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Visual anthropology

Natalie R Langley, Sandra Cridlin
Secular changes refer to short-term biological changes ostensibly due to environmental factors. Two well-documented secular trends in many populations are earlier age of menarche and increasing stature. This study synthesizes data on maximum clavicle length and fusion of the medial epiphysis in 1840-1980 American birth cohorts to provide a comprehensive assessment of developmental and morphological change in the clavicle. Clavicles from the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection (n = 354), McKern and Stewart Korean War males (n = 341), Forensic Anthropology Data Bank (n = 1,239), and the McCormick Clavicle Collection (n = 1,137) were used in the analysis...
January 2016: Human Biology
Stephanie Zesch, Stephanie Panzer, Wilfried Rosendahl, John W Nance, Stefan O Schönberg, Thomas Henzler
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to systematically reinvestigate the first human mummy that was ever analyzed with X-ray imaging in 1896, using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in order to compare the earliest and latest imaging technologies, to estimate preservation, age at death, sex, anatomical variants, paleopathological findings, mummification, embalming and wrapping of the child mummy from ancient Egypt. Radiocarbon dating was used to determine the mummy's age and to specify the child's living period in the Egyptian chronology...
2016: European Journal of Radiology Open
Viara R Mileva-Seitz, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Chiara Battaini, Maartje P C M Luijk
The practice of parent and child sharing a sleeping surface, or 'bed-sharing', is one of the most controversial topics in parenting research. The lay literature has popularized and polarized this debate, offering on one hand claims of dangers, and on the other, of benefits - both physical and psychological - associated with bed-sharing. To address the scientific evidence behind such claims, we systematically reviewed 659 published papers (peer-reviewed, editorial pieces, and commentaries) on the topic of parent-child bed-sharing...
March 15, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Gilderlanio S Araújo, Lucas Henrique C Lima, Silvana Schneider, Thiago P Leal, Ana Paula C da Silva, Pedro O S Vaz de Melo, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Marília O Scliar, Maíra R Rodrigues
MOTIVATION: The 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) and thousands of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) performed during the last years have generated an enormous amount of information that needs to be integrated to better understand the genetic architecture of complex diseases in different populations. This integration is important in areas such as genetics, epidemiology, anthropology, as well as admixture mapping design and GWAS-replications. Network-based approaches that explore the genetic bases of human diseases and traits have not yet incorporated information on genetic diversity among human populations...
April 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
Agnieszka Przystańska, Dorota Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska, Monica Abreu-Głowacka, Mariusz Glapiński, Alicja Sroka, Artur Rewekant, Anna Hyrchała, Bartłomiej Bartecki, Czesław Żaba, Tomasz Kulczyk
This paper presents the first ever paleodontological investigation of human remains from an archeological site in Central Europe dating from the Early Bronze Age and attributed to the Strzyzow Culture. It corroborates the knowledge gained from archeological, anthropological and genetical investigations. Our study aimed to assess dental status, dental morphology and dental pathologies as well as tooth wear and enamel hypoplasia based on visual inspection and stereomicroscopic investigation. The research was supported by CBCT imaging to obtain digital images and 3D reconstructions as well as 2D radiographs essential for dental age estimation...
November 18, 2015: Odontology
Yanhong Wu, Naveen Pitipornvivat, Jian Zhao, Sixiao Yang, Guowei Huang, Huamin Qu
Ego-network, which represents relationships between a specific individual, i.e., the ego, and people connected to it, i.e., alters, is a critical target to study in social network analysis. Evolutionary patterns of ego-networks along time provide huge insights to many domains such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. However, the analysis of dynamic ego-networks remains challenging due to its complicated time-varying graph structures, for example: alters come and leave, ties grow stronger and fade away, and alter communities merge and split...
January 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Juhee Bae, Benjamin Watson
In his book Multimedia Learning [7], Richard Mayer asserts that viewers learn best from imagery that provides them with cues to help them organize new information into the correct knowledge structures. Designers have long been exploiting the Gestalt laws of visual grouping to deliver viewers those cues using visual hierarchy, often communicating structures much more complex than the simple organizations studied in psychological research. Unfortunately, designers are largely practical in their work, and have not paused to build a complex theory of structural communication...
December 2014: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Johannes Pfleging, Marius Stücheli, Radu Iovita, Jonas Buchli
Reconstructing ancient technical gestures associated with simple tool actions is crucial for understanding the co-evolution of the human forelimb and its associated control-related cognitive functions on the one hand, and of the human technological arsenal on the other hand. Although the topic of gesture is an old one in Paleolithic archaeology and in anthropology in general, very few studies have taken advantage of the new technologies from the science of kinematics in order to improve replicative experimental protocols...
2015: PloS One
Minna Ruckenstein
This chapter demonstrates how ethnographically-oriented research on emergent technologies, in this case self-tracking technologies, adds to Techno-Anthropology's aims of understanding techno-engagements and solving problems that deal with human-technology relations within and beyond health informatics. Everyday techno-relations have been a long-standing research interest in anthropology, underlining the necessity of empirical engagement with the ways in which people and technologies co-construct their daily conditions...
2015: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Emeline Verna, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti, Kathia Chaumoitre, Pascal Adalian
In forensic anthropology, identification begins by determining the sex, age, ancestry and stature of the individuals. Asymptomatic variations present on the skeleton, known as discrete traits, can be useful to identify individuals, or at least contribute to complete their biological profile. We decided to focus our work on the upper part of the skeleton, from the first vertebra to the pelvic girdle, and we chose to present 8 discrete traits (spina bifida occulta, butterfly vertebra, supraclavicular nerve foramen, coracoclavicular joint, os acromiale, suprascapular foramen, manubrium foramen and pubic spine), because they show a frequency lower than 10%...
August 2015: Forensic Science International
Lenny Grant, Bernice L Hausman, Margaret Cashion, Nicholas Lucchesi, Kelsey Patel, Jonathan Roberts
BACKGROUND: Current concerns about vaccination resistance often cite the Internet as a source of vaccine controversy. Most academic studies of vaccine resistance online use quantitative methods to describe misinformation on vaccine-skeptical websites. Findings from these studies are useful for categorizing the generic features of these websites, but they do not provide insights into why these websites successfully persuade their viewers. To date, there have been few attempts to understand, qualitatively, the persuasive features of provaccine or vaccine-skeptical websites...
2015: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Ronald G Beckett
The use of endoscopy in anthropological and archaeological research was been well documented in the literature. This article explores the varied settings in which endoscopy is beneficial in gathering visual data for interpretation related to cultural remains and artifacts. Endoscopic data may be used to assist in the pursuit of answering such bioanthropological questions as sex, age at death, presence of paleopathologies, dental conditions, and cultural practices. Endoscopy is often used to guide and document biopsy procedures as well as the retrieval of artifacts from within poorly accessible locations such as body cavities, coffins, or tombs...
June 2015: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
D Contandriopoulos, C Larouche
This presentation proposes and showcases an innovative method for the visual analysis of narrative data. This method rests on three steps: the transformation of narrative data into relational data, the use of graph optimization algorithms derived from social network analysis (SNA), and, finally, the visual analysis of the resulting sociograms. This method was developed and pilot tested in the context of a research project about stakeholders' views on the strengths and problems of Quebec's health care system, and the solutions needed to increase its performance and sustainability...
2015: BMJ Open
A Iu Vasil'ev, A P Buzhilova, E A Egorova, D V Makarova, N Ia Berezina, I S Zorina, V I Khartanovich
OBJECTIVE: To study the capabilities of cone-bean computed tomography (CBCT) in estimating the bone structure when analyzing anthropological findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four bone fragments (remains) of Napoléon Bonaparte Imperial Army soldiers who had died at a Königsberg military hospital during their retreat from Russia in the War of 1812 were examined by CBCT. A total of 28 tubular bones with different injury healing signs and a skull with maxillofacial trauma marks were investigated...
September 2014: Vestnik Rentgenologii i Radiologii
Monika Monika Pietrzak-Franger, Martha Stoddard Holmes
As the recent Ebola outbreak demonstrates, visibility is central to the shaping of political, medical, and socioeconomic decisions. The symposium in this issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry explores the uneasy relationship between the necessity of making diseases visible, the mechanisms of legal and visual censorship, and the overall ethics of viewing and spectatorship, including the effects of media visibility on the perception of particular "marked" bodies. Scholarship across the disciplines of communication, anthropology, gender studies, and visual studies, as well as a photographer's visual essay and memorial reflection, throw light on various strategies of visualization and (de)legitimation and link these to broader socioeconomic concerns...
December 2014: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
A A Kaptein
Medical humanities is the interdisciplinary field of humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history, and religion), social science (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology, and sociology), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts), and their application to medical education and practice. In this chapter, the concept of 'hysteria' is put into a medical humanities perspective. We review the concept of hysteria concisely. Two novels and one autobiographical story are used as material in order to study how 'hysteria' is represented in literary work...
2014: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Stěpánka Kučerová, Miroslav Safr, Michaela Ublová, Petra Urbanová, Petr Hejna
X-ray is the most common, basic and essential imaging method used in forensic medicine. It serves to display and localize the foreign objects in the body and helps to detect various traumatic and pathological changes. X-ray imaging is valuable in anthropological assessment of an individual. X-ray allows non-invasive evaluation of important findings before the autopsy and thus selection of the optimal strategy for dissection. Basic indications for postmortem X-ray imaging in forensic medicine include gunshot and explosive fatalities (identification and localization of projectiles or other components of ammunition, visualization of secondary missiles), sharp force injuries (air embolism, identification of the weapon) and motor vehicle related deaths...
July 2014: Soudní Lékarství
B S Manjunatha, Nishit K Soni
The developing dentition is used to assess maturity and estimate the age in many disciplines including anthropology, archeology, forensic science, pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. There is evidence that dental development is less effected than skeletal development by malnutrition and hormonal disorders. There are two methods of dental age assessment, radiographically and by clinically visualization of eruption of teeth. The clinical method to assess dental age is based on the emergence of teeth in the mouth...
May 2014: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Hani H Sinno, Mark K Markarian, Ahmed M S Ibrahim, Samuel J Lin
BACKGROUND: In aesthetic rhinoplasty, the described ideal nasolabial angle ranges from 90 to 120 degrees, with variable anthropologic differences. The authors sought to verify the most aesthetic nasolabial angle as specifically perceived by a random prospective sample of the general population and determine whether age, sex, race, and education were independent associated predictors. METHODS: The authors prospectively recruited 98 random volunteers from the general population...
August 2014: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Petra Urbanová, Ann H Ross, Mikoláš Jurda, Maria-Ines Nogueira
In the framework of forensic anthropology osteometric techniques are generally preferred over visual examinations due to a higher level of reproducibility and repeatability; qualities that are crucial within a legal context. The use of osteometric methods has been further reinforced by incorporating statistically-based algorithms and large reference samples in a variety of user-friendly software applications. However, the continued increase in admixture of human populations have made the use of osteometric methods for estimation of ancestry much more complex, which confounds one of major requirements of ancestry assessment - intra-population homogeneity...
September 2014: Legal Medicine
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