKGROUND: Approaches to controlling emerging antibiotic resistance in health care settings have evolved over time. When resistance to broad-spectrum antimicrobials mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) arose in the 1980s, targeted interventions to slow spread were not widely promoted. However, when Enterobacteriaceae with carbapenemases that confer resistance to carbapenem antibiotics emerged, directed control efforts were recommended. These distinct approaches could have resulted in differences in spread of these two pathogens...
April 6, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621001/antibiotic-use-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-surgical-patients-with-peritonitis-at-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-in-rwanda
#20
Jennifer Rickard, Christian Ngarambe, Leonard Ndayizeye, Blair Smart, Robert Riviello, Jean Paul Majyambere, Rahel G Ghebre
BACKGROUND: There is growing recognition of the worsening problem of antibiotic resistance and the need for antibiotic stewardship in low-resource settings. The aim of this study was to describe antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in patients undergoing surgery for peritonitis at a Rwandan referral hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All surgical patients with peritonitis at a Rwandan referral hospital were enrolled. Prospective data were collected on epidemiology, clinical features, interventions, and outcomes...
April 5, 2018: Surgical Infections
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