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Nicolas Gaboriaud-Kolar, Vasillios Myrianthopoulos, Konstantina Vougogiannopoulou, Panagiotis Gerolymatos, David A Horne, Richard Jove, Emmanuel Mikros, Sangkil Nam, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis
Drug resistance in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) requires the development of new CML chemotherapeutic drugs. Indirubin, a well-known mutikinase inhibitor, is the major active component of "Danggui Longhui Wan", a Chinese traditional medicine used for the treatment of CML symptoms. An in-house collection of indirubin derivatives was screened at 1 μM on wild-type and imatinib-resistant T315I mutant CML cells. Herein are reported that only 15 analogues of the natural 6-bromoindirubin displayed potent cytotoxicity in the submicromolar range...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Jin-Lun Lai, Yu-Hui Liu, Chang Liu, Ming-Pu Qi, Rui-Ning Liu, Xi-Fang Zhu, Qiu-Ge Zhou, Ying-Yu Chen, Ai-Zhen Guo, Chang-Min Hu
Indirubin plays an important role in the treatment of many chronic diseases and exhibits strong anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mode of action during mastitis prophylaxis remains poorly understood. In this study, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis mouse model showed that indirubin attenuated histopathological changes in the mammary gland, local tissue necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration. Moreover, indirubin significantly downregulated the production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
October 7, 2016: Inflammation
Jie Yu, Jiacheng Zheng, Jiajia Lin, Linlu Jin, Rui Yu, Shinghung Mak, Shengquan Hu, Hongya Sun, Xiang Wu, Zaijun Zhang, Mingyuen Lee, Wahkeung Tsim, Wei Su, Wenhua Zhou, Wei Cui, Yifan Han, Qinwen Wang
Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in many neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we have shown that indirubin-3-oxime, a derivative of indirubin originally designed for leukemia therapy, could prevent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in both SH-SY5Y cells and primary cerebellar granule neurons. H2O2 exposure led to the increased activities of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in SH-SY5Y cells. Indirubin-3-oxime treatment significantly reversed the altered activity of both the PI3-K/Akt/GSK3β cascade and the ERK pathway induced by H2O2...
July 13, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Wenyan Gao, Yufang Guo, Changhong Wang, Yifan Lin, Li Yu, Tianjiao Sheng, Zhuolin Wu, Yang Gong
Indirubin, an active ingredient of a traditional Chinese medicine prescription named Danggui Longhui Wan, has been reported to exhibit abroad anti-cancer and anti-inflammation activities. However, the effect of indirubin on ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been addressed. Here, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of indirubin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in mice and explored its underlying mechanisms. UC model was induced in BALB/c mice by administrating with 3% DSS in drinking water for 7days...
July 2016: Acta Histochemica
Yang Li, Junge Zhu, Jianjun Wang, Huanzhang Xia, Sheng Wu
The phenylacetone monooxygenase, isolated from Thermobifida fusca, mainly catalyzes Baeyer-Villiger oxidation reaction towards aromatic compounds. Met446 plays a vital role in catalytic promiscuity, based on the structure and function of phenylacetone monooxygenase. Mutation in Met446 locus can offer enzyme new catalytic feature to activate C-H bond, oxidizing indole to finally generate indigo and indirubin, but the yield was only 1.89 mg/L. In order to further improve the biosynthesis efficiency of the whole-cell catalyst, metabolic engineering was applied to change glucose metabolism pathway of Escherichia coli...
January 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Won Ho Lee, Seong Hun Choi, Su Jin Kang, Chang Hyun Song, Soo Jin Park, Young Joon Lee, Sae Kwang Ku
Persicariae Rhizoma (PR) has been used as an anti-inflammatory and detoxification agent in Korea, and contains the biologically active dyes purple indirubin and blue indigo. Despite synthetic indigo showing genotoxic potential, thorough studies have not been carried out on the genotoxicity of PR. The potential genotoxicity of an aqueous extract of PR containing indigo (0.043%) and indirubin (0.009%) was evaluated using a standard battery of tests for safety assessment. The PR extract did not induce any genotoxic effects under the conditions of this study...
July 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Evelyn A Jähne, Chethan Sampath, Veronika Butterweck, Matthias Hamburger, Mouhssin Oufir
An UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of indirubin in lithium heparinized rat plasma was developed and validated according to current international guidelines. Indirubin was extracted from rat plasma by using Waters Ostro™ pass-through sample preparation plates. The method was validated with a LLOQ of 5.00ng/mL and an ULOQ of 500ng/mL. The calibration curve was fitted by least-square quadratic regression, and a weighting factor of 1/X was applied. Recoveries of indirubin and I.S. were consistent and ≥75...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Masahiro Kurita, Satoshi Hanada, Yoshimi Ichimaru, Hiroaki Saito, Keiichi Tabata, Satoru Asami, Shinichi Miyairi, Takashi Suzuki
Indirubin inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases by binding to their ATP-binding site, thereby exerting potent cytotoxicity on some tumor cells. We examined the anti-tumor effect of indirubin 3'-epoxide on human neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR-32, SK-N-SH, and NB-39). The results revealed potent cytotoxicity of indirubin 3'-epoxide against the IMR-32 (IC50: 0.16 µM) and SK-N-SH (IC50: 0.07 µM) cells. Furthermore, it also induced an increase of the sub-G1 population in the IMR-32 cells. Examination by Hoechst 33342 staining revealed apoptosis characterized by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation and nuclear fragmentation in a concentration-dependent manner...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
D R Brown, B W Clark, L V T Garner, R T Di Giulio
High affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, such as certain polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), cause severe cardiac teratogenesis in fish embryos. Moderately strong AHR agonists, for example benzo[a]pyrene and β-naphthoflavone, are capable of causing similar cardiotoxic effects, particularly when coupled with cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) inhibitors (e.g., fluoranthene (FL). Additionally, some weaker AHR agonists (carbaryl, 2-methylindole, 3-methylindole, and phenanthrene) are known to also cause cardiotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos when coupled with FL; however, the cardiotoxic effects were not mediated specifically by AHR stimulation...
October 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Elke H Heiss, Daniel Schachner, Maddalena Donati, Christoph S Grojer, Verena M Dirsch
Increased aerobic glycolysis is a recognized feature of multiple cellular phenotypes and offers a potential point for drug interference, as pursued by anti-tumor agents targeting the Warburg effect. This study aimed at examining the role of aerobic glycolysis for migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and its susceptibility to the small molecule indirubin-3'-monoxime (I3MO). Activation of VSMC with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) resulted in migration and increased glycolytic activity which was accompanied by an increased glucose uptake and hexokinase (HK) 2 expression...
August 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
Shinya Sugimoto, Makoto Naganuma, Takanori Kanai
Indole compounds are extracted from indigo plants and have been used as blue or purple dyes for hundreds of years. In traditional Chinese medicine, herbal agents in combination with Qing-Dai (also known as indigo naturalis) have been used to treat patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to remedy inflammatory conditions. Recent studies have noted that indole compounds can be biosynthesized from tryptophan metabolites produced by various enzymes derived from intestinal microbiota. In addition to their action on indole compounds, the intestinal microbiota produce various tryptophan metabolites that mediate critical functions through distinct pathways and enzymes...
September 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Xunxun Wu, Xiaofei Chen, Jia Dan, Yan Cao, Shouhong Gao, Zhiying Guo, Philipp Zerbe, Yifeng Chai, Yong Diao, Lei Zhang
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been developed for thousands of years and has formed an integrated theoretical system based on a large amount of clinical practice. However, essential ingredients in TCM herbs have not been fully identified, and their precise mechanisms and targets are not elucidated. In this study, a new strategy combining comprehensive two-dimensional K562/cell membrane chromatographic system and in silico target identification was established to characterize active components from Indigo naturalis, a famous TCM herb that has been widely used for the treatment of leukemia in China, and their targets...
2016: Scientific Reports
Athina Vasileiadou, Ioannis Karapanagiotis, Anastasia Zotou
Indigotin, indirubin, 6-bromoindigotin, 6'-bromoindirubin, 6-bromoindirubin, 6,6'-dibromoindigotin and 6,6'-dibromoindirubin, the colouring components of Tyrian purple, are quantified by an efficient HPLC method coupled to a diode array detector. The compounds were separated using gradient elution, on a RP-column (Alltima C18, 250mm×3.0mm i.d., 5μm), thermostated at 35°C, with a mobile phase consisting of solvents (Α) H2O+0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid and (Β) acetonitrile+0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid, at a flow rate of 0...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Myoung Eun Jung, Byung Jin Byun, Hye-Mi Kim, Joo Yun Lee, Jin-Hee Park, Nari Lee, You Hwa Son, Sang Un Choi, Kyung-Min Yang, Seong-Jin Kim, Kwangho Lee, Yong-Chul Kim, Gildon Choi
DRAK2 is a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) family and has emerged as a promising drug target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancers. To identify small molecule inhibitors for DRAK2, we performed a high throughput screening campaign using in-house chemical library and identified indirubin-3'-monoximes as novel class of DRAK2 inhibitors. Among the compounds tested, compound 16 exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against DRAK2 (IC50=0.003μM)...
June 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Takeshi Kumagai, Yusuke Aratsu, Ryosuke Sugawara, Takamitsu Sasaki, Shinichi Miyairi, Kiyoshi Nagata
Ban-Lan-Gen is the common name for the dried roots of indigo plants, including Polygonum tinctorium, Isatis indigotica, Isatis tinctoria, and Strobilanthes cusia. Ban-Lan-Gen is frequently used as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-viral for the treatment of hepatitis, influenza, and various types of inflammation. One of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP3A4, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ban-Lan-Gen on the transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene...
April 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Chaluveelaveedu Murleedharan Nisha, Ashwini Kumar, Archana Vimal, Bhukya Mounika Bai, Dharm Pal, Awanish Kumar
GSK-3 is a member of cellular kinases with diversified functions such as cellular differentiation, metabolic signaling, neuronal functions and apoptosis. It has been validated as an important therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. Few molecules targeting GSK-3 are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have compared certain docking and computational ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion) parameters of a few GSK-3 targeted ligands (Indirubin, Hymenialdisine, Meridianins, 6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime) against two control molecules (Tideglusib and LY-2090314) to derive and analyze the basic drug-like properties of the test compounds...
April 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Xinlai Cheng, Jee Young Kim, Shahrouz Ghafoory, Tijen Duvaci, Roya Rafiee, Jannick Theobald, Hamed Alborzinia, Pavlo Holenya, Johannes Fredebohm, Karl-Heinz Merz, Arianeb Mehrabi, Mohammadreza Hafezi, Arash Saffari, Gerhard Eisenbrand, Jörg D Hoheisel, Stefan Wölfl
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) clinically has a very poor prognosis. No small molecule is available to reliably achieve cures. Meisoindigo is chemically related to the natural product indirubin and showed substantial efficiency in clinical chemotherapy for CML in China. However, its effect on PDAC is still unknown. Our results showed strong anti-proliferation effect of meisoindigo on gemcitabine-resistant PDACs. Using a recently established primary PDAC cell line, called Jopaca-1 with a larger CSCs population as model, we observed a reduction of CD133+ and ESA+/CD44+/CD24+ populations upon treatment and concomitantly a decreased expression of CSC-associated genes, and reduced cellular mobility and sphere formation...
June 2016: Molecular Oncology
M Broecker-Preuss, N Becher-Boveleth, K Mann
PURPOSE: Patients with advanced and metastasized medullary thyroid carcinoma are difficult to treat since tumor cells do not respond to chemotherapeutic treatment and external radiation. Direct induction of cell death is a new therapeutic approach to therapy-resistant tumor cells. In this study we analyzed the effect of the indirubin-derivative 7BIO and the BH3 mimetic drugs ABT-737 and GX15-070 on cell death induction of TT medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. METHODS: TT medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line was treated with 7BIO, ABT-737 and GX15-070...
May 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Mohamed Ali Seyed, Ibrahim Jantan, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Kavitha Vijayaraghavan
Cancer is a diverse class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth that constitutes the greatest cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite steady progress, the treatment modalities of cancer are still insufficient. Several new concepts have emerged for therapeutic intervention in malignant diseases with the goal of identifying specific targets and overcoming resistance against current cytotoxic therapies. Many studies have reported the remarkable and significant properties of dietary plant polyphenols such as curcumin, resveratrol, flavopiridol, indirubin, magnolol, piceatannol, parthenolide, epigallocatechin gallate, and cucurbitacin as anticancer agents known for their pleiotropic effects on cancer, immune cells, and inflammation...
February 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Aijun Zhang, Bin Ning, Nianzheng Sun, Jianlu Wei, Xiuli Ju
Indirubin, a traditional Chinese medicine, is used to treat autoimmune diseases in clinics. However, the effects of indirubin on the immunosuppressive CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) have not been addressed. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of indirubin on CD4+CD25+Treg cells in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) CBA mice, which were established by immunization with Wistar rat platelets. 50 mg/kg indirubin treatment daily for 4 weeks significantly decreased anti-platelet antibody production and prevented the decrease of platelets caused by immunization in ITP mice...
2015: PloS One
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