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cephalosporin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099062/rectal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-in-intensive-care-units-in-tunisia
#1
Samia Hammami, Chaima Dahdeh, Kelthoum Mamlouk, Sana Ferjeni, Elaa Maamar, Zeineb Hamzaoui, Mabrouka Saidani, Salma Ghedira, Mohamed Houissa, Amin Slim, Ilhem Boutiba-Ben Boubaker
This study was conducted to evaluate the rate of fecal carriage of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (third GC) in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis and to identify the enzymatic mechanisms involved. From February to April 2014, rectal swabs were collected from all patients (n = 38) at admission and once weekly thereafter to identify acquisition. They were cultured on desoxycholate-lactose-agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 mg/L)...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098241/characterization-of-a-p1-like-bacteriophage-carrying-ctx-m-27-in-salmonella-spp-resistant-to-third-generation-cephalosporins-isolated-from-pork-in-china
#2
Ling Yang, Wan Li, Gui-Ze Jiang, Wen-Hui Zhang, Huan-Zhong Ding, Ya-Hong Liu, Zhen-Ling Zeng, Hong-Xia Jiang
The aim of this study was to elucidate the epidemiology of third generation cephalosporin resistant Samonella isolates from pork of a slaughterhouse in China and the features of transferable elements carrying blaCTX-M genes. One hundred and twenty-six (7.3%) Salmonella isolates were identified; S. Derby and S. Rissen were the most two prevalent serotypes. Among these isolates 20 (15.8%) were resistant to third generation cephalosporins and nine of them carried blaCTX-M-27. S1-PFGE and replicon typing of blaCTX-M-27-carrying plasmids showed that seven were untypeable plasmids of about 104 Kb and two were IncP plasmids of about 300 Kb...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093651/infections-in-intensive-care-unit-adult-patients-harboring-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-implications-for-prevention-and-therapy
#3
B Borgatta, L Lagunes, A T Imbiscuso, M N Larrosa, M Lujàn, J Rello
The purpose of this paper was to report the burden and characteristics of infection by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA) in clinical samples from intensive care unit (ICU) adults, and to identify predictors. This was a retrospective observational study at four medical-surgical ICUs. The case cohort comprised adults with documented isolation of an MDR-PA strain from a clinical specimen during ICU stay. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors for MDR-PA infection. During the study period, 5667 patients were admitted to the ICU and P...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088889/-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#4
Bálint Velkey, Eszter Vitális, Zsuzsanna Vitális
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III...
January 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088587/late-onset-neonatal-sepsis-in-arab-states-in-the-gulf-region-two-year-prospective-study
#5
Majeda S Hammoud, Abdullah Al-Taiar, Sameer Y Al-Abdi, Hussain Bozaid, Anwar Khan, Laila M AlMuhairi, Moghis Ur Rehman
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of Late-Onset Sepsis (LOS) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Arab states in the gulf region and describe the main causative organisms and their antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Observational prospective cohort study was conducted over two-year period in five NICUs in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. LOS was defined as the growth of a single potentially pathogenic organism from blood or cerebrospinal fluid in infants >3days of age with clinical and laboratory findings consistent with infection...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087318/etiologies-of-community-onset-urinary-tract%C3%A2-infections-requiring-hospitalization-and%C3%A2-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of%C3%A2-causative-microorganisms
#6
Chih-Chien Chiu, Tzu-Chao Lin, Rui-Xin Wu, Ya-Sung Yang, Po-Jen Hsiao, Yi Lee, Jung-Chung Lin, Feng-Yee Chang
BACKGROUND: Community-onset urinary tract infections (CoUTIs) are the most common bacterial infections, and a decline in antibiotic susceptibility causes many clinical challenges. Adequate empiric antibiotic treatment can decrease unnecessary hospital stays and complications, while reducing the antimicrobial resistance progression. METHODS: From October 2014 to April 2015, we retrospectively enrolled patients who were at least 18 years old and required hospitalization for CoUTIs...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077671/impact-of-long-term-care-facility-residence-on-the-antibiotic-resistance-of-urinary-tract-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella
#7
Alicia Rosello, Andrew C Hayward, Susan Hopkins, Carolyne Horner, Dean Ironmonger, Peter M Hawkey, Sarah R Deeny
BACKGROUND: Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are thought to be important reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria; however, there is no routine surveillance of resistance in LTCF residents, or large population-based studies comparing AMR in LTCFs with the community, so the relative burden of AMR in LTCFs remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To compare the frequency of antibiotic resistance of urinary tract bacteria from residents of LTCFs for the elderly and adults aged 70 years or older living in the community...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074531/antibiotic-use-during-infectious-episodes-in-the-first-6-months-of-anticancer-treatment-a-swedish-cohort-study-of-children-aged-7-16-years
#8
M Af Sandeberg, E Johansson, L Wettergren, O Björk, O Hertting, A Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing cancer therapy are at risk for infectious complications that require hospitalization and antimicrobial therapy. Host factors such as age and underlying disease may predict the risk of severe infections in these children. To describe the increased morbidity due to infections in children with cancer, we characterized the antibiotic use during the infectious complications in a national cohort of children 7-16 years of age with cancer. PROCEDURE: Data on infectious complications were prospectively collected from the medical records of all newly diagnosed children with cancer, aged 7-16 years, in Sweden between 2004 and 2006...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073968/variants-of-abgri3-carrying-the-arma-gene-in-extensively-antibiotic-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-from-singapore
#9
Grace A Blackwell, Kathryn E Holt, Stephen D Bentley, Li Yang Hsu, Ruth M Hall
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the context of the ribosomal RNA methyltransferase gene armA in carbapenem-resistant global clone 2 (GC2) Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Singapore. METHODS: Antibiotic resistance was determined using disc diffusion; PCR was used to identify resistance genes. Whole genome sequences were determined and contigs were assembled and ordered using PCR. Resistance regions in unsequenced isolates were mapped. RESULTS: Fifteen GC2 A...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072493/patterns-of-infections-aetiological-agents-and-antimicrobial-resistance-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-tanzania
#10
Happiness Houka Kumburu, Tolbert Sonda, Blandina Theophil Mmbaga, Michael Alifrangis, Ole Lund, Gibson Kibiki, Frank M Aarestrup
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. METHODS: A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods and disk diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacteria isolates...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065891/genetic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-hmb-1-a-novel-subclass-b1-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-found-in-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-isolate
#11
Niels Pfennigwerth, Felix Lange, Cristina Belmar Campos, Moritz Hentschke, Sören G Gatermann, Martin Kaase
OBJECTIVES: To characterize a novel subclass B1 metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) found in an MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. METHODS: The isolate P. aeruginosa NRZ-03096 was recovered in 2012 from an anal swab from a patient hospitalized in Northern Germany and showed high MICs of carbapenems. MBL production was analysed by several phenotypic tests. Genetic characterization of the novel bla gene and MLST was performed by WGS. The novel bla gene was expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10 and the enzyme was subjected to biochemical characterization to determine the kinetic parameters Km and kcat RESULTS: P...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061852/the-occurrence-of-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-carrying-aminoglycoside-resistance-genes-in-urinary-tract-infections-in-saudi-arabia
#12
Essam J Alyamani, Anamil M Khiyami, Rayan Y Booq, Majed A Majrashi, Fayez S Bahwerth, Elena Rechkina
BACKGROUND: The infection and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is a worldwide problem, and the presence of ESBLs varies between countries. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of plasmid-mediated ESBL/AmpC/carbapenemase/aminoglycoside resistance gene expression in Escherichia coli using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. METHODS: A total of 58 E. coli isolates were collected from hospitals in the city of Makkah and screened for the production of ESBL/AmpC/carbapenemase/aminoglycoside resistance genes...
January 6, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058593/ceftaroline-fosamil-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-a-systematic-review
#13
Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Ricky D Turgeon, Kyle John Wilby
Background Ceftaroline is a parentally administered cephalosporin that has an in vitro expanded spectrum of activity compared with other cephalosporins yet data is conflicting regarding its place in therapy. Aim of the Review To compare the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline against standard antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs). Method The databases of MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Embase were searched up to June 2016. Manual review of references was completed and experts in the field were contacted for unpublished data...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057163/ceftazidime-avibactam-who-says-you-can-t-teach-an-old-drug-new-tricks
#14
Katie E Barber, Jessica K Ortwine, Ronda L Akins
PURPOSE: Gram-negative resistance continues to rise with treatment options becoming more limited. Ceftazidime/avibactam was recently approved in the United States and Europe, which combines an established third-generation cephalosporin with a new, unique, non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor. This review conducts a thorough examination of structure, pharmacology, spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, in vitro and clinical efficacy and safety/tolerability of ceftazidime/avibactam, as well as detailed future directions for the agent...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057059/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-caused-by-mucoid-serotype-3-streptococcus-pneumoniae-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Naomi Sugimoto, Yuka Yamagishi, Jun Hirai, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Among the different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotype 3 has received global attention. We report the fatal case of a 76-year-old Japanese man who had an invasive pneumococcal disease associated with pneumonia caused by serotype 3 S. pneumoniae. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient had a history of hypertension, laryngeal cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Following a cerebral arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage, he underwent surgery to remove the hematoma and began rehabilitation...
January 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053916/urinary-tract-infections-a-retrospective-descriptive-study-of-causative-organisms-and-antimicrobial-pattern-of-samples-received-for-culture-from-a-tertiary-care-setting
#16
Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Savitha Nagaraj
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common infections encountered by physicians either on an outpatient or inpatient basis. These infections have taken center stage due to increasing resistance being reported for commonly used antibiotics. Understanding the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of uropathogens would facilitate appropriate therapy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the culture isolates obtained from urine samples received at the Department of Microbiology, St...
December 2016: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052786/preferential-use-of-nitrofurantoin-over-fluoroquinolones-for-acute-uncomplicated-cystitis-and-outpatient-escherichia-coli-resistance-in-an-integrated-healthcare-system
#17
Rebecca L Pedela, Katherine C Shihadeh, Bryan C Knepper, Michelle K Haas, William J Burman, Timothy C Jenkins
OBJECTIVES To evaluate changes in outpatient fluoroquinolone (FQ) and nitrofurantoin (NFT) use and resistance among E. coli isolates after a change in institutional guidance to use NFT over FQs for acute uncomplicated cystitis. DESIGN Retrospective preintervention-postintervention study. SETTING Urban, integrated healthcare system. PATIENTS Adult outpatients treated for acute cystitis. METHODS We compared 2 time periods: January 2003-June 2007 when FQs were recommended as first-line therapy, and July 2007-December 2012, when NFT was recommended...
January 5, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051952/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-gram-negative-eskape-pathogens-isolated-from-hospitalized-patients-with-intra-abdominal-and-urinary-tract-infections-in-asia-pacific-countries-smart-2013-2015
#18
James A Karlowsky, Daryl J Hoban, Meredith A Hackel, Sibylle Lob, Daniel F Sahm
Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) are responsible for increases in antimicrobial-resistant infections worldwide. We determined in vitro susceptibilities to eight parenteral antimicrobial agents using CLSI broth microdilution methodology for gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAI) (n = 3,052) and urinary tract infections (UTI) (n = 1,088) in 11 countries/regions from 2013-2015...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040165/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genetic-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-recovered-from-frozen-game-meat
#19
Rafael H Mateus-Vargas, Viktoria Atanassova, Felix Reich, Günter Klein
The increasing number of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae both in veterinary and human medicine, the dissemination of these bacteria in several environments and their possible repercussions on human health is causing concern. Game meat is usually seen as free of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current antimicrobial susceptibility status in generic Escherichia coli isolated from packed frozen game meat from a game handling establishment in Germany. A total of 229 E...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039666/use-of-ceftaroline-fosamil-in-children-review-of-current-knowledge-and-its-application
#20
REVIEW
Juwon Yim, Leah M Molloy, Jason G Newland
Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin recently approved in children for treatment of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other susceptible bacteria. With a favorable tolerability profile and efficacy proven in pediatric patients and excellent in vitro activity against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ceftaroline may serve as a therapeutic option for polymicrobial infections, CABP caused by penicillin- and ceftriaxone-resistant S...
December 30, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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