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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097434/work-related-infections-in-dentistry-risk-perception-and-preventive-measures
#1
Tatjana Ramich, Peter Eickholz, Sabine Wicker
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of (1) the risk perception of work-related infections in dentistry, (2) the vaccination status, (3) knowledge of the blood-borne pathogens and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as well as (4) use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (gloves, goggles, mask) among the staff and students of the Center of Dentistry and Oral Medicine (ZZMK [Carolinum]) of the Goethe University Frankfurt/Main. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All staff (dentists, dental assistants) and students of the ZZMK with direct contact to patients were asked to anonymously complete a questionnaire...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097068/hepatic-fibrosis-and-factors-associated-with-liver-stiffness-in-hiv-mono-infected-individuals
#2
Mihály Sulyok, Tamás Ferenci, Mihály Makara, Gábor Horváth, János Szlávik, Zsófia Rupnik, Luca Kormos, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Zita Sulyok, István Vályi-Nagy
BACKGROUND: Liver disease has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality even in those HIV-infected individuals who are devoid of hepatitis virus co-infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of hepatic fibrosis and the role of associated factors using liver stiffness measurement in HIV mono-infected patients without significant alcohol intake. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 101 HIV mono-infected patients recruited prospectively from March 1, 2014 to October 30, 2014 at the Center for HIV, St István and St László Hospital, Budapest, Hungary...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974330/post-exposure-prophylaxis-guidelines-for-children-and-adolescents-potentially-exposed-to-hiv
#3
REVIEW
Alasdair Bamford, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Caroline Foster
UK guidelines for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in adults have recently been updated. Indications for PEP have been modified and there has been a change in the recommended antiretroviral therapy for adults to a combination of raltegravir with tenofovir and emtricitabine (Truvada). Raltegravir and tenofovir are now available in paediatric formulations and offer improved safety and tolerability over previously recommended ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with zidovudine. This guideline provides recommendations for those caring for children potentially exposed to HIV and other bloodborne viruses in primary care, emergency departments, secondary care and specialist paediatric HIV centres...
January 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910722/post-exposure-prophylaxis-awareness-and-use-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-london-who-use-geosocial-networking-smartphone-applications
#4
William C Goedel, Daniel Hagen, Perry N Halkitis, Richard E Greene, Marybec Griffin-Tomas, Forrest A Brooks, DeMarc Hickson, Dustin T Duncan
The number of new HIV infections continues to be on the rise in many high-income countries, most notably among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite recent attention to the use of antiretroviral medications as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM, considerably less research has been devoted to examining the awareness and use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Based on a convenience sample of 179 self-reported HIV-uninfected MSM using a geosocial-networking smartphone application, this study is among the first to examine the awareness and use of PEP and their demographic and behavioral correlates among MSM in London...
December 2, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906766/prescription-of-post-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-1-in-the-emergency-room-correct-transmission-risk-assessment-remains-challenging
#5
Alex Marzel, Henriette Heinrich, Lukas Schilliger, Jan S Fehr, Huldrych F Günthard, Roger Kouyos, Silvana K Rampini
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available about the accuracy of PEP prescription in the emergency rooms. Here, we evaluated PEP prescription decision-making with respect to the risk of sexual HIV transmission and the exposed person`s fear vis-à-vis HIV. METHODS: Using a risk-assessment algorithm, we retrospectively evaluated the adequacy of PEP prescription for all persons presenting at the emergency room of the University Hospital Zurich after consensual sex from 2007 to 2013...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894270/evaluation-of-tolerability-with-the-co-formulation-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-post-hiv-exposure-prophylaxis
#6
Nadia Valin, Laurent Fonquernie, Anne Daguenel, Pauline Campa, Theresita Anthony, Marguerite Guiguet, Pierre Marie Girard, Marie Caroline Meyohas
BACKGROUND: The preferred regimen for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is based mainly on safety and tolerability because it is given to immunocompetent people without HIV infection for a limited time (28 days). The frequency of adverse events (AEs) may be > 60%. Although AEs are generally not severe, they can lead to lack of adherence and failure to complete the regimen. We evaluated the co-formulation elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Stribild(®)) prescribed as one pill taken once daily for HIV PEP in terms of tolerability and adherence...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789574/emerging-viral-stis-among-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-the-era-of-hepatitis-c-virus-and-human-papillomavirus
#7
REVIEW
Thijs Jw van de Laar, Olivier Richel
The number of infectious disease outbreaks and the number of unique pathogens responsible have significantly increased since the 1980s. HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are a vulnerable population with regards to the introduction, spread and clinical consequences of (newly introduced) STIs. After the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), the incidence of sexually acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced anal cancers have significantly increased among HIV-positive MSM...
October 27, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719633/the-efficiency-of-tat-cell-penetrating-peptide-for-intracellular-uptake-of-hiv-1-nef-expressed-in-e-coli-and-mammalian-cell
#8
Somayeh Kadkhodayan, Azam Bolhassani, Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Shiva Irani, Fatemeh Fotouhi
Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) or protein transduction domains (PTDs) have been known as a new field in cargo delivery. These peptides such as Tat, Pep-1 and Cady-2 are able to deliver genes and biologically active proteins to cytoplasmic compartments via the plasma membrane. In current study, the efficiency of pEGFP-N1 eukaryotic vector for expression of HIV-1 Tat-Nef fusion was evaluated in HEK-293T cells using TurboFect transfection reagent. In addition, the recombinant GST-Tat-Nef protein was generated in E...
October 6, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712617/what-is-the-extent-of-repeat-prescriptions-for-post-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-after-sexual-exposure-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-uk
#9
Carrie Llewellyn, Harriet Martin, Eileen Nixon
People who repeatedly present for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for prevention of HIV following a high-risk sexual exposure are of concern according to the British HIV Association PEP guidelines. The aim of this audit was to determine the extent of repeat PEP prescriptions for men who have sex with men (MSM) by conducting a retrospective review of patient notes from a 5-year period at one genitourinary medicine clinic. Over the 5 years, 107 of 929 MSM (11.5%; 95% confidence interval: 9.45-13.55) received more than one PEP prescription (repeat range 1-8; mean=3...
October 7, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682067/hepatitis-c-virus-postexposure-prophylaxis-in-the-healthcare-worker-why-direct-acting-antivirals-don-t-change-a-thing
#10
Susanna Naggie, David P Holland, Mark S Sulkowski, David L Thomas
Currently, 380 000-400 000 occupational exposures to blood-borne pathogens occur annually in the United States. The management for occupational HIV or hepatitis B virus exposures includes postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) when necessary; however, PEP is not recommended for hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposures. Recent approval of HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has renewed discussions as to whether these therapies could be used to prevent infection after exposure. There are no published studies addressing this question, but the prescribing of DAAs for PEP has been reported...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631366/anti-retroviral-therapy-based-hiv-prevention-among-a-sample-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-cape-town-south-africa-use-of-post-exposure-prophylaxis-and-knowledge-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#11
J M Hugo, R D Stall, K Rebe, J E Egan, G De Swardt, H Struthers, J A McIntyre
Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) have been affected disproportionately by the global HIV pandemic. Rates of consistent condom-use are low and there is a need for further biomedical prevention interventions to prevent new HIV infections. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can reduce the risk of HIV, but uptake among MSM is low. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an innovative anti-retroviral-based HIV prevention tool might be an appropriate intervention for MSM who have recently accessed PEP that involves HIV negative individuals taking daily tenofovir+emtricitabine for HIV prevention...
December 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539310/knowledge-attitudes-and-beliefs-regarding-post-exposure-prophylaxis-among-south-african-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#12
J M Hugo, R D Stall, K Rebe, J E Egan, G Jobson, G De Swardt, H Struthers, J A McIntyre
The Soweto Men's Study (2008), demonstrated an overall HIV prevalence rate of 13.2 %, with 10.1 % among straight-identified Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), 6.4 % among bisexual-identified MSM and 33.9 % among gay-identified MSM. Behavioral interventions are imperative, but insufficient to prevent new HIV infections. Biomedical prevention of HIV offers a variety of combination prevention tools, including Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). PEP studies amongst MSM have been conducted in Amsterdam, Brazil and San Francisco, but never before in Africa...
December 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474205/impact-of-early-treatment-programs-on-hiv-epidemics-an-immunity-based-mathematical-model
#13
S M Ashrafur Rahman, Naveen K Vaidya, Xingfu Zou
While studies on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) have demonstrated substantial advantages in controlling HIV transmission, the overall benefits of the programs with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been fully understood and are still on debate. Here, we develop an immunity-based (CD4+ T cell count based) mathematical model to study the impacts of early treatment programs on HIV epidemics and the overall community-level immunity. The model is parametrized using the HIV prevalence data from South Africa and fully analyzed for stability of equilibria and infection persistence criteria...
October 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457508/predictive-factors-for-hiv-seroconversion-among-individuals-attending-a-specialized-center-after-an-hiv-risk-exposure-a-case-control-study
#14
Lorna Leal, Berta Torres, Agathe León, Constanza Lucero, Alexy Inciarte, Vicens Diaz-Brito, Elisa de Lazzari, José María Gatell, Felipe García
OBJECTIVE: To better target our current prevention strategies, we assessed factors associated with HIV seroconversion in individuals attending a specialized center after a risk exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied individuals from an HIV Unit's contact risk cohort at a tertiary care hospital in Barcelona, Spain, between 2003 and 2013 and performed a retrospective matched case-control study. Cases were individuals who seroconverted to HIV after at least 3 months since first follow-up visit for a contracting risk...
October 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412954/high-hiv-incidence-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-attending-for-postexposure-prophylaxis-a-service-evaluation
#15
G Whitlock, C McCormack, J Fearnley, A McOwan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are limited outcome data for men who have sex with men (MSM) who have received HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The objective of this service evaluation was to determine HIV incidence and repeat PEP use among MSM PEP recipients in London, UK. METHODS: Retrospective electronic case-note review of all MSM who were prescribed PEP between January and April 2013 at a central London sexual health service. RESULTS: 530 MSM received PEP between 1 January and 30 June 2013...
July 13, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294777/pep-and-tasp-awareness-among-italian-msm-plwha-and-high-risk-heterosexuals-and-demographic-behavioral-and-social-correlates
#16
Gabriele Prati, Bruna Zani, Luca Pietrantoni, Diego Scudiero, Patrizia Perone, Lella Cosmaro, Alessandra Cerioli, Massimo Oldrini
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been proposed as a strategy to prevent the acquisition of HIV infection after certain high-risk exposures, and treatment as prevention (TasP) is also being advocated as a means to reduce sexual transmission of HIV. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PEP and TasP awareness and their demographic, behavioral, and social correlates in Italy. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,028 high-risk heterosexual men and women, 1,874 non-HIV positive MSM (men who have sex with men), and 694 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282015/human-immunodeficiency-virus-adolescent-emergencies
#17
REVIEW
Caroline Salas-Humara, Sarah M Wood, Lawrence J D'Angelo, Nadia Dowshen
Many adolescents are at high risk for HIV infection, and those who are infected or at-risk commonly present to the ED, often as their only or frequent source of care. It is important to consider routine screening and to have a high index of suspicion for AHI in this setting. If a diagnosis of HIV infection is made, immediate linkage to care with a specialist in adolescent and young adult HIV infection should be prioritized. For the known HIV-infected patient, management must consider unique possibilities of OIs, IRIS, and medication side effects...
December 2015: Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246789/knowledge-and-uptake-of-occupational-post-exposure-prophylaxis-amongst-nurses-caring-for-people-living-with-hiv
#18
Lufuno Makhado, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
BACKGROUND: Nurses caring for people living with HIV (PLWH) are at higher risk of exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by needle sticks, cuts, getting body fluids in their eyes or mouth and skin when bruised or affected by dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: To determine knowledge, insight and uptake of occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (OPEP) amongst nurses caring for PLWH. METHOD: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used in this study...
2016: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27177903/knowledge-stereotyped-beliefs-and-attitudes-around-hiv-chemoprophylaxis-in-two-high-hiv-prevalence-neighborhoods-in-new-york-city
#19
Davida Farhat, Emily Greene, Mark Q Paige, Beryl A Koblin, Victoria Frye
HIV chemoprophylaxis (PrEP/PEP) has emerged as a transformative prevention tool to reduce infection rates and decrease disease burden. However, uptake is low, and efficacy depends upon adherence. To maximize impact, potential barriers to uptake and adherence must be identified and understood. Using univariate and logistic regression analytic methods, we assessed associations among potential barriers to uptake and adherence, including HIV chemoprophylaxis knowledge, negative stereotyped beliefs about people who use it and negative attitudes towards HIV chemoprophylaxis use by relatives among 583 residents of two high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City...
May 13, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166295/pepdar-a-randomized-prospective-noninferiority-study-of-ritonavir-boosted-darunavir-for-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#20
G Fätkenheuer, H Jessen, A Stoehr, N Jung, A B Jessen, T Kümmerle, M Berger, J R Bogner, C D Spinner, C Stephan, O Degen, R Vogelmann, P Spornraft-Ragaller, E Schnaitmann, B Jensen, A Ulmer, J M Kittner, G Härter, P Malfertheiner, J Rockstroh, G Knecht, S Scholten, T Harrer, W V Kern, B Salzberger, D Schürmann, B Ranneberg
OBJECTIVES: PEPDar compared the tolerability and safety of ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r)-based post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with the tolerability and safety of standard of care (SOC). The primary endpoint was the early discontinuation rate among the per-protocol population. METHODS: PEPDar was an open-label, randomized, multicentre, prospective, noninferiority safety study. Subjects were stratified by type of event (occupational vs. nonoccupational, i.e...
June 2016: HIV Medicine
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