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cephalosporin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238587/bacterial-infections-in-acute-variceal-hemorrhage-despite-antibiotics-a-multicenter-study-of-predictors-and-clinical-impact
#1
Stephen Lee, Lynora Saxinger, Mang Ma, Verónica Prado, Joaquin Fernández, Deepali Kumar, Juan Gonzalez-Abraldes, Adam Keough, Ravin Bastiampillai, Michelle Carbonneau, Javier Fernandez, Puneeta Tandon
Background and aims: Current guidelines recommend antibiotic prophylaxis in all patients presenting with cirrhosis and acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH). We aimed to evaluate the characteristics and clinical impact of "early" infections (developing within 14 days) of AVH in a real-world setting. Methods: We analyzed retrospective data from a cohort of 371 adult patients with cirrhosis and AVH all of whom had received antibiotic prophylaxis (74% men; mean age 56 years), admitted to tertiary care hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and Barcelona, Spain...
December 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234353/enteric-fever-caused-by-salmonella-enterica-serovars-with-reduced-susceptibility-of-fluoroquinolones-at-a-community-based-teaching-hospital-of-nepal
#2
Anjeela Bhetwal, Anjila Maharjan, Puspa Raj Khanal, Narayan Prasad Parajuli
Enteric fever continues to be an important public health problem especially in developing countries of the tropical region including Nepal. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of enteric fever associated with Salmonella enterica and determine its antimicrobial susceptibilities to therapeutic antimicrobials in a community based teaching hospital of Nepal. A total of 2,304 blood samples from suspected enteric fever patients attending Manmohan Memorial Teaching Hospital were processed with standard microbiological methods for the isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228202/activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-problem-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-the-uk-2015-16
#3
David M Livermore, Danièle Meunier, Katie L Hopkins, Michel Doumith, Robert Hill, Rachel Pike, Peter Staves, Neil Woodford
Background: Ceftazidime/avibactam combines an established oxyimino-cephalosporin with the first diazabicyclooctane β-lactamase inhibitor to enter clinical use. We reviewed its activity against Gram-negative isolates, predominantly from the UK, referred for resistance investigation in the first year of routine testing, beginning in July 2015. Methods: Isolates were as received from referring laboratories; there is a bias to submit those with suspected carbapenem resistance...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228168/glutamate-residues-at-positions-162nd-and-164th-influence-the-beta-lactamase-activity-of-shv-14-obtained-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#4
Gaurav Kumar, Sarmistha Biswal, Soshina Nathan, Anindya S Ghosh
Extensive production of SHV-14 beta-lactamase makes Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to beta-lactams. The presence of omega-loop has been reported to influence the beta-lactamase activity, which is also present in SHV-14. Its omega-loop has three glutamates in nearly alternating positions, 162, 164 and 167 but their concise role on the behaviour of SHV-14 is unknown. To uncover the influence of each glutamate on SHV-14, we replaced glutamates with alanine and estimated the effect of each mutation by assessing the change in beta-lactam sensitivities in the surrogate Escherichia coli cells and catalytic efficiencies for hydrolysis with the purified proteins...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228127/antibiotic-resistance-and-the-risk-of-recurrent-bacteremia
#5
Sjoukje H S Woudt, Sabine C de Greeff, Annelot F Schoffelen, Anne L M Vlek, Marc J M Bonten
Background: Direct health effects of antibiotic resistance are difficult to assess. We quantified the risk of recurrent bacteremia associated with antibiotic resistance. Methods: We extracted antimicrobial susceptibility testing data on blood isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus from the Dutch surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance between 2008 and 2017. First and first recurrent (4-30days) bacteremia episodes were categorized as susceptible, single non-susceptible or co-non-susceptible (I/R), to 3rd generation cephalosporins -/+ carbapenems (Enterobacteriaceae), ceftazidime -/+ carbapenems (Pseudomonas spp...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227186/diversity-of-ctx-m-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-retail-raw-ground-beef-first-report-of-ctx-m-24-and-ctx-m-32-in-algeria
#6
Nesrine Rebbah, Yamina Messai, Pierre Châtre, Marisa Haenni, Jean Yves Madec, Rabah Bakour
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and molecular features of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli isolates contaminating ground beef at retail in Algeria. Of 371 ground beef samples, 27.5% were found to contain cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates distributed into A (24.5%), B1 (60.8%), and D (14.7%) phylogroups. A rate of 88.2% of isolates had a multidrug-resistance phenotype. All strains were producers of CTX-M type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs): CTX-M-1, CTX-M-3, CTX-M-14, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-24, or CTX-M-32...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226171/antimicrobial-resistance-of-sterile-site-infections-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#7
Meklit Workneh, Morgan J Katz, Mohammed Lamorde, Sara E Cosgrove, Yukari C Manabe
Sparse data exist from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). A prior review of antimicrobial resistance in SSA from 1990 to 2013 showed a high prevalence of AMR to commonly used antibiotics in this setting. We reviewed the literature published since 2013. Four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and African Journals Online) were searched for articles between February 2013 and March 2016 with a focus on sterile site infections (bacteremia, urinary tract infections [UTIs], and meningitis)...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224313/-incidence-of-blood-stream-infections-of-1265-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-and-analysis-of-pathogenic-bacteria
#8
Q Z Han, Y Chen, H Yang, X F Zhang, J Chen, D P Wu, S N Chen, H Y Qiu
Objective: To analyze the incidence and microbiological features of blood stream infections (BSI) of patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to provide laboratory data for empirical use of antibiotic for the HSCT patients with BSI. Methods: The incidence of bloodstream infection, the positive rate of blood culture, bacterial spectrum and drug resistance were analyzed in 1 265 HSCT recipients during 2013 and 2015 were retrospectively studied. Results: Of 1265 patients undergoing HSCT, 1 422 cases of suspected BSI occurred in 784 patients (61...
November 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222426/surveillance-of-antibiotic-resistance-among-common-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-in-hong-kong
#9
Viola C Y Chow, Thomas N Y Kwong, Erica W M So, Yolanda I I Ho, Sunny H Wong, Raymond W M Lai, Raphael C Y Chan
Incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is rapidly increasing and it poses a major health burden globally. However, data regarding the epidemiology of CDI in Asia are limited. We aimed to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common ribotypes of toxigenic C. difficile in Hong Kong. Fifty-three PCR ribotypes were identified among 284 toxigenic C. difficile clinical isolates. The five most prevalent ribotypes were 002 (13%), 017 (12%), 014 (10%), 012 (9.2%), and 020 (9.5%). All tested C...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217096/trend-and-seasonality-of-community-acquired-escherichia-coli-antimicrobial-resistance-and-its-dynamic-relationship-with-antimicrobial-use-assessed-by-arima-models
#10
María Ángeles Asencio Egea, María Huertas Vaquero, Rafael Carranza González, Óscar Herráez Carrera, Olga Redondo González, Ángel Arias Arias
INTRODUCTION: We studied the trend and seasonality of community-acquired Escherichia coli resistance and quantified its correlation with the previous use of certain antibiotics. METHODS: A time series study of resistant community-acquired E. coli isolates and their association with antibiotic use was conducted in a Primary Health Care Area from 2008 to 2012. A Poisson regression model was constructed to estimate the trend and seasonality of E. coli resistance. RESULTS: A significant increasing trend in mean E...
December 4, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216350/italian-nationwide-survey-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-invasive-infections-activity-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-and-comparators-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenemase-producers
#11
Tommaso Giani, Fabio Arena, Simona Pollini, Vincenzo Di Pilato, Marco Maria D'Andrea, Lucia Henrici De Angelis, Matteo Bassetti, Gian Maria Rossolini
Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of severe healthcare-associated infections and often shows MDR phenotypes. Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a new cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination with potent activity against P. aeruginosa. This survey was carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa, circulating in Italy, to ceftolozane/tazobactam and comparators and to investigate the molecular epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing strains. Methods: Consecutive non-replicate P...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216342/comparison-of-phenotypic-and-wgs-derived-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-typhi-and-paratyphi
#12
Martin R Day, Michel Doumith, Vivienne Do Nascimento, Satheesh Nair, Philip M Ashton, Claire Jenkins, Timothy J Dallman, Flora J Stevens, Joanne Freedman, Katie L Hopkins, Neil Woodford, Elizabeth M De Pinna, Gauri Godbole
Objectives: Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi is essential to provide an evidence base for empirical treatment protocols and to monitor emerging AMR. We sought to compare phenotypic and WGS-based genotypic methods for the detection of AMR in Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi. Methods: WGS data from 603 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (n = 332) and Salmonella Paratyphi (n = 271) were mapped to genes or chromosomal mutations known to be associated with phenotypic AMR and compared with phenotypic susceptibility data interpreted using breakpoints recommended by EUCAST...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215335/previous-antibiotic-exposure-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-acinetobacter-spp-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-patients-with-nosocomial-infections
#13
Zorana M Djordjevic, Marko M Folic, Slobodan M Jankovic
BACKGROUND: The alarming spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections has been extensively reported in recent medical literature. AIMS: To compare trends in antimicrobial consumption and development of resistance among isolates of Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that cause hospital infections. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A study was conducted in a tertiary healthcare institution in central Serbia, during the 7-year period between January 2009 and December 2015...
December 1, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214016/genotypic-characterization-of-gentamicin-and-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-blood-cultures-in-a-norwegian-university-hospital-2011-2015
#14
Øyvind Andreas Fladberg, Silje Bakken Jørgensen, Hege Vangstein Aamot
Background: Cephalosporin resistance in clinical E. coli isolates is increasing internationally. The increase has been caused by virulent and often multidrug-resistant clones, especially the extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli clone O25b-ST131. Methods: In Norway, recommended empirical treatment of sepsis consists of gentamicin and penicillin combined, or a broad-spectrum cephalosporin. To investigate if increased gentamicin and cephalosporins resistance rates in our hospital could be caused by specific clones, we conducted a retrospective study on E...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209784/acaxl2-and-acmst1-regulate-arthrospore-development-and-stress-resistance-in-the-cephalosporin-c-producer-acremonium-chrysogenum
#15
Janina Kluge, Ulrich Kück
The filamentous fungus Acremonium chrysogenum is the primordial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C. This antibiotic is of major biotechnological and medical relevance because of its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotic production during the lag phase of fermentation is often accompanied by a typical morphological feature of A. chrysogenum, the fragmentation of the mycelium into arthrospores. Here, we sought to identify factors that regulate the hyphal septation process and present the first comparative functional characterization of the type I integral plasma membrane protein Axl2 (axial budding pattern protein 2), a central component of the bud site selection system (BSSS) and Mst1 (mammalian Sterile20-like kinase), a septation initiation network (SIN)-associated germinal center kinase (GCK)...
December 5, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209306/ctx-m-15-producing-e-coli-isolates-from-food-products-in-germany-are-mainly-associated-with-an-incf-type-plasmid-and-belong-to-two-predominant-clonal-e-coli-lineages
#16
Alexandra Irrgang, Linda Falgenhauer, Jennie Fischer, Hiren Ghosh, Elisabet Guiral, Beatriz Guerra, Silvia Schmoger, Can Imirzalioglu, Trinad Chakraborty, Jens A Hammerl, Annemarie Käsbohrer
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) mediating resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins are a major public health issue. As food may be a vehicle in the spread of ESLB-producing bacteria, a study on the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistantu Escherichia coli in food was initiated. A total of 404 ESBL-producing isolates were obtained from animal-derived food samples (e.g., poultry products, pork, beef and raw milk) between 2011 and 2013. As CTX-M-15 is the most abundant enzyme in ESBL-producing E. coli causing human infections, this study focusses on E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207706/detection-of-blactx-m-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhi-in-a-tertiary-care-centre
#17
Aishwarya Ramachandran, Mariappan Shanthi, Uma Sekar
Introduction: Infections caused by Salmonella are an important public health threat in tropical and subtropical countries. Due to the emergence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (multidrug resistant salmonellae) in the late 1980s, fluoroquinolones and extended spectrum cephalosporins became the drugs of choice. Resistance to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone due to the production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin have emerged resulting in treatment failure...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204354/unusual-carbapenem-resistant-but-ceftriaxone-and-cefepime-susceptible-klebsiella-oxytoca-isolated-from-a-blood-culture-case-report-and-whole-genome-sequencing-investigation
#18
Shangxin Yang, Peera Hemarajata, Laura Shevy, Mario Maciariello, Karissa Culbreath, Karen Bush, Romney Humphries
A carbapenem resistant but ceftriaxone and cefepime susceptible Klebsiella oxytoca was isolated from the blood of a patient with polymicrobial bacteremia after 2 weeks of ertapenem treatment. Whole-genome sequencing identified no carbapenemase gene nor plasmid, but only blaOXY-2-8 gene with a mutation in the promoter that's been reported to increase its expression. Two other specific carbapenem resistance mechanisms including mutated porin genes and the AcrAB-TolC efflux system genes were also identified. Clinicians need to be aware of such unusual antibiogram and should not assume carbapenems are always broader spectrum antibiotics than expanded-spectrum cephalosporins...
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203488/epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-infections-report-from-china-cre-network
#19
Yawei Zhang, Qi Wang, Yuyao Yin, Hongbin Chen, Longyang Jin, Bing Gu, Liangyi Xie, Chunxia Yang, Xiaobo Ma, Huayin Li, Wei Li, Xiaoqian Zhang, Kang Liao, Sijin Man, Shifu Wang, Hainan Wen, Binbin Li, Zhusheng Guo, Jinjing Tian, Fengyan Pei, Li Liu, Lijun Zhang, Cuimei Zou, Tongping Hu, Jun Cai, Hong Yang, Jiaming Huang, Xianghong Jia, Wenhui Huang, Bin Cao, Hui Wang
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infection is highly endemic in China, but estimates of infection burden are lacking. We established incidence of CRE infection from a multicenter study that covered 25 tertiary hospitals in 14 provinces. CRE cases defined as carbapenem non-susceptible C. freundii, E. coli, E. cloacae, or K. pneumoniae infections during January to December 2015 were collected and reviewed from medical records. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and carbapenemase genes identification were performed...
December 4, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200249/decision-and-cost-analysis-of-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-of-acute-sinusitis-in-the-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-do-we-have-an-additional-tool-for-antibiotic-policy-decisions
#20
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: No previous analyses have attempted to determine optimal therapy for upper respiratory tract infections on the basis of cost-minimization models and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens in Slovakia. This investigation compares macrolides and cephalosporines for empirical therapy and look at this new tool from the aspect of potential antibiotic policy decision-making process. METHODS: We employed a decision tree model to determine the threshold level of macrolides and cephalosporines resistance among community respiratory pathogens that would make cephalosporines or macrolides cost-minimising...
November 4, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
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