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Pep hiv

Somayeh Kadkhodayan, Azam Bolhassani, Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Shiva Irani, Fatemeh Fotouhi
Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) or protein transduction domains (PTDs) have been known as a new field in cargo delivery. These peptides such as Tat, Pep-1 and Cady-2 are able to deliver genes and biologically active proteins to cytoplasmic compartments via the plasma membrane. In current study, the efficiency of pEGFP-N1 eukaryotic vector for expression of HIV-1 Tat-Nef fusion was evaluated in HEK-293T cells using TurboFect transfection reagent. In addition, the recombinant GST-Tat-Nef protein was generated in E...
October 6, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Carrie Llewellyn, Harriet Martin, Eileen Nixon
People who repeatedly present for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for prevention of HIV following a high-risk sexual exposure are of concern according to the British HIV Association PEP guidelines. The aim of this audit was to determine the extent of repeat PEP prescriptions for men who have sex with men (MSM) by conducting a retrospective review of patient notes from a 5-year period at one genitourinary medicine clinic. Over the 5 years, 107 of 929 MSM (11.5%; 95% confidence interval: 9.45-13.55) received more than one PEP prescription (repeat range 1-8; mean=3...
October 7, 2016: Sexual Health
Susanna Naggie, David Holland, Mark S Sulkowski, David L Thomas
Currently, 380,000-400,000 occupational exposures to blood borne pathogens occur annually in the United States. The management for occupational HIV or HBV exposures includes post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) when necessary; however, PEP is not recommended for HCV exposures. Recent approval of HCV direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has renewed discussions as to whether these therapies could be used to prevent infection after exposure. There are no published studies addressing this question but the prescribing of DAA for PEP has been reported...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
J M Hugo, R D Stall, K Rebe, J E Egan, G De Swardt, H Struthers, J A McIntyre
Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) have been affected disproportionately by the global HIV pandemic. Rates of consistent condom-use are low and there is a need for further biomedical prevention interventions to prevent new HIV infections. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can reduce the risk of HIV, but uptake among MSM is low. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an innovative anti-retroviral-based HIV prevention tool might be an appropriate intervention for MSM who have recently accessed PEP that involves HIV negative individuals taking daily tenofovir+emtricitabine for HIV prevention...
September 8, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
J M Hugo, R D Stall, K Rebe, J E Egan, G Jobson, G De Swardt, H Struthers, J A McIntyre
The Soweto Men's Study (2008), demonstrated an overall HIV prevalence rate of 13.2 %, with 10.1 % among straight-identified Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), 6.4 % among bisexual-identified MSM and 33.9 % among gay-identified MSM. Behavioral interventions are imperative, but insufficient to prevent new HIV infections. Biomedical prevention of HIV offers a variety of combination prevention tools, including Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). PEP studies amongst MSM have been conducted in Amsterdam, Brazil and San Francisco, but never before in Africa...
August 18, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
S M Ashrafur Rahman, Naveen K Vaidya, Xingfu Zou
While studies on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) have demonstrated substantial advantages in controlling HIV transmission, the overall benefits of the programs with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been fully understood and are still on debate. Here, we develop an immunity-based (CD4+ T cell count based) mathematical model to study the impacts of early treatment programs on HIV epidemics and the overall community-level immunity. The model is parametrized using the HIV prevalence data from South Africa and fully analyzed for stability of equilibria and infection persistence criteria...
October 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Lorna Leal, Berta Torres, Agathe León, Constanza Lucero, Alexy Inciarte, Vicens Diaz-Brito, Elisa de Lazzari, José María Gatell, Felipe García
OBJECTIVE: To better target our current prevention strategies, we assessed factors associated with HIV seroconversion in individuals attending a specialized center after a risk exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied individuals from an HIV Unit's contact risk cohort at a tertiary care hospital in Barcelona, Spain, between 2003 and 2013 and performed a retrospective matched case-control study. Cases were individuals who seroconverted to HIV after at least 3 months since first follow-up visit for a contracting risk...
October 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
G Whitlock, C McCormack, J Fearnley, A McOwan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are limited outcome data for men who have sex with men (MSM) who have received HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The objective of this service evaluation was to determine HIV incidence and repeat PEP use among MSM PEP recipients in London, UK. METHODS: Retrospective electronic case-note review of all MSM who were prescribed PEP between January and April 2013 at a central London sexual health service. RESULTS: 530 MSM received PEP between 1 January and 30 June 2013...
July 13, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Gabriele Prati, Bruna Zani, Luca Pietrantoni, Diego Scudiero, Patrizia Perone, Lella Cosmaro, Alessandra Cerioli, Massimo Oldrini
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been proposed as a strategy to prevent the acquisition of HIV infection after certain high-risk exposures, and treatment as prevention (TasP) is also being advocated as a means to reduce sexual transmission of HIV. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PEP and TasP awareness and their demographic, behavioral, and social correlates in Italy. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,028 high-risk heterosexual men and women, 1,874 non-HIV positive MSM (men who have sex with men), and 694 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)...
2016: PloS One
Caroline Salas-Humara, Sarah M Wood, Lawrence J D'Angelo, Nadia Dowshen
Many adolescents are at high risk for HIV infection, and those who are infected or at-risk commonly present to the ED, often as their only or frequent source of care. It is important to consider routine screening and to have a high index of suspicion for AHI in this setting. If a diagnosis of HIV infection is made, immediate linkage to care with a specialist in adolescent and young adult HIV infection should be prioritized. For the known HIV-infected patient, management must consider unique possibilities of OIs, IRIS, and medication side effects...
December 2015: Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews
Lufuno Makhado, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
BACKGROUND: Nurses caring for people living with HIV (PLWH) are at higher risk of exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by needle sticks, cuts, getting body fluids in their eyes or mouth and skin when bruised or affected by dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: To determine knowledge, insight and uptake of occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (OPEP) amongst nurses caring for PLWH. METHOD: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used in this study...
2016: Curationis
Davida Farhat, Emily Greene, Mark Q Paige, Beryl A Koblin, Victoria Frye
HIV chemoprophylaxis (PrEP/PEP) has emerged as a transformative prevention tool to reduce infection rates and decrease disease burden. However, uptake is low, and efficacy depends upon adherence. To maximize impact, potential barriers to uptake and adherence must be identified and understood. Using univariate and logistic regression analytic methods, we assessed associations among potential barriers to uptake and adherence, including HIV chemoprophylaxis knowledge, negative stereotyped beliefs about people who use it and negative attitudes towards HIV chemoprophylaxis use by relatives among 583 residents of two high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City...
May 13, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
G Fätkenheuer, H Jessen, A Stoehr, N Jung, A B Jessen, T Kümmerle, M Berger, J R Bogner, C D Spinner, C Stephan, O Degen, R Vogelmann, P Spornraft-Ragaller, E Schnaitmann, B Jensen, A Ulmer, J M Kittner, G Härter, P Malfertheiner, J Rockstroh, G Knecht, S Scholten, T Harrer, W V Kern, B Salzberger, D Schürmann, B Ranneberg
OBJECTIVES: PEPDar compared the tolerability and safety of ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r)-based post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with the tolerability and safety of standard of care (SOC). The primary endpoint was the early discontinuation rate among the per-protocol population. METHODS: PEPDar was an open-label, randomized, multicentre, prospective, noninferiority safety study. Subjects were stratified by type of event (occupational vs. nonoccupational, i.e...
June 2016: HIV Medicine
Rashmi Sharma, Pradeep Kumar, Brijesh Patel, Sanju Gajjar
INTRODUCTION: Second key strategy of National AIDS Control Program (NACP IV) is comprehensive care and support by providing quality services through zero stigma and discrimination. Quality of services can be improved by eliminating stigma and discrimination and making health care provider aware of associated occupational hazards. Nursing staff play crucial role and are more at risk therefore their understanding, perception and skill must be assessed in different domains of learning to improve the contents and methodology of trainings...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Getachew Kassa, Dejana Selenic, Maria Lahuerta, Tendani Gaolathe, Yang Liu, Garegole Letang, Cari Courtenay-Quirk, Nelson Kiama Mwaniki, Sarah Gaolekwe, Naomi Bock
BACKGROUND: This study assessed reporting behavior and satisfaction with postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) systems among health care workers (HCWs) at risk for occupational bloodborne pathogen exposure (BPE) in 3 public hospitals in Botswana. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among HCWs provided information on perceptions, attitudes, and experiences with occupational exposures, reporting, and postexposure care. HCWs potentially in contact with blood or body fluids were surveyed using audio computer-assisted self-interview...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Lorna Leal, Agathe León, Berta Torres, Alexy Inciarte, Constanza Lucero, Josep Mallolas, Montserrat Laguno, María Martínez-Rebollar, Ana González-Cordón, Christian Manzardo, Jhon Rojas, Judit Pich, Joan A Arnaiz, Josep M Gatell, Felipe García
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) non-completion at day 28, comparing ritonavir-boosted lopinavir versus maraviroc, both with tenofovir disoproxil/emtricitabine as the backbone. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, open, randomized clinical trial. Individuals attending the emergency room because of potential sexual exposure to HIV and who met criteria for receiving PEP were randomized to one of two groups: tenofovir disoproxil/emtricitabine (245/200 mg) once daily plus either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (400/100 mg) or maraviroc (300 mg) twice daily...
July 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Lorna Leal, Agathe León, Berta Torres, Alexy Inciarte, Constanza Lucero, Josep Mallolas, Montserrat Laguno, María Martínez-Rebollar, Ana González-Cordón, Christian Manzardo, Jhon Rojas, Judit Pich, Joan A Arnaiz, Josep M Gatell, Felipe García
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) non-completion at day 28, comparing two regimens. METHODS: A prospective, open, randomized clinical trial was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Individuals attending the emergency room because of potential sexual exposure to HIV were randomized to tenofovir disoproxil/emtricitabine (245/200 mg) plus either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (400/100 mg) or raltegravir (400 mg)...
July 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Joanne Otis, Amélie McFadyen, Thomas Haig, Martin Blais, Joseph Cox, Bluma Brenner, Robert Rousseau, Gilbert Émond, Michel Roger, Mark Wainberg
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have adapted their sexual practices over the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic based on available data and knowledge about HIV. This study sought to identify and compare patterns in condom use among gay, bisexual, and other MSM who were tested for HIV at a community-based testing site in Montreal, Canada. Results showed that while study participants use condoms to a certain extent with HIV-positive partners and partners of unknown HIV status, they also make use of various other strategies such as adjusting to a partner's presumed or known HIV status and viral load, avoiding certain types of partners, taking PEP, and getting tested for HIV...
March 9, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Andrew Spieldenner
HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has been introduced as another biomedical tool in HIV prevention. While other such tools-including Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) and interruption of perinatal transmission-have been embraced by those impacted by HIV, PrEP has been met with more conflict, especially within the gay community and HIV organizations. The "PrEP whore" has come to designate the social value and personal practices of those taking PrEP. This study examines the "PrEP whore" discourse by using queer theory and quare theory...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Kalavathi Dasuri, Jennifer K Pepping, Sun-Ok Fernandez-Kim, Sunita Gupta, Jeffrey N Keller, Philipp E Scherer, Annadora J Bruce-Keller
HIV protease inhibitors are key components of HIV antiretroviral therapies, which are fundamental in the treatment of HIV infection. However, the protease inhibitors are well-known to induce metabolic dysfunction which can in turn escalate the complications of HIV, including HIV associated neurocognitive disorders. As experimental and epidemiological data support a therapeutic role for adiponectin in both metabolic and neurologic homeostasis, this study was designed to determine if increased adiponectin could prevent the detrimental effects of protease inhibitors in mice...
June 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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