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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092551/hierarchical-image-segmentation-based-on-iterative-contraction-and-merging
#1
Jia-Hao Syu, Sheng-Jyh Wang, Li-Chun Wang
In this paper, we propose a new framework for hierarchical image segmentation based on iterative contraction and merging (ICM). In the proposed framework, we treat the hierarchical image segmentation problem as a sequel of optimization problems, with each optimization process being realized by a contraction-and-merging process to identify and merge the most similar data pairs at the current resolution. At the beginning, we perform pixel-based contraction and merging to quickly combine image pixels into initial region-elements with visually indistinguishable intra-region color difference...
January 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091734/level-of-conus-medullaris-termination-in-adult-population-analyzed-by-kinetic-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
An Liu, Kaixiang Yang, Daling Wang, Changqing Li, Zhiwei Ren, Shigui Yan, Zorica Buser, Jeffrey C Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate the change of conus medullaris termination (CMT) level in neutral, flexion and extension positions and to analyze the effects of age and gender on the CMT level. METHODS: The midline sagittal T2-weighted kinetic magnetic resonance imaging (kMRI) study of 585 patients was retrospectively reviewed to identify the level of CMT. All patients were in an upright position. A straight line perpendicular to the long axis of the cord was drawn from the tip of the cord and then subtended to the adjacent vertebra or disk space...
January 16, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089868/novel-calcium-recognition-constructions-in-proteins-calcium-blade-and-ef-hand-zone
#3
Alexander I Denesyuk, Sergei E Permyakov, Mark S Johnson, Eugene A Permyakov, Konstantin Denessiouk
Metal ions can regulate various cell processes being first, second or third messengers, and some of them, especially transition metal ions, take part in catalysis in many enzymes. As an intracellular ion, Ca(2+) is involved in many cellular functions from fertilization and contraction, cell differentiation and proliferation, to apoptosis and cancer. Here, we have identified and described two novel calcium recognition environments in proteins: the calcium blade zone and the EF-hand zone, common to 12 and 8 different protein families, respectively...
January 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088033/a-bayesian-spatial-random-parameters-tobit-model-for-analyzing-crash-rates-on-roadway-segments
#4
Qiang Zeng, Huiying Wen, Helai Huang, Mohamed Abdel-Aty
This study develops a Bayesian spatial random parameters Tobit model to analyze crash rates on road segments, in which both spatial correlation between adjacent sites and unobserved heterogeneity across observations are accounted for. The crash-rate data for a three-year period on road segments within a road network in Florida, are collected to compare the performance of the proposed model with that of a (fixed parameters) Tobit model and a spatial (fixed parameters) Tobit model in the Bayesian context. Significant spatial effect is found in both spatial models and the results of Deviance Information Criteria (DIC) show that the inclusion of spatial correlation in the Tobit regression considerably improves model fit, which indicates the reasonableness of considering cross-segment spatial correlation...
January 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079810/risk-of-vertebral-compression-fractures-in-multiple-myeloma-patients-a-finite-element-study
#5
D Anitha, Baum Thomas, Kirschke S Jan, Karupppasamy Subburaj
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model to predict vertebral bone strength in vitro using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images in multiple myeloma (MM) patients, to serve as a complementing tool to assess fracture risk. In addition, it also aims to differentiate MM patients with and without vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) by performing FE analysis on vertebra segments (T1-L5) obtained from in vivo routine MDCT imaging scans. MDCT-based FE models were developed from the in vitro vertebrae samples and were then applied to the in vivo vertebrae segments of MM patients (n = 4) after validation...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073968/variants-of-abgri3-carrying-the-arma-gene-in-extensively-antibiotic-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-from-singapore
#6
Grace A Blackwell, Kathryn E Holt, Stephen D Bentley, Li Yang Hsu, Ruth M Hall
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the context of the ribosomal RNA methyltransferase gene armA in carbapenem-resistant global clone 2 (GC2) Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Singapore. METHODS: Antibiotic resistance was determined using disc diffusion; PCR was used to identify resistance genes. Whole genome sequences were determined and contigs were assembled and ordered using PCR. Resistance regions in unsequenced isolates were mapped. RESULTS: Fifteen GC2 A...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069740/checkpoint-independent-regulation-of-origin-firing-by-mrc1-through-interaction-with-hsk1-kinase
#7
Seiji Matsumoto, Yutaka Kanoh, Michie Shimmoto, Motoshi Hayano, Kyosuke Ueda, Rino Fukatsu, Naoko Kakusho, Hisao Masai
Mrc1 is a conserved checkpoint mediator protein that transduces replication-stress signal to downstream effector kinase. Loss of mrc1 checkpoint activity results in aberrant activation of late/dormant origins in the presence of hydroxyurea. Mrc1 was also suggested to regulate orders of early-origin firing in a checkpoint-independent manner, but its mechanism was unknown. Here we identify HBS (Hsk1 Bypass Segment) on Mrc1. ΔHBS does not suppress late/dormant origin firing in the presence of hydroxyurea but causes precocious and enhanced activation of weak early-firing origins during normal S-phase progression, and bypasses the requirement of Hsk1 for growth...
January 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069473/high-intensity-training-improves-global-and-segmental-strains-in-severe-congestive-heart-failure
#8
Yair Blumberg, Offir Ertracht, Itai Gershon, Noa Bachner-Hinenzon, Tali Reuveni, Shaul Atar
BACKGROUND: High intensity training (HIT) is superior to moderate aerobic training (MAT) for improving quality of life in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has recently been suggested for estimation of left ventricle global and regional function. AIMS: We evaluated the utility of STE for characterizing differences in cardiac function following MAT or HIT in a CHF rat model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following baseline physiological assessment, CHF was induced by coronary artery ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065872/posterior-cervical-transfacet-fusion-with-facetal-spacer-for-the-treatment-of-single-level-cervical-radiculopathy-a-randomized-controlled-prospective-study
#9
Jacopo Lenzi, Antonio Nardone, Emiliano Passacantilli, Alessandro Caporlingua, Gennaro Lapadula, Federico Caporlingua
BACKGROUND: single level cervical radiculopathy may be treated conservatively with cervical tractions. Posterior cervical transfacet fusion with a facetal spacer is a viable option. The aim of the present study is to compare posterior cervical transfacet fusion to conservative physical treatment in single level cervical radiculopathy METHODS: 80 patients were randomized in 2 groups. A surgical group where patients were given posterior cervical transfacet fusion and a traction group where patients were treated conservatively with mechanical cervical tractions...
January 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061490/comparative-analysis-between-total-disc-replacement-and-posterior-foraminotomy-for-posterolateral-soft-disc-herniation-with-unilateral-radiculopathy-clinical-and-biomechanical-results-of-a-minimum-5-years-follow-up
#10
Kyoung-Tae Kim, Dae-Chul Cho, Joo-Kyung Sung, Young-Baeg Kim, Du Hwan Kim
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical outcomes and biomechanical effects of total disc replacement (TDR) and posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF) and to propose relative inclusion criteria. METHODS: Thirty-five patients who underwent surgery between 2006 and 2008 were included. All patients had single-level disease and only radiculopathy. The overall sagittal balance and angle and height of a functional segmental unit (FSU; upper and lower vertebral body of the operative lesion) were assessed by preoperative and follow-up radiographs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061487/thermal-induced-osteonecrosis-of-adjacent-vertebra-after-intradiscal-electrothermal-therapy
#11
Soonjoon Kim, Sun-Ho Lee, Eun-Sang Kim, Whan Eoh
A 42-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with complaints of low back pain and intermittent right thigh pain. Twelve weeks before admission, the patient received intradiscal electrothermal therapy (IDET) at a local hospital. The patient still reported low back pain after the procedure that was managed with narcotic analgesics. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and his referring physician thought the likely diagnosis was spondylodiscitis at the L4-5 spinal segment with a small epidural abscess...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060071/corneal-lenticule-allotransplantation-after-femtosecond-laser-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-in-rabbits
#12
Jing Zhao, Yang Shen, Mi Tian, Ling Sun, Yu Zhao, Xiaoyu Zhang, Xingtao Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of allotransplanting extracted lenticules after femtosecond laser-assisted small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in rabbits and the subsequent healing process. METHODS: Fourteen New Zealand white rabbits were divided evenly into 2 groups. The rabbits in group A received SMILE procedures with a -6.00 D correction. The lenticules from group A were immediately inserted into a femtosecond laser-created corneal stromal pocket in group B...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059683/spinopelvic-sagittal-imbalance-as-a-risk-factor-for-adjacent-segment-disease-after-single-segment-posterior-lumbar-interbody-fusion
#13
Tomiya Matsumoto, Shinya Okuda, Takafumi Maeno, Tomoya Yamashita, Ryoji Yamasaki, Tsuyoshi Sugiura, Motoki Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE The importance of spinopelvic balance and its implications for clinical outcomes after spinal arthrodesis has been reported in recent studies. However, little is known about the relationship between adjacent-segment disease (ASD) after lumbar arthrodesis and spinopelvic alignment. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between spinopelvic radiographic parameters and symptomatic ASD after L4-5 single-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). METHODS This was a retrospective 1:5 matched case-control study...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056104/sleep-driven-computations-in-speech-processing
#14
Rebecca L A Frost, Padraic Monaghan
Acquiring language requires segmenting speech into individual words, and abstracting over those words to discover grammatical structure. However, these tasks can be conflicting-on the one hand requiring memorisation of precise sequences that occur in speech, and on the other requiring a flexible reconstruction of these sequences to determine the grammar. Here, we examine whether speech segmentation and generalisation of grammar can occur simultaneously-with the conflicting requirements for these tasks being over-come by sleep-related consolidation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052050/planning-four-dimensional-intensity-modulated-arc-therapy-for-tumor-tracking-with-a-multileaf-collimator
#15
Ying Niu, Gregory Betzel, Xiaocheng Yang, Minzhi Gui, William Parke, Byong Yi, Cedric Yu
This study introduces a practical four-dimensional (4D) planning scheme of IMAT using 4D computed tomography (4D CT) for planning tumor tracking with dynamic multileaf beam collimation. We assume that patients can breathe regularly, i.e., the same way as during 4D CT with an unchanged period and amplitude, and that the start of 4D-IMAT delivery can be synchronized with a designated respiratory phase. Each control point of the IMAT-delivery process can be associated with an image set of 4D CT at a specified respiratory phase...
January 4, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048919/su-g-jep3-05-geometry-based-transperineal-ultrasound-probe-positioning-for-image-guided-radiotherapy
#16
S Camps, F Verhaegen, P de With, D Fontanarosa
PURPOSE: The use of ultrasound (US) imaging in radiotherapy is not widespread, primarily due to the need for skilled operators performing the scans. Automation of probe positioning has the potential to remove this need and minimize operator dependence. We introduce an algorithm for obtaining a US probe position that allows good anatomical structure visualization based on clinical requirements. The first application is on 4D transperineal US images of prostate cancer patients. METHODS: The algorithm calculates the probe position and orientation using anatomical information provided by a reference CT scan, always available in radiotherapy workflows...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048184/su-f-j-95-impact-of-shape-complexity-on-the-accuracy-of-gradient-based-pet-volume-delineation
#17
M Dance, G Wu, Y Gao, S Pirozzi, A Nelson, S Das, J Lian
PURPOSE: Explore correlation of tumor complexity shape with PET target volume accuracy when delineated with gradient-based segmentation tool. METHODS: A total of 24 clinically realistic digital PET Monte Carlo (MC) phantoms of NSCLC were used in the study. The phantom simulated 29 thoracic lesions (lung primary and mediastinal lymph nodes) of varying size, shape, location, and (18) F-FDG activity. A program was developed to calculate a curvature vector along the outline and the standard deviation of this vector was used as a metric to quantify a shape's "complexity score"...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048113/su-f-i-44-using-the-air-signal-to-characterize-image-noise-in-ct
#18
T Szczykutowicz, A Malkus
PURPOSE: With increasing emphasis on CT image quality and low dose, quality activities analyzing noise levels in images will need to be increasingly automated. This work describes a new automated method for characterizing noise in CT. To obviate the need to segment out anatomical structure, this work introduces the use of noise statistics of air to understand the noise in the scanned object. METHODS: Scans of a uniform water phantom were acquired at four dose levels...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047680/su-f-j-111-a-novel-distance-dose-weighting-method-for-label-fusion-in-multi-atlas-segmentation-for-prostate-radiation-therapy
#19
J Chang, X Gu, W Lu, T Song, S Jiang
PURPOSE: A novel distance-dose weighting method for label fusion was developed to increase segmentation accuracy in dosimetrically important regions for prostate radiation therapy. METHODS: Label fusion as implemented in the original SIMPLE (OS) for multi-atlas segmentation relies iteratively on the majority vote to generate an estimated ground truth and DICE similarity measure to screen candidates. The proposed distance-dose weighting puts more values on dosimetrically important regions when calculating similarity measure...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047229/su-c-207b-03-a-geometrical-constrained-chan-vese-based-tumor-segmentation-scheme-for-pet
#20
L Chen, Z Zhou, J Wang
PURPOSE: Accurate segmentation of tumor in PET is challenging when part of tumor is connected with normal organs/tissues with no difference in intensity. Conventional segmentation methods, such as thresholding or region growing, cannot generate satisfactory results in this case. We proposed a geometrical constrained Chan-Vese based scheme to segment tumor in PET for this special case by considering the similarity between two adjacent slices. METHODS: The proposed scheme performs segmentation in a slice-by-slice fashion where an accurate segmentation of one slice is used as the guidance for segmentation of rest slices...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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